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1.A comparative study of models for shear strength of reinforced concrete T-beams

Author:Liu, J;Gao, ZY


Abstract:Reinforced concrete T-beams are widely used in bridges where beams are cast integrally with deck sections to either side at the beam tops. Although it has been recognized by numerous experimental studies that flanges may have a significant contribution to the shear strength of reinforced concrete T-beams, they are neglected in most of the design codes. In this paper, the load paths to transfer shear force in T-beams are firstly investigated with the help of existing experimental tests. Compared with rectangular beams, an additional load path diverts the diagonal compression from the loading point and the end support, and it carries a portion of the shear force through the flange to the end support. In order to find a relatively reliable model to predict the shear strength of T-beams, a comparative study is carried out among five representative models selected from the literature by using a database with 233 reported T-beam tests. Parametric studies with individual test series are also performed for a detailed evaluation of the five models. It is found that a model proposed by Cladera et al. (i.e., Model [3] is one of the models producing the least scattered predictions. The average shear strength experimental-to-predicted ratio V-exp/V-pred is 1.06 with the coefficient of variation (COV) of 19.6%%. At the same time, it is shown that Model [3] exhibits uniform results across the entire range of experimental data without obvious bias. At the same time, Model [3] is one of the models requiring the least computational effort but with the largest range of applicability.

2.Heterostructure nanocomposite with local surface plasmon resonance effect enhanced photocatalytic activity-a critical review

Author:Liu, Muye ; Kang, Qi ; Xie, Zhicheng ; Lu, Luhua ; Dai, Kai ; Dawson, Graham

Source:Journal of Physics D Applied Physics,2022,Vol.55

The unique characteristics of the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect endows heterostructure nanocomposite of noble metal (NM) nanoparticles and semiconducting materials with dramatically enhanced light absorption, charge separation and surface activity. In addition, they boost the development of research in photocatalytic fields including artificial photosynthesis, degradation of pollutants and deactivation of microorganisms. The advantages of using LSPR to improve the photocatalytic activity of semiconductor-based materials as well as the design and synthesis of NM nanoparticles with LSPR for photocatalytic applications have been widely studied in recent years and a great number of research works have been published in these areas. This review will introduce the concept of heterostructure nanocomposite, the basis of LSPR, controlled synthesis and the recent research progress involving applications of LSRP in artificial photosynthesis, degradation of pollutants and deactivation of microorganisms.
© 2021 IOP Publishing Ltd.

3.Immobilized enzyme/microorganism complexes for degradation of microplastics A review of recent advances, feasibility and future prospects

Author:Tang, Kuok Ho Daniel ; Lock, Serene Sow Mun ; Yap, Pow-Seng ; Cheah, Kin Wai ; Chan, Yi Herng ; Yiin, Chung Loong ; Ku, Andrian Zi En ; Loy, Adrian Chun Minh ; Chin, Bridgid Lai Fui ; Chai, Yee Ho

Source:Science of the Total Environment,2022,Vol.832

Environmental prevalence of microplastics has prompted the development of novel methods for their removal, one of which involves immobilization of microplastics-degrading enzymes. Various materials including nanomaterials have been studied for this purpose but there is currently a lack of review to present these studies in an organized manner to highlight the advances and feasibility. This article reviewed more than 100 peer-reviewed scholarly papers to elucidate the latest advances in the novel application of immobilized enzyme/microorganism complexes for microplastics degradation, its feasibility and future prospects. This review shows that metal nanoparticle-enzyme complexes improve biodegradation of microplastics in most studies through creating photogenerated radicals to facilitate polymer oxidation, accelerating growth of bacterial consortia for biodegradation, anchoring enzymes and improving their stability, and absorbing water for hydrolysis. In a study, the antimicrobial property of nanoparticles retarded the growth of microorganisms, hence biodegradation. Carbon particle-enzyme complexes enable enzymes to be immobilized on carbon-based support or matrix through covalent bonding, adsorption, entrapment, encapsulation, and a combination of the mechanisms, facilitated by formation of cross-links between enzymes. These complexes were shown to improve microplastics-degrading efficiency and recyclability of enzymes. Other emerging nanoparticles and/or enzymatic technologies are fusion of enzymes with hydrophobins, polymer binding module, peptide and novel nanoparticles. Nonetheless, the enzymes in the complexes present a limiting factor due to limited understanding of the degradation mechanisms. Besides, there is a lack of studies on the degradation of polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Genetic bioengineering and metagenomics could provide breakthrough in this area. This review highlights the optimism of using immobilized enzymes/microorganisms to increase the efficiency of microplastics degradation but optimization of enzymatic or microbial activities and synthesis of immobilized enzymes/microorganisms are crucial to overcome the barriers to their wide application.
© 2022 Elsevier B.V.

