Department of Strategic Management and Organisations

Department of Strategic Management and Organisations
Business Building (BS), South Campus
Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University
8 Chongwen Road Suzhou Dushu Lake Science and Education Innovation District , Suzhou Industrial Park
Suzhou,Jiangsu Province,P. R. China,215123

1. The dual effects of home country institutions on the internationalization of private firms in emerging markets Evidence from China

Author:Li, FR;Ding, D


Abstract:Purpose - This study aims to examine the dual effects of home country institutional forces (i.e. institutional support and institutional constraints) on the internationalization of private firms in emerging markets. By doing so, this study aims to examine the applicability of the two seemingly paradoxical views (i.e. the governmental promotion view and the institutional escapism view) in explaining private firms' internationalization. Further, this study investigates how the effect of the home country institutional environment on firms' internationalization is contingent upon firm characteristics. Design/methodology/approach - A sample of Chinese private firms is used to examine the effect of home country institutions on internationalization. Findings - Empirical findings suggest that both institutional support and institutional constraints promote the internationalization of private firms in emerging markets. Moreover, it is found that firm resources strengthen the effect of government support on internationalization. It is also found that firms' business ties strengthen the effect of institutional constraint on internationalization, whereas firms' political ties weaken the effect of institutional constraints on internationalization. Originality/value - By adopting an integrated and comprehensive investigation of the dual effects of home country institutional environment in emerging markets on internationalization, this study provides evidence to the applicability of the two competing views (i.e. the governmental promotion view and the institutional escapism view) in relation to home country institutional effects on internationalization. In addition, this study examines how institutional effects vary across firms with different resources and social ties, thus extends understandings of the boundary conditions of the two institutional effects.
2. Institutional perspective on emerging industry development: Foreign experiences and policy implications for China


Source:Journal of Science and Technology Policy in China,2011,Vol.2

Abstract:Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the dynamic interactions and co-evolution of institutions with the technology and organization fields in emerging industry development. Insights and inspirations from comparison of the triangle relationship among government, market and local community in different institutional contexts could contribute to possible institutional innovation in the context of large-scale institutional transition. In this way, this paper is expected to offer insights to the development of emerging industries in China. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews the focal literature focusing on institutional change and the co-evolution of institution, industry and technology. A multi-level conceptual framework is put forward to explain the mechanism for the co-evolution of technology, organization and institution. A multi-case comparison method was applied to compare and disclose the process of co-evolution of institutions, and the technology and organizational fields, as well as varied paths of industry development in different institutional contexts. Findings: Emerging industry development in China is still presenting the character of path dependence to a great extent under traditional institutional arrangement, while the power and possible contribution from broader actors in the local community have been ignored. Driving force for a more innovative institutional transition towards emerging industry development should consider decentralized institutional arrangement and actions at local community instead of "command and control" from central planning. Practical implications: First, the comparison of wind energy industry development in three countries creates possibilities for further analysis and reference for China's emerging industry. Second, the illustration of the triangle relationship among government, market and local community in different countries helps policy makers in China reconsider and redesign an effective institutional framework for balancing the powers among indigenous community, local government and market. Institutional alignment should be listed as an important consideration during the process of the policy design of such an effective institutional framework. Originality/value: The paper presents a model to understand the dynamic co-evolution of the institution, technology and organizational fields. It confirms the role of institution in promoting emerging industry development. Particularly, it offers inspirations for the development of emerging industries in nations facing large-scale institutional transition. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
3. Does an institutional factor influence corporate environmental strategy? Looking through the Guanxi lens

