Department of Computing

Department of Computing
Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University
111 Ren'ai Road Suzhou Dushu Lake Science and Education Innovation District , Suzhou Industrial Park
Suzhou,Jiangsu Province,P. R. China,215123

1. Usable Authentication Mechanisms for Mobile Devices: An Exploration of 3D Graphical Passwords

Author:Yu, Z;Olade, I;Liang, HN;Fleming, C


Abstract:Current authentication systems in mobile devices such as smart phones have many shortcomings. Users tend to use simple textual passwords such as PINs, which are easily cracked by intruders. Meanwhile, graphical passwords suffer from shoulder surfing attack In this paper, a new authentication system using 3D graphical passwords, will be proposed and tested to offer more security for mobile devices. This authentication system allows users to interact with the 3D objects in a 3D virtual environment and these actions are tracked in the virtual environment and used to create unique passwords. Based on the previous studies of the 3D password scheme, this paper developed a simple testing program that enables users to create their own 3D password easily. At the end of the paper, some improvements of the program and this authentication system are discussed.
2. Application of Hough Transform Feature Extraction to Reduce Angular Vibration in Images Captured from Moving Objects

Author:Afolabi, D;Man, KL;Liang, HN;Zhang, N;Lim, EG;Wan, KY


Abstract:This paper details an ongoing research aimed at developing computational approach to reducing/eliminating vibration and light glare in images captured by digital cameras especially when the scene contains moving objects or the camera is mounted on a moving vehicle / flying drone. The algorithms developed are focused at real-time image acquisition where the enhanced/corrected images are need almost immediately after they are captured. The results show that these methods of reducing the stated problems are effective and it can be further developed for various applications.
3. Modeling and Verification of NCL Circuits Using PAT

Author:Ma, JM;Man, KL;Lim, EG;Zhang, N;Lei, CU;Guan, SU;Jeong, TT;Seon, JK

Source:CEIS 2011,2011,Vol.15

Abstract:NULL Conventional Logic (NCL) is a Delay-Insensitive (DI) clockless paradigm and is suitable for implementing asynchronous circuits. Efficient methods of analysis are required to specify and verify such DI systems. Based on Delay Insensitive sequential Process (DISP) specification, this paper demonstrates the application of formal methods by applying Process Analysis Toolkit (PAT) to model and verify the behavior of NCL circuits. A few useful constructs are successfully modeled and verified by using PAT. The flexibility and simplicity of the coding, simulation and verification shows that PAT is effective and applicable for NCL circuit design and verification. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of [CEIS 2011]
4. Open-Ended Coaxial Cable Selection for Measurement of Liquid Dielectric Properties via the Reflection Method

Author:Wang, JC;Lim, EG;Leach, MP;Wang, Z;Man, KL


Abstract:An open-ended coaxial cable is used to measure the dielectric properties of lossy liquid. The method which is based on the measurement of the reflection coefficient of the open-ended cable makes it easy to operate and postprocess. To meet the accuracy requirements, the dimensions of the coaxial cable need to be taken into consideration; therefore, it is necessary to select an appropriate coaxial cable for the measurement. This paper investigates the influence of cable dimensions on dielectric measurement accuracy. With careful choice of the coaxial cable, the relative error of calculated results can be less than 0.1%%.
5. VirusBoxing: A HIIT-based VR boxing game

Author:Xu,Wenge;Liang,Hai Ning;Ma,Xiaoyue;Li,Xiang

Source:CHI PLAY 2020 - Extended Abstracts of the 2020 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play,2020,Vol.

Abstract:© 2020 ACM. Physical activity or exercise can improve people's health and reduce their risk of developing several diseases; most importantly, regular activity can improve the quality of life. However, lack of time is one of the major barriers for people doing exercise. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) can reduce the time required for a healthy exercise regime but also bring similar benefits of regular exercise. We present a boxing-based VR exergame called VirusBoxing to promote physical activity for players. VirusBoxing provides players with a platform for HIIT and empowers them with additional abilities to jab a distant object without the need to aim at it precisely. In this paper, we discuss how we adapted the HIIT protocol and gameplay features to empower players in a VR exergame to give players an efficient, effective, and enjoyable exercise experience.
6. Directional Motion-based Interfaces for Virtual and Augmented Reality Head-mounted Displays