4.Immersive virtual reality in an industrial design education context: What the future looks like according to its educators


Source:Computer-Aided Design and Applications,2022,Vol.19

Abstract:This paper presents and discusses the results of a future forecast study involving Higher Education educators from the field of industrial design and neighbouring. Participants were asked to imagine teaching and learning situations twenty years ahead, in a future where Virtual Reality (VR) technology and the design studio are harmoniously integrated. The aim was to project how the maturation of the technology and possible subsequent widespread adoption could affect design activity and design studio dynamics. While answering an online questionnaire, participants had to hypothesise uses or applications of the technology, the potential consequential behaviours derived from it and broader implications. Their answers hint at six areas where the technology is relevant to design. Behaviour wise, they envision students more engaged in research and creation, demonstrating a deeper level of knowledge over the variables influencing their projects and a proneness for collaborative or cooperative work. This change in dynamics contrasts with more cautious views who discern that a growing digital footprint weakens the relation with materials and sensibility development towards medium and process. These, combined with a lesser amount of real-world interactions, are perceived as undermining student maturity or growth. All of these and more hint at implications in the design process, pedagogy, curriculum, teacher and student dynamics and role repositioning, showing that integrating VR may have ramifications stretching far beyond the design studio context.

5.Investigating spatial impact on indoor personal thermal comfort

Author:Gong, PY;Cai, YZ;Zhou, ZH;Zhang, C;Chen, B;Sharples, S


Abstract:Thermal comfort prediction is essential for both maintaining a favorable indoor environment and reducing energy consumption. Predicted Mean Vote (PMV), as the most popular research method, has a limitation in processing various complex parameters and investigating the individual difference in occupants' thermal preference. Therefore, machine learning (ML) method has been utilized in exploring the personal thermal comfort prediction because of its strong self-study ability, high-speed computing ability, and complex problem-solving ability. However, the primary variables considered in previous studies focus on the human body's physiological and psychological aspects, while lack of considering architectural spatial impact, which causes different indoor microclimate. Therefore, the present research proposed a methodology to investigate the impact from spatial parameters on personal thermal comfort prediction model accuracy by developing an ANN-based model and explicitly representing the spatial variables in the model. The spatial parameters were identified and classified into buildings' spatial features, indoor spatial features and individual spatial features. The data required in developing the ANN-based model were collected by various field experiments. A baseline of model prediction accuracy was calculated by using conventional parameters, including personal-dependent parameters and environmental parameters. It was found that the spatial parameters had a noticeable impact on model prediction accuracies. By considering spatial parameters in the ANN-based model development, the prediction accuracies had been increased significantly compared with the conventional models.

6.Synthesis, characterization, and biological activity of cadmium (II) and antimony (III) complexes based on 2-acetylpyrazine thiosemicarbazones

Author:Wang,Jin;Zhang,Zhi Meng;Li,Ming Xue

Source:Inorganica Chimica Acta,2022,Vol.530

Abstract:Two cadmium (II) complexes formulated as [Cd(L1)(HL1)]ClO4 (Cd1) and [Cd(L2)2] (Cd2), also two antimony (III) complexes formulated as [Sb(L1)2]2Cl2·CH3OH (Sb1) and [Sb(L2)Cl2] (Sb2) (HL1 = 2-acetylpyrazine N4-methylthiosemicarbazone, HL2 = 2-acetylpyrazine N4-dimethylthiosemicarbazone) have been synthesized, and the molecular structure of the four complexes have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The antimicrobial study has been conducted against E. coli and S. aureus, and the results indicated that the antibacterial activity of Cd1 and Sb1 increased to some extent than their ligand HL1, while Cd2 and Sb2 presented fairly effective antibacterial activity mainly the same as their ligand HL2. The four compounds all exhibited improved cytotoxic activity against the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells than the ligands. While Cd2 displayed the most effective antiproliferative activity, and also the preferable selectivity for HepG2 cells versus normal QSG7701 cells. It is noted that there was a strong relationship between the activity of the ligand HL2 and its cadmium (Ⅱ) or antimony (III) complexes.