Author:Cao, XW;Quazi, A


Abstract:Purpose - This paper aims to illustrate how institutional factors, such as Guanxi (connectedness) mechanism in a transition economy, could impact managerial cognition and their temporal orientation at individual level as well as induced change on corporate environmental strategy (CES). More specifically, this paper explores the micro foundation of corporate strategy change in an attempt to examine how corporate strategic choice and actions evolve with managerial cognition of "Guanxi" with various temporal orientations. Design/methodology/approach - The paper reviews the extant literature focusing on Guanxi and CES with special attention to the temporal orientation in strategy formulation. A conceptual framework is proposed to analyze the underlying mechanism of Guanxi in mediating and shaping CES. A multi-case study with four companies operating in two industry sectors were investigated considering their relative long foothold as well as their different postures and dynamic change of corporate environment strategy in the past decades. Findings - The findings support recent critiques on the likely shift in strategic choice of firms from the traditional Guanxi- based to a rule-based format. The interactions between entrepreneurial cognition and strategic activities toward environmental issues were still influenced by deep relational embeddedness. The findings proved that managerial Guanxi cognition impacts managers' temporal orientation and their strategic choice on CES. Foreign-invested enterprises in the process of localization face the potential risk of emerging backdrop of their CES, i.e. from more active strategy to more reactive strategic posture, whereas local private-owned enterprises show a transformation from reactor to follower and even pioneer in the wave of those entrepreneurs' changing cognition on the role of Guanxi in their businesses. Research limitations/implications - One main limitation of the study is the lacking of quantitative measurement of corporate environment performance. Although the paper used multiple cases to explore the dynamics of Guanxi on impacting CES, only with further development of effective scale measurement to test corporate environment performance can increase the explaining power of the proposed theoretical model in this study. It is important to note that with data of longitudinal measurement of corporate environment performance, it would be more convincing to show the outcome of the temporal lens of Guanxi on CES. However, the lacking availability of qualified disclosed data on indicating corporate environment performance constrains another limitation for the study. Considering the complexity of corporate environment strategy, the focus cases in the paper might still lack powerful and convincing illustration to prove the impact of Guanxi on CES despite the enriched contextual data and description. It is necessary to conduct deeper analysis to exclude the impact of other possible factors on CES to highlight the direct impact of Guanxi on CES. Practical implications - The results of the in-depth analysis and interpretation of the exploration of the cases suggest that Guanxi still seems to dominate managerial thinking process as the norm is deeply rooted in their mind sets. However, Guanxi is no longer considered as a mere reactive cultural norm rather a positive mechanism through which Chinese firms can achieve their sustainable environmental strategic goals as well as economies prosperity in the rapidly competitive business landscape in modern China. Originality/value - Previous research on CES largely neglected the context factors. This paper presents a conceptual model to deepen our understanding of the contextual factor of Guanxi with a temporal perspective and its consequent influence on CES. This helps policy makers as well as strategic management researchers and academics to reconsider the mechanism of adaptation and selection in shaping CES in the event of large scale institutional change.


Source:China WTO Tribune,2019,Vol.

5. Financial transfers from adult children and depressive symptoms among mid-aged and elderly residents in China - evidence from the China health and retirement longitudinal study

Author:Wu, Y;Dong, WY;Xu, YJ;Fan, XJ;Su, M;Gao, JM;Zhou, ZL;Niessen, L;Wang, YY;Wang, X

Source:BMC PUBLIC HEALTH,2018,Vol.18

Abstract:Background: Although the awareness of mental health problems in late life is rising, the association between financial transfers to the older generations from children and mental health at older ages in China has received little attention. This study examines the association between financial transfers from children and depressive symptoms among the mid-aged and elderly residents (from 45 years of age and older) in China. Methods: We used the data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2013) (n= 10,935) This included data on financial transfers from all non-co-resident children to their parents, and the individual scores on depressive symptoms as measured by the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CESD-10). A two-level - individual and community levels - mixed linear model was deployed to explore their association. Results: Financial transfers from children to parents was the major component of inter-generational financial transfers in Chinese families. A higher financial support from non-co-resident children was signivicantly and positively related to fewer depressive symptoms (coef. = - 0.195,P-value< 0.001) among both the mid-aged and elderly parents. Conclusions: Financial transfers from non-co-resident children are associated with depressive symptoms among mid-aged and elderly residents in the China situation. Taxation and other policy measures should encourage and facilitate these type of financial transfers and prevent a decrease of support from children to parents.
6. The impact of high-performance human resource practices on the research performance and career success of academics in Saudi Arabia

