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1. Performing creativity: Design-thinking amongst Chinese industry employees

Author:Liu, BJ;Sterling, SE


Abstract:In China, the value placed on creativity and creative pursuits is not always rewarded in the context of business. Amongst Chinese industry employees in particular, creativity as an exercise and practice is not widely encouraged or practiced, as factors from the sheer number of workers in a single space to the structure and role of management of companies act as constraints. In a country that has achieved a high rate of economic growth, and is notable for its volume of industrial production, only one company is in the list of 2016 top 100 global innovators.(1) Creativity and innovation have become key to the further development and future success of Chinese enterprises on the global stage and are developing as areas of significant attention at national and company levels. This paper will provide a case study of approximately 100 employees working in the transportation industry, and examine their perceptions, experiences, and performances of creative practices and the use of design-thinking principles. The difference between individual and team in creative design activities has been compared and analyzed. Limitations of the study are also discussed and conclusions are drawn at the end of the paper, with recommendations for future research.
2. The effect of habitat restoration on macroinvertebrate communities in Shaoxi rivers, China

Author:Lin, QY;Zhang, YX;Marrs, R;Sekar, R;Wu, NC;Luo, X


Abstract:In recent decades, the biodiversity of freshwater environments has decreased sharply due to anthropogenic disturbances that damaged ecosystem structures and functions. Habitat restoration has emerged as an important method to mitigate the degradation of river ecosystems. Although in many cases a post-project monitoring has been promoted to access the restoration progress, it is still unclear how aquatic community changes following river habitat restoration in China. Macroinvertebrate communities intermediately positioned within ecosystem food webs play a key role in ecosystem processes within river ecosystem, driving energy flow and nutrient cycling. Here, benthic macroinvertebrates are used as bio-indicators to assess the ecosystem health of degraded urban rivers, restored urban rivers, and undisturbed rivers. This study aims to determine (i) how habitat restoration influences macroinvertebrates diversity and how this compared to degraded and reference conditions; (ii) how did macroinvertebrate community compositions differ in restored, degraded, and reference sites; and (iii) the environmental factors shaping macroinvertebrate communities. Habitat restoration significantly increased the diversity and richness of macroinvertebrate community and intolerant species and shifted the community composition towards reference status. Habitat characteristics and water chemistry, including substrate diversity, water velocity, and both nutrients (TN) and organic pollutants (TOC), appeared to shape the turnover of these communities. Habitat characteristics contributed to most of the variation of the entire macroinvertebrate community. Our research indicates that habitat restoration is an efficient approach to restore the aquatic community and hence improve river ecosystem health for freshwater conservation and sustainable management in Zhejiang province. This study strengthens our understanding of the changes of macroinvertebrate community after habitat restoration and important controlling variables that attribute to these changes, which provides an important guidance for future freshwater management.
3. Virtual Clay Prototyping System - A Framework for Real-Time Modeling

Author:Qi, B;Sun, XM;Pei, EJ;Liu, BJ


Abstract:To provide a real-time force-feedback immersive virtual modelling environment, powerful computing capabilities are often needed. As this potentially results in a calculation bottleneck, virtual modelling scenes are often delayed and result in a poor user experience. In this paper, the authors present a novel approach to improve the calculation speed for the volume pixel (voxel) amount of force feedback generated based on the amount of pressure exerted on the 'virtual material' per unit time. Results from the experiments reveal that this approach required less computing power, thereby offering a better user experience. This has been confirmed through a series of trials that investigated the amount of time students spent during sketching, physical modelling, and virtual prototyping. Results found that the remapped virtual prototyping method was more effective than the physical model in productivity in terms of time as well as efficiency in terms of data conversion.
4. Evaluating ecosystem functioning following river restoration: the role of hydromorphology, bacteria, and macroinvertebrates