7.Winding number of a Brownian particle on a ring under stochastic resetting


Source:Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical,2022,Vol.55

Abstract:We consider a random walker on a ring, subjected to resetting at Poisson-distributed times to the initial position (the walker takes the shortest path along the ring to the initial position at resetting times). In the case of a Brownian random walker the mean first-completion time of a turn is expressed in closed form as a function of the resetting rate. The value is shorter than in the ordinary process if the resetting rate is low enough. Moreover, the mean first-completion time of a turn can be minimised in the resetting rate. At large time the distribution of winding numbers does not reach a steady state, which is in contrast with the non-compact case of a Brownian particle under resetting on the real line. The mean total number of turns and the variance of the net number of turns grow linearly with time, with a proportionality constant equal to the inverse of the mean first-completion time of a turn.

8.Adsorption of cadmium and lead from aqueous solution using modified biochar: A review

Author:Liu, TQ;Lawluvy, Y;Shi, Y;Ighalo, JO;He, YD;Zhang, YJ;Yap, PS


Abstract:Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) contaminations are disturbing environmental issues, which cause serious harm to aqueous systems and human health. Therefore, removing them from aqueous solution is essential to prevent their damage to the environment. Environmental adsorption research as one solution is promising and has been getting a lot of attention in the recent years. Using modified biochar has proved to be more suitable for the adsorption of cadmium and lead. In this review, the sources of cadmium and lead in the environment and their hazards have been elucidated. In addition, the preparation methods of modified biochar to remove Cd and Pb have been discussed. This review also presents the adsorption kinetics and isotherms results for the adsorption of Cd and Pb from aqueous solution using modified biochar. The effect of experimental parameters and adsorption mechanisms are also discussed in order to understand the adsorption performances of modified biochar in great detail. The adsorption mechanisms were surface precipitation, surface complexation, ion exchange, chelation, electrostatic attraction, inner sphere complexation, redox and physical adsorption. The adsorption was mainly endothermic and spontaneous. Additionally, the results on the regeneration of modified biochar are presented to provide a direction for sustainable improvement. Finally, this review article also provides the challenges, prospects and future perspectives of adsorption of cadmium and lead from aqueous solutions using the modified biochar.

9.Structural Response and Residual Capacity of S700 High-Strength Steel CHS Columns after Exposure to Elevated Temperatures


Source:Journal of Structural Engineering (United States),2022,Vol.148

Abstract:The structural behavior and residual capacity of S700 high-strength steel circular hollow section (CHS) columns after exposure to elevated temperatures were studied through testing and numerical modeling. The testing program was conducted on 10 S700 high-strength steel CHS columns and comprised heating and cooling of the specimens as well as postfire material testing, measurements of initial geometric imperfections, and pin-ended column tests. Numerical simulations were subsequently performed, where finite element models were built and validated with reference to the experimental results and afterward used to conduct parametric studies to obtain further numerical data. Given that there are no specific provisions for the design of steel structures after exposure to elevated temperatures, the relevant roomerature design buckling curves were evaluated, using postfire material properties, for their applicability to S700 high-strength steel CHS columns after exposure to elevated temperatures, based on the experimental and numerical data. The evaluation results indicated that the buckling curves prescribed in the American specification and Australian standard lead to accurate and consistent residual capacity predictions for S700 high-strength steel CHS columns after exposure to elevated temperatures, while the Eurocode buckling curve yields conservative predictions of residual capacity. A revised Eurocode buckling curve was then proposed, and resulted in a higher level of accuracy than its original counterpart.