Author:Alshaikhmubarak, A;Da Camara, N;Baruch, Y


Abstract:Purpose This paper explores the impact of high-performance human resource practices (HPHRPs) on the research performance and career success of academics. Design/methodology/approach Survey data was collected from 586 faculty members in the five largest public universities in Saudi Arabia. Findings The findings suggest that the HPHRPs of internal mobility and recognition had a strong impact on faculty members' career success and that these relationships were mediated by research performance. In addition, the study also found that the HPHRPs of training and recognition positively influenced research performance, while, surprisingly, the HPHRPs of participation in decision-making were found to have a negative effect on faculty members' research performance. Originality/value This study is original in combining research in human resource management (HRM) and career studies to develop a model that explains academic research performance and career success from the lens of HR practices. The results also provide leaders in Saudi Arabia's public higher education sector with empirical data on the impact of HPHRPs on academic research performance and career success.
7. Time Strategy: A Missing Dimension in Strategic Management Research

Author:CAO Xuan-wei;TANG Fang-cheng;LANG Chun-gang


Abstract:As time is a part embedded in strategy, strategy has a time- dependent nature. An analysis is made on the interaction between the strategic action and management cognition based on the time -dependent nature. An elaboration is made on the interaction between the micro action subject in the processes of organizing the formation, implementation and innovation of strategy, and the meso - and macro - layers in the process of organizing strategic action. A discussion is conducted on the mechanisms of impacts on the organizational strategic action imposed by the individual actor in the state of the cognition at different times. The strategic management activities based on the time perspective help deepen the understanding of the topics such as organizing strategic decision- making, innovation, dynamic capacity, entrepreneur innovation, etc. , and also help cognize and deal with some dilemmas in management practices.
8. Performance of foreign subsidiaries "in" and "from" Asia: A review, synthesis and research agenda

Author:Bai, T;Du, JL;Solarino, AM


Abstract:The performance of foreign subsidiaries (FS) has been the topic of studies since the beginning of the international business (IB) field. However, research findings are contradictory because of the disparate foci of individual studies. In this review paper, we first identify key determinants of the performance of FS through a structured content analysis of 73 articles and 679 relationships since the year 2000. Second, we explain the effects of each determinant, and perform meta-analysis to determine which relationships are statistically meaningful. Third, we compare the effects of determinants across different combinations of home and host contexts, based on which, we provide possible explanations of previous inconsistent findings. We conclude by offering new theoretical directions to better understand determinants of the performance of FS.
9. Does attention from headquarters influence subsidiary behavior? A social psychological perspective

Author:Yu, Y;Liu, YL;Bai, T

Source:LONG RANGE PLANNING,2019,Vol.52

Abstract:Prior research has not explored fully the effect of headquarters (HQ) attention on subsidiary behavior. We address the gap via a social psychological lens, proposing that subsidiaries with more HQ attention often deal with higher performance expectation in terms of contributing towards the MNC, and thus, they tend to have a greater participation in the activities that can demonstrate such contribution. We test the idea in the context of MNC knowledge flows, hypothesizing a positive correlation between HQ attention and a subsidiary's reverse knowledge, and further the moderation effects of a subsidiary's shared vision and local market performance. Results lend support for the model. The study introduces a novel perspective of how HQ attention may influence subsidiaries, as well as the importance of attention allocation for the multinational corporation (MNC).
10. Supervisor Narcissism and Employee Performance: A Moderated Mediation Model of Affective Organizational Commitment and Power Distance Orientation