Source:Proceedings of 2018 International Computers, Signals and Systems Conference, ICOMSSC 2018,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This research, conducts an experiment to investigate whether there is a difference in user performance and preference for two types of head-mounted displays (HMDs) when users need to perform directional motion movements such as moving one foot forward and backward (or leftward or rightward). The two types of HMDs we have considered are virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR), which represent the two most commonly marketed HMDs. The AR device chosen for this research is the Meta 2 while the chosen VR device is the Oculus RIFT CV1. The results of our experiment show that there is a close significant difference on task completion time between AR and VR condition when users perform motion direction tasks. Also, no significant effect has been found on the accuracy of making these motion movements between the AR and VR conditions. In terms of user preference, the results show that there is no significant effect on workload, motion sickness, immersion, and user experience. These results suggest that both AR and VR HMDs are suitable for interfaces that can rely on body motions like tapping on the floor using one foot in any of the directions around the user.
7. The Design of Bus Accessing Timing to NAND Flash Array for High Bandwidth

Author:Cheng, LX;Yang, Y;Liu, YY;Seon, JK;Man, KL


Abstract:To improve the reading and writing speed of NAND flash array with multi-channel and multi-way, and to obtain the highest available bandwidth, an approach is presented in this paper. One mechanism of high efficiency bus accessing timing scheme based on interleaving is introduced into the approach. In pursuance of this timing, flash controllers are able to make every plane in the flash array to be active in parallel. Therefore the transmission ability to and from the bus can be greatly improved. Utilizing this approach, the accessing efficiency to the NAND flash array will be pushed to a very high level. According to the testing results, as opposed to normal flash bus timing scheme, the data reading efficiency can be increased by 68.5%%, and the data writing efficiency can be increased by 457%%, with the flash bus timing scheme presented in this paper being used. The conclusion can be drawn that the flash bus timing scheme presented in this paper is effective, and the reading and writing at very high speed to the NAND flash array can be realized.

Author:Ma, JM;Man, KL;Krilavicius, T;Guan, SU;Jeong, T


Abstract:Estimating arithmetic is a design paradigm for DSP hardware. By allowing structurally incomplete arithmetic circuits to occasionally perform imprecise calculations, higher performance can be achieved in many different electronic systems. This paper presents a potential useful approach to implement tree multipliers by using estimating arithmetic. Experimental results show the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed approach.
9. An exploration of techniques for off-screen content interaction in mobile devices

Author:Shen, T;Liang, HN;Liu, D;Man, KL


Abstract:This paper is an attempt to explore new ways for allowing interaction with mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets. Mobile devices have become very popular in a relatively short time. Their popularity is mainly due to the portability and until very recently their ease-of-interaction through the touch-enabled screen when compared to older devices. Their portability comes with a trade-off: the small screen through which users can interact with their content. The small size screen can limit significantly the amount of content they can interact with, and also the manner in which this interaction is carried out. In this research, we explore the ways of extending the interaction space of these devices. We assess if, how well, and what mechanisms are possible for enabling users to interact with content located off the screen. In this paper, we report our approach and some early results of experiments we have conducted.
10. Classified Vector Quantisation and population decoding for pattern recognition

Author:Bailing Zhang;Sheng-Uei Guan

Source:International journal of artificial intelligence and soft computing: IJAISC,2009,Vol.

Abstract:Learning Vector Quantisation (LVQ) is a method of applying the Vector Quantisation (VQ) to generate references for Nearest Neighbour (NN) classification. Though successful in many occasions, LVQ suffers from several shortcomings, especially the reference vectors are prone to diverge. In this paper, we propose a Classified Vector Quantisation (CVQ) to establish VQ for classification. By CVQ, each data category is represented by its own codebook, which can be implemented by some learning algorithms. In classification process, each codebook offers a generalised NN. The examples of handwritten digit recognition and offline signature verification are used to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme.
11. Knowledge base enrichment by relation learning from social tagging data