10.A two-dimensional study on the impact of pore space connectivity on the immiscible two-phase flow in a water-wet, water–oil system under steady state conditions

Author:Zhang,Han;Papadikis,Konstantinos;Shaw,Stephen J.

Source:International Journal of Multiphase Flow,2022,Vol.150

Abstract:Immiscible displacements in porous media are unquestionably of great significance in numerous natural and industrial processes. It has been well established and accepted that in addition to the immiscible fluid properties, the morphology of the porous medium also plays a significant role in the final volumetric throughput of a particular fluid. Topological features of the porous medium have been found to exert a strong influence on the hydrodynamic behaviour of single and two-phase flows as they express a measure of pore space and consequently flow path connectivity and availability. The current study investigates the effect of the pore space connectivity, expressed through the Euler characteristic, on the hydrodynamic behaviour of a water-wet, oil–water two-phase system at steady state. Two-dimensional simulations are conducted in artificially generated porous media with constant diameter circular solid grains using a multi-relaxation time lattice-Boltzmann model. It is shown that topological features of the porous medium can significantly affect the macro-scale capillary pressure and relative permeability curves for drainage and imbibition but in different ways. It is also demonstrated that pore space connectivity has a strong influence on the fluid phase distribution and fragmentation patterns in the porous structure depending on the displacement process.

11.An Efficient Model Predictive Control Using Virtual Voltage Vectors for Three-phase Three-level Converters with Constant Switching Frequency

Author:Yang, Yong ; Wen, Huiqing ; Chen, Rong ; Fan, Mingdi ; Zhang, Xinan ; Norambuena, Margarita ; Rodriguez, Jose

Source:IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics,2022,Vol.69

Abstract:In this paper, an efficient model predictive control (MPC) using virtual voltage vectors for three-phase three-level converters is proposed. The proposed MPC achieves constant switching frequency by applying four voltage vectors (VVs), including one virtual VV and three other VVs, in each control cycle. In addition, to reduce the computational burden, two-stage MPC approach is adopted. The first stage chooses one of six medium voltage vectors that minimizes the cost function. Then, in the second stage, these voltage vectors including virtual voltage vectors which locate the same sector with the optimal medium voltage vector, are involved in the MPC optimization. The advantages of the proposed MPC over the classical MPC have been validated through experimental results. IEEE

12.A Conversation on a Paradise on Earth in Eight Frames

Author:Tordis Berstrand, Amir Djalali, Yiping Dong, Jiawen Han, Teresa Hoskyns, Siti Balkish Roslan, Glen Wash Ivanovic, Claudia Westermann


Abstract:Once known as the city of silk, Suzhou [苏州] has become the centre of wedding dress production, selling paradise on earth for one day, including copies of the last royal wedding dress, out of shops at the foot of mythic Tiger Hill. Suzhou is also the host of what is known as the Silicon Valley of the East. It has attracted millions of migrants searching for a better future; millions of tourists visit every year to experience the past, strolling through the gardens and courtyards of its Old Town. The contrasts could hardly be more apparent. Slow time, and fast time, and the time of the in-between, are woven into the city’s complex spatial fabric. This is a conversation by eight authors in eight frames on a city that connects them.

13.Study on Conveyance Coefficient Influenced by Momentum Exchange Under Steady and Unsteady Flows in Compound Open Channels

Author:Rahimi,Hamidreza;Yuan,Saiyu;Tang,Xiaonan;Lu,Chunhui;Singh,Prateek;Dehrashid,Fariba Ahmadi

Source:Water Resources Management,2022,Vol.

Abstract:Many natural compound channels with differential stages play a vital role during high flow events in real-time. When a flood occurs, and water flows into floodplains, the flow structure becomes more complex because of the momentum transfer between sub-segments of the compound channel, caused by the large difference of velocities in different sub-segments. The conventional methods of discharge calculation based on conveyance coefficients of a single channel do not consider momentum transfer, resulting in inaccurate prediction for compound channels. This paper uses a new method of determining conveyance coefficient in compound channels to be incorporated in the two-dimensional analytical solution of the Reynolds averaged Navier–stokes equations for stage-discharge and hydrographs prediction. The proposed conveyance model for flood routing is obtained by solving 1D unsteady flow equations. The flow calculation considers the interaction between sub-segments of compound channels using the momentum equation for shallow water. The proposed model was evaluated to show that incorporating the momentum flux improves the predicted maximum discharge and flow depth in the output hydrographs of the unsteady flow. This result suggests that the proposed method can effectively determine the conveyance coefficient of the compound channel in steady and unsteady flow prediction.