Author:Wang, HW;Han, X;Li, J


Abstract:Drawing upon social exchange theory, this research investigates how and when supervisor narcissism influences subordinates' performance. Study 1 uses a two-wave survey and reveals that supervisor narcissism is negatively related to subordinates' in-role performance. Subordinates' affective organizational commitment mediates the relationship between supervisor narcissism and subordinates' in-role performance. Moreover, the mediating effect is moderated by subordinates' power distance orientation such that the mediation is weaker when power distance orientation is higher. Study 2 utilizes experimental research to replicate and extend the findings of Study 1. It shows that supervisor narcissism also negatively influences subordinates' extra-role performance. Subordinates' affective organizational commitment also mediates the relationship between supervisor narcissism and extra-role performance. Moreover, power distance orientation also moderates the mediating effect.
11. Legitimate violation: how companies covertly neutralize the independent director system in China

Author:Zhang, QR;Yao, XT;Wang, X;Xiang, TY


Abstract:Purpose This study proposed and examined a unique but underresearched strategic response to coercive institutional pressure, covert neutralization, in which organizations neutralize coercive institutional pressure by manipulating influential factors within their discretion while conforming to the pressure. In addition, this study pointed out that the extent of covert neutralization is contingent on organizational decision-makers' willingness and ability to take countermeasures. Design/methodology/approach To find evidence for covert neutralization and its strategic nature, a historical review with secondary data was conducted in the context of the coercive introduction of the independent director system in China. The board structure adjustments of 318 Chinese A-share listed companies from 2000 to 2004 were examined using univariate T-tests, robust ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models and ordered logit regression models to test the hypotheses. Findings This study found that in response to the coercive introduction of the independent director system, Chinese listed companies adjusted their board structures while conforming to the system, which neutralized the constraints on controlling shareholders' board control. Specifically, listed companies reduced the number of dependent directors and the ratio of directors representing noncontrolling shareholders to those representing controlling shareholders. Moreover, the extent of board structure adjustments was positively associated with the shareholding percentage of controlling shareholders. These findings provide evidence for covert neutralization and its strategic nature. Practical implications This study indicates the inefficacy of simple legal coercion and suggests that authorities should be aware of the covert countermeasures used by regulated organizations and employ normative approaches to improve the efficacy of regulations. This implication is rather instructive for regulators to effectively promote imposed changes in transitional economies with strong governments. Originality/value By differentiating conformity behavior from conformity inclination and considering the inevitable incompleteness of laws, this study challenges the conventional wisdom regarding organizational conformity and shows that organizations can strategically respond to coercive institutional pressure while conforming to it. In contrast to other strategic responses that aim to defy, avoid or resist the implementation (the means) of institutional pressure, covert neutralization aims to neutralize its efficacy (the ends).
12. Perception of Corporate Hypocrisy in China: The Roles of Corporate Social Responsibility Implementation and Communication

Author:Zhao, YQ;Qin, YJ;Zhao, XF;Wang, X;Shi, LL


Abstract:In the past two decades, corporate hypocrisy has become a phenomenon that cannot be ignored in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practice (Wagner et al., 2009) and has thus become a concern for management scholars (Cho and Lee, 2019). Using smartPLS, based on attribution theory, this paper takes 28 Chinese listed enterprises as examples to explore the influence of CSR motivation on its communication and implementation, as well as the impact of CSR implementation and promotion on consumers' perception of corporate hypocrisy. The research finds a negative correlation between value-driven motivation and corporate hypocrisy and a positive correlation of performance-driven motivation and stakeholder-driven motivation with corporate hypocrisy. The theoretical contribution of this paper is mainly reflected in the following four aspects. (1) It describes the scale of CSR implementation research and enriches the measurement tools of CSR implementation. (2) It enriches and expands research results in the field of CSR motivation perception. From the perspective of CSR and attribution theory, this study explores the influence of consumers' perception of CSR motivation on CSR communication and CSR implementation. (3) It supplements research results in the field of corporate hypocrisy. The influence of CSR communication and CSR implementation on corporate hypocrisy is clarified. (4) It clarifies the impact of CSR communication on CSR implementation so as to help enterprises better match CSR communication strategy and CSR implementation in practice and reduce consumers' perception of corporate hypocrisy. It is suggested that enterprises find their own positioning on CSR motivation, which provides a reference with which enterprises can make better decisions on CSR communication strategy after implementing CSR behavior and provides empirical evidence for the research on CSR motivation perception and corporate hypocrisy in China.
13. How digitalization affects the effectiveness of turnaround actions for firms in decline


Source:Long Range Planning,2021,Vol.

