Design School

Design School
Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University
111 Ren'ai Road Suzhou Dushu Lake Science and Education Innovation District , Suzhou Industrial Park
Suzhou,Jiangsu Province, P. R. China, 215123
1. A comparative study of models for shear strength of reinforced concrete T-beams

Author:Liu, J;Gao, ZY


Abstract:Reinforced concrete T-beams are widely used in bridges where beams are cast integrally with deck sections to either side at the beam tops. Although it has been recognized by numerous experimental studies that flanges may have a significant contribution to the shear strength of reinforced concrete T-beams, they are neglected in most of the design codes. In this paper, the load paths to transfer shear force in T-beams are firstly investigated with the help of existing experimental tests. Compared with rectangular beams, an additional load path diverts the diagonal compression from the loading point and the end support, and it carries a portion of the shear force through the flange to the end support. In order to find a relatively reliable model to predict the shear strength of T-beams, a comparative study is carried out among five representative models selected from the literature by using a database with 233 reported T-beam tests. Parametric studies with individual test series are also performed for a detailed evaluation of the five models. It is found that a model proposed by Cladera et al. (i.e., Model [3] is one of the models producing the least scattered predictions. The average shear strength experimental-to-predicted ratio V-exp/V-pred is 1.06 with the coefficient of variation (COV) of 19.6%%. At the same time, it is shown that Model [3] exhibits uniform results across the entire range of experimental data without obvious bias. At the same time, Model [3] is one of the models requiring the least computational effort but with the largest range of applicability.
2. AC/E Accion Cultural Espanola; Q Fundacion Arquia

Author:Sofia Quiroga


3. 旅游业助力未来苏州的城市更新:基于联合国推荐的三种战略




Author:Ban Qichao;Chen Bing;Stephen Sharpies;Michael Phiri

Source:Chinese Hospital Architecture & Equipment,2016,Vol.

5. Suzhou's modernity within space and spatial relations


Source:Suzhou in Transition,2020,Vol.


Author:Fischer, T;De Biswas, K;Ham, JJ;Naka, R;Huang, WX


7. Experimental and Numerical Study on Impact of Double Layer Vegetation in Open Channel Flows

Author:Rahimi, HR;Tang, X;Singh, P


Abstract:This paper studies the effects of different types and configurations of double layer vegetation on the flow of open channels. The vegetation is simulated through cylindrical dowels with a diameter of 6.35 mm and heights of 10 and 20 cm, which represent short and tall dowels, respectively. Profiles for instantaneous velocities were obtained by acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV) at different locations around vegetation with multiple staggered and linear formations. The experiment covers a wide range of sparse to dense vegetation configurations. Furthermore, different flow depths were selected to simulate fully submerged cases for short vegetation and to capture the inflection of velocity over the mixing region between short and tall dowels. The results reveal that the velocity profile is mostly uniform at the depth of short vegetation in different configurations with various densities. The velocity starts to increase in the region near the top edge of short vegetation, followed by a significant increase through the height of tall vegetation to the free surface. Generally, the flow velocity behind the vegetation layer is significantly smaller than that in free regions adjacent to short and tall vegetation. The overall idea of the present study was to simulate the same sets of vegetation configurations using a K-epsilon model with mesh sensitivity analysis to capture inflections over the short vegetation region. The experimental investigations with a numerical study were explored for double layer vegetation, which was corroborated and found to have good agreement for different vegetation configurations. (C) 2019 American Society of Civil Engineers.
8. A history of design institutes in China: from Mao to market

Author:Han, JW


9. Material Characterization for Sustainable Concrete Paving Blocks

Author:Wang, XY;Chin, CS;Xia, J


Abstract:Recycled aggregates have been widely studied and used in concrete products nowadays. There are still many waste materials that can be used as recycled aggregates other than crushed concrete particles. This paper aims to study the property variations of sustainable concrete paving block incorporating different contents of construction wastes. Five different types of waste materials were used in this project, including: recycled concrete coarse aggregate (RCCA), recycled concrete fine aggregate (RCFA), crushed glass (CG), crumb rubber (CB), and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). According to the test results of the properties of blocks mixed with different levels of wastes materials, it is concluded that adding both RCCA and RCFA in the block can decrease its strength and increase the water absorption. The suggested replacement levels for RCCA and RCFA are 60%% and 20%%, respectively. Mixing crushed glass in the concrete paving blocks as a type of coarse aggregates can improve the blocks' strength and decrease the blocks' water absorption. Addition of crumb rubber causes a significant deterioration of blocks' properties except for its slip resistance.
10. Implementation of CIM-related technologies within transportation projects