14.Testing, simulation and design of hot-rolled seamless austenitic stainless steel CHS columns



Abstract:Stainless steel circular hollow section (CHS) members are favoured by architects and structural engineers because of their aesthetics, superior torsional resistance and corrosion resistance. Hot-rolling is one of the typical production processes for producing CHS members. Nevertheless, few research has been carried out concerning the hot-rolled stainless steel CHS members. This paper reports experimental and numerical investigations into hot-rolled seamless stainless steel CHS columns. Flexural buckling tests on eight columns were firstly carried out in the experimental investigation. This was followed by numerical modelling investigation, where the FE models were developed and validated against the test results. The validated FE models were then used to conduct a series of parametric studies to obtain more data covering a wide range of member slenderness and cross-section sizes. Based on test and FE results, three existing design approaches in the Eurocode, Chinese specification and American specification were assessed and discussed. The assessment results show that the three design approaches all provide relatively accurate strength prediction on the whole, but the design approaches in the 1993-1-4 + A2 and ANSI/AISC 370-21both give overestimated strength predictions while design approach in the CECS 410 gives a relatively conservative strength prediction when the column slenderness is small. In view of this, new column design curve has been proposed, with its advantage over the existing design approaches confirmed by quantitative and graphical comparisons.

15.Hepatitis B Viral Protein HBx and the Molecular Mechanisms Modulating the Hallmarks of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Review

Author:Sivasudhan, E;Blake, N;Lu, ZL;Meng, J;Rong, R


Abstract:With 296 million cases estimated worldwide, chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV-encoded oncogene X protein (HBx), a key multifunctional regulatory protein, drives viral replication and interferes with several cellular signalling pathways that drive virus-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of the role of HBx in modulating the various hallmarks of HCC by supporting tumour initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis. Understanding HBx-mediated dimensions of complexity in driving liver malignancies could provide the key to unlocking novel and repurposed combinatorial therapies to combat HCC.

16.Effects of two different selenium fertilizers on accumulation of selenium and heametals in rice grains in field trials


Source:Food Science and Technology (Brazil),2022,Vol.42

Abstract:Selenium (Se) is a nutritionally important micronutrient for humans. The use of Se fertilizers is often the most feasible approacto precisely increase Se contents in rice grains, but the effects of common commercial Se fertilizers on producing Se-rich ricremain to be investigated. In this study, we compared the effects of liquid and granular Se fertilizers on the accumulation of Sand heavy metals in rice grains of four different varieties in field. Results showed that Se accumulation in rice grains was affecteby the form of fertilizers, applied concentrations of Se fertilizers, and rice varieties. Liquid fertilizer displayed significantlhigher Se transfer efficiency than granular fertilizer, whereas the granular fertilizer had a slightly higher effect on organic Saccumulation. More than 95.5%% Se in grains were organic Se, with selenomethionine (SeMet) being the dominant one. Thproportion of organic selenocysteine (SeCys2) in grains was significantly higher in treatments with liquid fertilizer. Both formof fertilizers significantly reduced the accumulation of cadmium, lead, and arsenic. Collectively, our study provides a referencfor producing Se-rich rice in a more competitive manner in practice.

17.A review on the application of perovskite as peroxymonosulfate activator for organic pollutants removal

Author:Koo, PL;Jaafar, NF;Yap, PS;Oh, WD


Abstract:Perovskite is a type of intriguing metal oxide, capable of performing multiple environmental applications, due to its salient feature to be tailored-prepared during the synthesis stage. In recent years, there has been a strong research interest to develop perovskite-based nanomaterials for PMS activation. Thus, this review aims to provide a timely overview on the development of perovskite as PMS activator to remove anthropogenic organic pollutants such as endocrine disruptors, antibiotics, phenolic compounds, and dyes. The synthesis methods including physical and chemical methods are briefly discussed. The application of various perovskites as PMS activator is critically evaluated. Finally, future directions on the development of perovskite as PMS activator are identified which include (a) developing novel perovskite, (b) investigating the performance under realistic condition, (c) developing supported perovskite catalyst, and (d) developing environmentally synthesis method.