Author:Dong, H;Wang, W;Coenen, F;Huang, KZ


Abstract:There has been considerable interest in transforming unstructured social tagging data into structured knowledge for semantic-based retrieval and recommendation. Research in this line mostly exploits data co-occurrence and often overlooks the complex and ambiguous meanings of tags. Furthermore, there have been few comprehensive evaluation studies regarding the quality of the discovered knowledge. We propose a supervised learning method to discover subsumption relations from tags. The key to this method is quantifying the probabilistic association among tags to better characterise their relations. We further develop an algorithm to organise tags into hierarchies based on the learned relations. Experiments were conducted using a large, publicly available dataset, Bibsonomy, and three popular, human-engineered or data-driven knowledge bases: DBpedia, Microsoft Concept Graph, and ACM Computing Classification System. We performed a comprehensive evaluation using different strategies: relation-level, ontology-level, and knowledge base enrichment based evaluation. The results clearly show that the proposed method can extract knowledge of better quality than the existing methods against the gold standard knowledge bases. The proposed approach can also enrich knowledge bases with new subsumption relations, having the potential to significantly reduce time and human effort for knowledge base maintenance and ontology evolution. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
12. Preface


Source:ACM International Conference Proceeding Series,2020,Vol.

13. Concurrent Error Detection Adder Based On Two Paths Output Computation

Author:Khedhiri, C;Karmani, M;Hamdi, B;Man, KL


Abstract:This paper presents a concurrent error detection (CED) technique for a bit-slice of a full-adder. The proposed method involves computing the sum and carry bits in two alternative ways so that transient faults will be detected by comparing the results (Sum and Carry out) obtained from the two computing paths. This technique attempts to reduce the amount of extra hardware and cost of the circuit. In order to avoid the problem of extra time we will propagate the result when the first computation is finished so that dependent computation can commence execution as soon as possible. To prove the efficiency of the proposed method, the circuit is simulated in standard CMOS 32nm technology and some transient faults are voluntary injected in the Layout of the circuit. The proposed design involves 12.12%% saving in transistor count compared to DMR (Dual Modular Redundancy) style design.
14. Research and Implementation of Multi-source Data Integration in Optical Cable Manufacturing Enterprises

Author:LI Qing;ZHU Xiao-hui

Source:Computer Knowledge and Technology,2018,Vol.14

Abstract:信息化技术已在光缆企业得到较好的应用,很多企业都先后开发了各种管理系统来提升生产和管理效率,但由于各系统开发时间不同,各系统相互独立,无法实现资源共享。为进一步提升企业信息化管理能力,该文设计并实现了多源数据集成系统,采用分布式架构,利用Web API技术对四个异地系统的生产数据进行远程访问,从而实现数据共享,并使企业管理人员能准确分析各生产线生产数据、产品合格率等关键数据。实验结果表明该系统能有效提升企业精细化管理能力。
15. Editorial: Designing Technologies for Youth Mental Health

Author:Baghaei, N;Naslund, JA;Hach, S;Liang, HN


16. Design of Intelligent Algorithms for Multi-Mobile Robot Systems

Author:Zhao, YX;Man, KL;Liang, HN;Wang, W;Yue, Y;Jeong, T


Abstract:Robots are widely being used to replace humans and traditional machines in dangerous fields such as post-disaster relief work. The environments in which the robot system works in could be fixed or dynamic. Their nature can affect the performance of robots. This research focuses on realizing an intelligent locomotion method for a multi-mobile robots system in different types of environments. The significant challenges in the design and development of communication and interaction algorithms for robots with different functions to operate as a whole are addressed. Through the algorithms designed in this research, a multi-mobile robots system should be able to distinguish the types of obstacles it meets and take sensible actions to handle them. Furthermore, robots can interact with each other to guarantee that every robot in the system can move based on a desired route/plan. Emergency handling mechanisms are also added to the algorithm in order for the system to have coping behaviors to enhance its robustness. Additional evaluation of all the functions proposed will be carried out, by integrating a group of prototype wheeled robots into one single group.
17. Cogbroker - A cognitive approach to intelligent product brokering for e-commerce

Author:Guan,Sheng Uei;Tan,Wen Pin;Liu,Fei

Source:International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Applications,2008,Vol.7