Abstract:We investigate how digitalization influences the effectiveness of retrenchment and strategic actions on firms’ turnaround outcomes after a situation of firm decline. To ensure turnaround actions are effective, declining firms must possess relevant knowledge about how to implement such action. We argue that through digitalization, firms can form a close relationship with key stakeholders in their business ecosystem, which can provide important knowledge to guiding their response actions. More specifically, we argue that different types of digitalization linking firms to different groups of stakeholders allows firms to access knowledge about different types of response actions. Based on a sample of publicly listed small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in China from 2012 to 2019, we find that the internal digitalization has a positive moderating effect on the relationship between asset and cost retrenchments and turnaround performance, and that the external digitalization has a positive moderating effect on the relationship between new product introduction and turnaround performance.
14. The Influence of Contextual Communication Orientation and Advice Type on Advice Taking

Author:DUAN Jinyun;XU Yue;REN Xiaoyun;WU Qiaomin

Source:Studies of Psychology and Behavior,2020,Vol.18

15. When and why skill variety influences employee job crafting Regulatory focus and social exchange perspectives

Author:Li, J;Sekiguchi, T;Qi, JP


Abstract:Purpose The literature on job crafting has paid scant attention to the role of skill variety, one dimension of job characteristics, as a predictor of employee job crafting. By integrating regulatory focus and social exchange perspectives with job crafting literature, the authors investigate how skill variety promotes employee job crafting and the moderating roles of employee's promotion focus and procedural justice climate. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted two questionnaire surveys, one with a sample of 205 employees from a variety of organizations in China, and the other one with a sample of 265 employees within 44 work groups at a state-owned enterprise in China, to examine the hypotheses. Findings Results suggest that a high level of skill variety within a job promotes employee job crafting, that such an effect is stronger when the employee's promotion focus is high rather than low, and that procedural justice climate mitigates the negative influence of a low level of promotion focus. Originality/value The authors' findings suggest that both self-regulatory and social exchange mechanisms play a critical role in promoting employee job crafting when individuals are engaged in jobs that entail a high level of skill variety.
16. Unequal distribution of health human resource in mainland China: what are the determinants from a comprehensive perspective?

Author:Li, D;Zhou, ZL;Si, YF;Xu, YJ;Shen, C;Wang, YY;Wang, X


Abstract:Background: The inequality of health human resource is a worldwide problem, and solving it also is one of the major goals of China's recent health system reform. Yet there is a huge disparity among cities in mainland China. The aim of this study is to analyze the distribution inequality of the health human resource in 322 prefecture-level cities of mainland China in 2014, and to reveal the facets and causes of the inequalities. Methods: The data for this study were acquired from the provincial and municipal Health Statistics Yearbook (2014) and Statistical Yearbook (2014), the municipal National Economic Bulletin (2014), and the official websites of municipal governments, involving 322 prefecture-level cities. Meanwhile, Concentration Index was used to measure the magnitude of the unequal distribution of health human resource. A decomposition analysis was employed to quantify the contribution of each determinant to the total inequality. Results: The overall concentration index of doctors and nurses in mainland China in 2014 was 0.1038 (95%% CI = 0.0208, 0.1865) and 0.0785 (95%% CI = 0.0018, 0.1561). Decomposition of the concentration index revealed that economic status was the primary contributor (58.5%% and 57%%) to the inequality of doctors and nurses, followed by the Southwest China (19.1%% and 18.6%%), urbanization level (-13.1%% and -12.8%%), and revenue (8.0%% and 7.8%%). Party secretaries with Master degree (7.0%%, 6.8%%), mayors who were 60 years old or above (6.3%%, 6.1%%) also were proved to be a major contributor to the inequality of health human resource. Conclusions: There was inequality of health human resource distribution which was pro-rich in mainland China in 2014. Economic status of the cities accounted for most of the existing inequality, followed by the Southwest China, urbanization level, revenue, party secretaries with Master degree, and mayors who were 60 years old or above in respective importance. Besides, the party secretaries and mayors also had certain influence on the allocation of health human resource. The tough issue of HHR inequality should be addressed by comprehensive measures from a multidisciplinary perspective.