Author:Lin, QY;Zhang, YX;Marrs, R;Sekar, R;Luo, X;Wu, NC


Abstract:Ecological restoration of freshwater ecosystems is now being implemented to mitigate anthropogenic disruption. Most emphasis is placed on assessing physico-chemical and hydromorphological properties to monitor restoration progress. However, less is known about the structural integrity and ecosystem health of aquatic ecosystems. In particular, little is known about how ecosystem function changes following river habitat restoration, especially in China. Leaf litter decomposition can be used as an indicator of stream ecosystem integrity. Therefore, the leaf breakdown rate was measured to assess the ecosystem function of restored rivers. By comparing leaf breakdown rates in urban rivers undergoing habitat restoration with that in degraded urban rivers and rivers in forested areas (i.e., reference conditions), we aimed to determine: (i) how habitat restoration affected leaf litter decomposition? (ii) the relationship between leaf litter decomposition to both environmental (habitat and physicochemical variables) and biological factors (benthic communities), and (iii) identify the factors that contribute most to the variance in leaf litter breakdown rates. The results demonstrated a significant increase in leaf breakdown rate (120%% in summer and 28%% in winter) in the restored rivers compared to the degraded rivers. All environmental and biotic factors evaluated contributed synergistically to the differences in leaf litter decomposition among the three river types. The role of macroinvertebrates, mainly shredders, appeared to be particularly important, contributing 52%% (summer) and 33%% (winter) to the variance in decomposition, followed by habitat characteristics (e.g. substrate diversity, water velocity; 17%% in summer, 29%% in winter), physico-chemical variables (e.g. nutrient and organic pollutants; 11%% in summer, 1%% in winter) and biofilm bacteria (0%% in summer, 15%% in winter). Habitat restoration positively affected the structure and function of the previously degraded streams. Knowledge on controlling variables and their attribution to changes of ecosystem functioning provides guidance to assist the future planning of ecological restoration strategies. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
5. Effect of River Ecological Restoration on Biofilm Microbial Community Composition

Author:Lin, QY;Sekar, R;Marrs, R;Zhang, YX


Abstract:Across the world, there have been increasing attempts to restore good ecological condition to degraded rivers through habitat restoration. Microbial communities developing as biofilms play an important role in river ecosystem functioning by driving organic matter decomposition and ecosystem respiration. However, little is known about the structure and function of microbial communities in riverine systems and how these change when habitat restoration is implemented. Here, we compared the biofilm bacterial community composition using 16S rRNA genes targeted high-throughput Illumina Miseq sequencing in three river types, degraded urban rivers, urban rivers undergoing habitat restoration and forested rivers (our reference conditions). We aimed to determine: (i) the biofilm bacterial community composition affected by habitat restoration (ii) the difference in bacterial diversity in restored rivers, and (iii) correlations between environmental variables and bacterial community composition. The results showed that both water quality and biofilm bacterial community structure were changed by habitat restoration. In rivers where habitat had been restored, there was an increase in dissolved oxygen, a reduction in organic pollutants, a reduction in bacterial diversity and a related developing pattern of microbial communities, which is moving towards that of the reference conditions (forested rivers). River habitat management stimulated the processing of organic pollutants through the variation in microbial community composition, however, a big difference in bacterial structure still existed between the restored rivers and the reference forest rivers. Thus, habitat restoration is an efficient way of modifying the biofilm microbial community composition for sustainable freshwater management. It will, however, take a much longer time for degraded rivers to attain a similar ecosystem quality as the pristine forest sites than the seven years of restoration studied here.
6. Multiple stressors in China’s freshwater ecoregions


Source:Multiple Stressors in River Ecosystems: Status, Impacts and Prospects for the Future,2018,Vol.

Abstract:China has 38 ecoregions grouped into 8 major habitat types across 9 main basins. The freshwaters of China are at risk of multiple stressor impacts because of a variety of conflicts in the water use in agriculture, industry, and urbanization, although regional variations in human activities and water shortage make the status very uneven. Furthermore, there is often an upstream-downstream gradient of stress, which makes it very challenging to disentangle the main stressors and their effects, as well as to make ecological predictions across ecoregions. Freshwater ecosystem management approaches in China need to be adaptive and embedded within a watershed-wide concept to cope with upcoming pressures.
7. Chinese Sociocultural Perspectives and Creativity: Design Practices in the Public Transport Sector

Author:Sterling, SE;Liu, BJ


Abstract:Creativity in China in the current era of globalization has become a buzzword for industry, acting as a catalyst for innovative potential and investment. However, while 'Made in China' has long been established, 'Created in China' still requires some legitimization internationally, and alongside creativity comes the need for a more nuanced, cross-cultural perspective in design and manufacturing alike. The 'Belt and Road' initiative is one key national plan in this larger globalization-oriented process and the high speed train, which has been referred to as China's 'national identity card', plays a symbolic role in this initiative. Exporting public transport systems, e.g. high speed trains, to international markets inevitably brings with it the challenge of cross-cultural issues, due to the different cultural background of prospective passengers. The nature of creativity itself bears an intrinsic link with one's worldview, as the act of creating is variable in different perspectives. While a particular social setting in one country or society may be historically aligned with concepts of creativity or idea-generation, that same social setting elsewhere may be viewed as a deterrent or hindrance. The importance of cross-cultural perceptions of creativity in the realm of idea-generation as related to design thus requires a thorough examination. As the conditions and need for growth in innovative thinking grows, the need to understand creativity as it is understood from a Chinese lens becomes a timely area of focus. This paper will examine the relationship between culture and creativity, as evidenced by a study on employees of a publicly owned transportation company in Mainland China.
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