Abstract:Researchers have proposed intelligent product-brokering applications to help facilitate the m-commerce shopping process. However, most algorithms require explicit, user-provided feedback to learn about user preference. In practical applications, users may not be motivated to provide unrewarded and time-consuming feedback. By adopting a cognitive approach, this paper investigates the possibility of replacing user feedback with user behavioral data analysis during product browsing. By means of evolutionary algorithms, the system is able to derive corresponding models that simulate the user's shopping behavior. User group profiling is also implemented to help identify the user's shopping patterns. Upon simulations of trial cases with consistent and rational shopping patterns, our experimental results confirm this approach being promising. The system shows high accuracy in detecting the preferences of the user. The algorithms are also portable and effective across different products. © Imperial College Press.
18. Towards an experimental analysis of android phone: GSM network positioning

Author:Man,Ka Lok;Man,Ka Lok;Wang,Wei;Liu,Dawei;Tayahi,Moncef;Hsu,Hui Huang;Lim,Eng Gee

Source:International Journal of Applied Engineering Research,2014,Vol.9

Abstract:Network positioning technology has been widely used in existing smart phones. Traditional network positioning methods are carried out by the network provider; this could violate user's privacy.In this paper we present a work in progress on the positioning of smart phone users using wireless networks. We propose a self-positioning scheme based on the fingerprint method, a positioning method commonly used in indoor environments in previous studies. We outline the proposed self-positioning scheme and propose a k-nearest neighbor method to improve the positioning accuracy. In future, we will evaluate the proposed scheme and method in field experiments.
19. A self-test and self-repair approach for analog integrated circuits

Author:Karmani, Mouna ; Khedhiri, Chiraz ; Man, Ka Lok ; Krilavicˇius, Tomas ; Hamdi, Belgacem ; Rahmani, Amir-Mohammad

Source:2012 2nd Baltic Congress on Future Internet Communications, BCFIC 2012,2012,Vol.

Abstract:With the continuous increase of integration densities and complexities, secure integrated circuits (ICs) are more and more required to guarantee reliability for safety-critical applications in the presence of soft and hard faults. Thus, testing has become a real challenge for enhancing the reliability of safety-critical systems. This paper presents a Self-Test and Self-Repair approach which can be used to tolerate the most likely defects of bridging type that create a resistive path between VDD supply voltage and the ground occurring in analog CMOS circuits during the manufacturing process. The proposed testing approach is designed using the 65 nm CMOS technology. We then used an operational amplifier (OPA) to validate the technique and correlate it with post layout simulation results. © 2012 IEEE.
20. In their shoes A structured analysis of job demands, resources, work experiences, and platform commitment of crowdworkers in China    

Author:Wang, Yihong ; Papangelis, Konstantinos ; Lykourentzou, Ioanna ; Liang, Hai-Ning ; Sadien, Irwyn ; Demerouti, Evangelia ; Khan, Vassilis-Javed

Source:Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction,2020,Vol.4

Abstract:Despite the growing interest in crowdsourcing, this new labor model has recently received severe criticism. The most important point of this criticism is that crowdworkers are often underpaid and overworked. This severely affects job satisfaction and productivity. Although there is a growing body of evidence exploring the work experiences of crowdworkers in various countries, there have been a very limited number of studies to the best of our knowledge exploring the work experiences of Chinese crowdworkers. In this paper we aim to address this gap. Based on a framework of well-established approaches, namely the Job Demands-Resources model, the Work Design Questionnaire, the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire, we systematically study the work experiences of 289 crowdworkers who work for - the most popular Chinese crowdsourcing platform. Our study examines these crowdworker experiences along four dimensions (1) crowdsourcing job demands, (2) job resources available to the workers, (3) crowdwork experiences, and (4) platform commitment. Our results indicate significant differences across the four dimensions based on crowdworkers' gender, education, income, job nature, and health condition. Further, they illustrate that different crowdworkers have different needs and threshold of demands and resources and that this plays a significant role in terms of moderating the crowdwork experience and platform commitment. Overall, our study sheds light to the work experiences of the Chinese crowdworkers and at the same time contributes to furthering understandings related to the work experiences of crowdworkers. © 2020 Copyright held by the owner/author(s). Publication rights licensed to ACM.
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