18.Implications of COVID-19 on global environmental pollution and carbon emissions with strategies for sustainability in the COVID-19 era

Author:Yang, MY;Chen, L;Msigwa, G;Tang, KHD;Yap, PS


Abstract:The impacts of COVID-19 on global environmental pollution since its onset in December 2019 require special attention. The rapid spread of COVID-19 globally has led countries to lock down cities, restrict traffic travel and impose strict safety measures, all of which have implications on the environment. This review aims to systematically and comprehensively present and analyze the positive and negative impacts of COVID-19 on global environmental pollution and carbon emissions. It also aims to propose strategies to prolong the beneficial, while minimize the adverse environmental impacts of COVID-19. It systematically and comprehensively reviewed more than 100 peer-reviewed papers and publications related to the impacts of COVID-19 on air, water and soil pollution, carbon emissions as well as the sustainable strategies forward. It revealed that PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and CO levels reduced in most regions globally but SO2 and 0 3 levels increased or did not show significant changes. Surface water, coastal water and groundwater quality improved globally during COVID-19 lockdown except few reservoirs and coastal areas. Soil contamination worsened mainly due to waste from the use of personal protective equipment particularly masks and the packaging, besides household waste. Carbon emissions were reduced primarily due to travel restrictions and less usage of utilities though emissions from certain ships did not change significantly to maintain supply of the essentials. Sustainable strategies post-COVID-19 include the development and adoption of nanomaterial adsorption and microbial remediation technologies, integrated waste management measures, "sterilization wave" technology and energy-efficient technologies. This review provides important insight and novel coverage of the environmental implications of COVID-19 in more than 25 countries across different global regions to permit formulation of specific pollution control and sustainability strategies in the COVID-19 and postCOVID-19 eras for better environmental quality and human health. (C) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

19.Reliability analysis for dependent stress-strength reliability of multi-state system using improved generalized survival signature

Author:Bai, XC;Li, XR;Balakrishnan, N;He, M


Abstract:In this paper, a new multi-state stress-strength model is introduced, where the system consists of multi-type multi-state components. Each type of components has two dependent strengths and is subjected to two dependent stresses in working environment. Using the proposed improved generalized survival signature, the inferences for stress-strength reliability of the multi-state system are deduced in the case that different types of components are exposed to different pairs of dependent stresses. By assuming the stress(strerngth) variables are Weibull and exponential variables, the exact expressions of the multi-state system reliability are obtained by using Gumbel copula in different states. Then the dependence parameters and maximum likelihood estimation of the stress-strength reliability are computed by adopting the pseudo maximum likelihood estimation method. In addition, the asymptotic confidence interval, parametric bootstrap confidence interval and transformation-based confidence interval for the stress-strength reliability are given. Finally, the Monte-Carlo simulation and a real data analysis are provided for illustrative purpose.

20.Representing Environmental Issues in Post-1990s Chinese Science Fiction: Technological Imaginary and Ecological Concerns

Author:Yue Zhou, Xi Liu


Abstract:Post-1990s Chinese eco-themed science fiction works have made a special literary contribution to current ecological discourses by imagining different ways of dealing with serious environmental issues. Chinese sci-fi writers have adopted opposing attitudes toward technology but collectively offered critiques to ecologically unsustainable mindsets and practices. While authors like Liu Cixin are optimistic about technological mediation, other writers represented by Chen Qiufan, He Xi, and Chi Hui reflect on technological triumph over environmental and ecological problems by creating dystopian sci-fi worlds. Both humanist and post-humanist discourses are articulated in these works through textual construction of diverse human/nonhuman images and identities. These works play critical roles in rethinking and reimagining the future of humanity and its relationship with the world.
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