18. Psychological Contracts: Past, Present, and Future

Author:Coyle-Shapiro, JAM;Costa, SP;Doden, W;Chang, CC


Abstract:We provide a review of psychological contract research, beginning with past conceptualizations and empirical evidence. We tailor this retrospective look by reviewing the antecedents and outcomes associated with psychological contract breach and discussing the dominant theoretical explanations for the breach-outcome relationship. This synthesis of past evidence provides the foundation for reviewing the present emerging and developing themes in psychological contract research. This discussion is organized around the expansion of resources exchanged and the antecedents of contract breach and outcomes, moving beyond reciprocity as an underpinning explanation. We highlight the practical implications of research to date on psychological contracts and end with directions for future research to include the need for greater attention given to ideological currency, employee health, polycontextual approaches, the role of psychological needs, and post-breach/violation.
19. Why do employees speak up? Examining the roles of LMX, perceived risk and perceived leader power in predicting voice behavior

Author:Duan, JY;Lapointe, E;Xu, Y;Brooks, S


Abstract:Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand better why employees voice. Drawing on social information processing theory and insights derived from the literature on power, the authors suggest that leader-member exchange (LMX) fosters voice by reducing the perceived risk of voicing. The authors further contend that high perceived leader power will strengthen this mediated relationship. Design/methodology/approach The authors relied on a sample of 265 employee-supervisor dyads collected from Chinese organizations to test the study hypotheses. Findings Results indicated that perceived risk of voicing significantly mediated the positive LMX-voice behavior relationship. In addition, perceived leader power strengthened the effect of LMX on voice behavior via perceived risk of voicing. The relationship of LMX to perceived risk of voicing was more negative, and the indirect effect of LMX on voice behavior was more positive when employees perceived that leader power was high. Practical implications - Organizations seeking to promote voice behaviors should support leaders to develop high-quality relationships with employees. Organizations should also ensure that leaders are sufficiently empowered to fulfill their roles, and ensure that employees are aware of their leaders' influence. Originality/value Findings suggest that, in the context of high quality leader-member relationships, employees' perceptions of their leaders' power may help to overcome barriers associated with speaking up. Thus, this study helps explain the conditions that encourage employees to voice.
20. From basic science to major technological innovation: A scope of legitimacy

Author:Cheng Peng;Liu Xielin;Li Yang;Wang Xiao

Source:Studies in Science of Science,2018,Vol.36

Abstract:There are increasingly more studies about how to overpass rivals on quality and efficiency,make breakthrough in key industrial technology,and boost the conversion from science to innovation,by supporting the research of basic science. However,there are few studies about how to make scientific research acquire legitimacy and specifically what kind of legitimacy. Longitudinally focusing on the quantum technology according to the stage characteristics of legitimacy formation and the legitimacy bases,this study analyzed the relationships among money,institution,industry,and talent (MIIT),as well as their interactions and consequences. This study has two findings: (1) In the process of legalization,the interaction mode of MIIT alters with the change of subjects'role,motive,and behavior pattern; the evolution of the interaction mode enhances the research capability of science and technology; the interactions of MIIT directly lead to cognitive legitimacy,and the interactions helps to develop norm legitimacy and regulation legitimacy by boosting the research capability and outcome. (2) Legitimacy is a continuous variable,and there is a tendency that its extent and scope increase along the process of legalization. The main contribution of this study relies on the analysis of the micro mechanism of legitimacy formation and evolution,and the finding of legitimacy's evolution pattern.
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