Author:Guo, FY;Jahren, CT;Hao, JL;Zhang, C


Abstract:Technologies are continuously evolving and transportation agencies are always trying to find appropriate technologies to assist with their projects. However, it might be hard to answer what technologies and tools are appropriate for them to use and when to use those technologies and tools. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate leading transportation agencies' uses of various advanced technologies (e.g. geographic information system (GIS), light detecting and ranging (LiDAR), 3D engineered models, automatic machine guidance (AMG), mobile devices, intelligent compaction (IC), and electronic document management (EDM) system). Based on the 2 weeks of on-site visits to seven transportation agencies, benefits and lessons learned of using these technologies are summarized in the paper. Additionally, a framework is developed to suggest the proper occasions to use various technologies and manage the resulting data throughout the lifecycle of a transportation project.
11. Less is Enough

Author:Williams, A


12. When is analog? When is digital?

Author:Fischer, T


Abstract:Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present a cybernetic way of seeing analog and digital along with a basic vocabulary for discussing assumptions underlying the use of both terms. Design/methodology/approach - Taking analog and digital not as properties of observed phenomena but as properties of observers, I ask not what is digital or analog, but what I do when I use these terms. I analyze introspectively, and report on, what I think my assumptions are when using the two terms. Findings - I develop a basic vocabulary to describe engagements that I describe as analog or digital. This vocabulary is applicable beyond technical contexts and suitable also for discussing social and creative processes. It includes a kind of observer who I call matchmaker. Research limitations/implications - The presented research is preliminary and subjective. Originality/value - While previous discussions consider analog and digital as properties of observed phenomena, they are considered here as properties of observers. The presented discussion is sufficiently abstract to account for the analog and the digital at various scales, including electronic signal processing and human interaction. The author argues that discussions of engagements described as analog or digital must account for observers of these engagements, including those who act as their matchmakers.
13. Is the incipient Chinese civil society playing a role in regenerating historic urban areas? Evidence from Nanjing, Suzhou and Shanghai

Author:Verdini, G


Abstract:Urban regeneration in Western countries can count on a long-lasting tradition of experiences in which civil society has played a fundamental role in counterbalancing the system of power, resulting in profound urban governance readjustments. This has been the result of the increasing centrality of horizontal alliances between citizens and associations involved in urban affairs since the late 1960s in the West. Similar theoretical frameworks have been applied in China. However, these have frequently resulted in conceptual shortcuts that depict civil society as immature or lacking and the state as authoritarian. This paper will explore whether these categories are still entirely valid to urban regeneration in China. While the regime has traditionally prevented horizontal linkages of associations in urban governance (supporting their vertical integration to ensure a certain degree of soft control), there are signs of change. In particular, three cases of urban regeneration in historic areas will be used to discuss the changing role played by civil society in China. The ultimate goal is to examine whether horizontal linkages across groups of heterogeneous citizens are arising at the micro-level of urban governance. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
14. Some notes on the incompleteness theorem and shape grammars

Author:Theodoros, Dounas

Source:Communications in Computer and Information Science,2013,Vol.369 CCIS

Abstract:The paper presents a critique of the Shape Grammar paradigm viewed through the lens of the incompleteness theorem of Go¨del. Shape Grammars have been extensively researched through many lenses. Their productive systemic nature was the focus of the first papers along with more recent treatises in the field while their use in analysis of known building styles has been extensive and a proven mechanism for style analysis. It is surprising though that use of Shape Grammars in actual design in practice however has been minimal. The architectural community has not actively used the paradigm in the design of real buildings, probably because of the rigid analytical approach to style and rules, following from the academic analysis that the paradigm has been subjected to. However I propose that there is another underlying reason, other than the rigid approach to construct a Shape Grammar. The nature of the concurrent application and creation of the rules lies close to the incompleteness theorem of Go¨del, that uses a multitude of Turing Machines to prove that a from a set of True Axioms-A-we will never be able to determine if all sentences are true, without having to invent new axioms, outside the initial set-A-, thus unproven in terms of their true or false nature. Negation of this possibility drives us to the conclusion that true Design can never be feature-complete and thus can never be placed in a trusted framework that we all agree or believe it to be the complete truth. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
15. From geometrically to algebraically described hyperbolic paraboloids: An optimisation-based analysis of the Philips Pavilion


Source:RE: Anthropocene, Design in the Age of Humans - Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, CAADRIA 2020,2020,Vol.1

Abstract:In this paper, we present a procedure to derive algebraic parameters from geometrically described truncated hyperbolic paraboloid surfaces. The procedure uses parametric modelling and optimisation to converge on close algebraic approximations of hyperbolic paraboloid geometry through a successive breakdown of vast search spaces. We illustrate this procedure with its application to the surfaces of the 1958 Philips Pavilion designed by Le Corbusier and Iannis Xenakis. This application yielded previously unavailable parametric data of this building in algebraic form. It highlights the power of the parametric design and optimisation toolkit, both in terms of automated search and epistemological enablement.
16. Urban regeneration in the context of 'New Urbanisation': the case of Xietang Old Street, Suzhou Industrial Park, China

Author:Zhong, S


Abstract:Taking an unassuming case in Suzhou, China, this research examines approaches, strategies and outcomes of recent 'exemplary' regeneration practice in China. It answers the question whether the neo-liberal approaches of the old model have been transcended to honour human-centrality and sustainability in line with 'New Urbanisation principles. Based on surveys, in-depth interviews, a focus group and archival studies, the research finds that the incorporation of social policies into regeneration strategies by the local state, despite achievements in housing and welfare provision, has not helped to transform the top-down and non-participative nature of the old regeneration model.
17. Parametric investigation of polymethacrylate monolith synthesis and stability via thermogravimetric characterisation

Author:Acquah, C;Danquah, MK;Moy, CKS;Anwar, M;Ongkudon, CM


Abstract:Polymethacrylate monoliths are synthetic adsorbents with macroporous and mesoporous interconnected channels that can be engineered to target the hydrodynamic features of a wide range of molecular species. However, rigorous study into the effect of synthesis conditions on their thermal stability is limited. This work attempts to characterise the influence of key synthesis process variables on the stability of polymethacrylate monoliths using thermogravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 degrees C/min. Experimental results showed that the thermal stability of polymethacrylate monoliths increased with decreasing polymerisation temperature from 85 to 65 degrees C. Increasing the total porogen (P) to monomer (M) ratio increased the thermal stability of the monolith by >62%% and >50%% for P40/M60-P60/M40 and P60/M40-P80/M20, respectively. The impact of the initiator concentration, monomer variation, biporogen ratio, washing and activation of the monoliths was investigated. Nuclear magnetic resonance analyses conducted confirmed the hydrolysis of epoxy moieties on the monolith. (C) 2017 Curtin University of Technology and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
18. Numerical Study to Examine the Effect of Porosity on In-Flight Particle Dynamics

Author:Kamnis, S;Gu, S;Vardavoulias, M


Abstract:High velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spray has been widely used to deposit hard composite materials such as WC-Co powders for wear-resistant applications. Powder morphology varies according to production methods while new powder manufacturing techniques produce porous powders containing air voids which are not interconnected. The porous microstructure within the powder will influence in-flight thermal and aerodynamic behavior of particles which is expected to be different from fully solid powder. This article is devoted to study the heat and momentum transfer in a HVOF sprayed WC-Co particles with different sizes and porosity levels. The results highlight the importance of thermal gradients inside the particles as a result of microporosity and how HVOF operating parameters need to be modified considering such temperature gradient.
19. The spatial characteristics of global property investment in Seoul: A case study of the office market

Author:Kim, HM;O'Connor, KB;Han, SS


Abstract:As more and more countries liberalise their financial systems, capital has become increasingly mobile. These emerging capital flows and the accumulation of capital are mainly embodied in foreign direct investment. A new component is global property investment which is creating an internationalised office market and distinctive spatial patterns in global cities. Despite the increasing volume of foreign-owned property, as well as the popularity of the facilitating policies for cross-border capital flows into real estate, in both developed and developing countries, there has been little attention to the spatial characteristics of global property investment (GPI). Massive cross-border capital flows, associated with the decision of international property investors, will result in locally intensive changes. Understanding these changes will allow advice to refine and enhance sectoral and urban policy. The primary purpose of this study is, therefore, to explore the characteristics of GPI via the magnitude of the flows, global investors' location choice, links between property markets and office space markets, and government response to these outcomes. Seoul is used as case study because there is a fast growing foreign-owned office property sector along with city's growing integration with the global economy. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
20. Investigation of outdoor air pollutant, PM2.5 affecting the indoor air quality in a high-rise building

Author:Fu, ND;Kim, MK;Chen, B;Sharples, S


Abstract:This study investigated the impact of outdoor air pollutants on indoor air quality in a high-rise building, considering factors related to the seasons and air infiltration. Further, the impact of atmospheric weather conditions on air infiltration has been analysed in a downtown area of Suzhou, China. The influence of the outdoor air pollution rate on indoor air quality in the office building was investigated based on on-site measurements and computer simulations. Results showed that the impact of outdoor air pollutants on indoor air quality was highest in winter, followed by spring, autumn and summer. Furthermore, multiple factors, which affect the indoor air quality in a high-rise building, have been further investigated in this study, including stack effect, wind effect, infiltration rate, outdoor air pollution rate, seasonal change and air filter efficiency. The significant influence of these factors on the indoor air quality level with floor height variations has been verified. Based on the analysis, a high-efficiency filter is recommended to maintain healthy indoor air quality. Meanwhile, a double-filter system is required if a building is exposed to heavily polluted outdoor air considering the most substantial impact of outdoor air pollutants on indoor air quality in winter. Moreover, a numerical model of steady-state indoor PM2.5 concentration was established to determine the suitable air filter efficiency and airtightness.
Total 770 results found
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