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1.TRY plant trait database - enhanced coverage and open access

Author:Kattge, J;Bonisch, G;Diaz, S;Lavorel, S;Prentice, IC;Leadley, P;Tautenhahn, S;Werner, GDA;Aakala, T;Abedi, M;Acosta, ATR;Adamidis, GC;Adamson, K;Aiba, M;Albert, CH;Alcantara, JM;Alcazar, CC;Aleixo, I;Ali, H;Amiaud, B;Ammer, C;Amoroso, MM;Anand, M;Anderson, C;Anten, N;Antos, J;Apgaua, DMG;Ashman, TL;Asmara, DH;Asner, GP;Aspinwall, M;Atkin, O;Aubin, I;Baastrup-Spohr, L;Bahalkeh, K;Bahn, M;Baker, T;Baker, WJ;Bakker, JP;Baldocchi, D;Baltzer, J;Banerjee, A;Baranger, A;Barlow, J;Barneche, DR;Baruch, Z;Bastianelli, D;Battles, J;Bauerle, W;Bauters, M;Bazzato, E;Beckmann, M;Beeckman, H;Beierkuhnlein, C;Bekker, R;Belfry, G;Belluau, M;Beloiu, M;Benavides, R;Benomar, L;Berdugo-Lattke, ML;Berenguer, E;Bergamin, R;Bergmann, J;Carlucci, MB;Berner, L;Bernhardt-Romermann, M;Bigler, C;Bjorkman, AD;Blackman, C;Blanco, C;Blonder, B;Blumenthal, D;Bocanegra-Gonzalez, KT;Boeckx, P;Bohlman, S;Bohning-Gaese, K;Boisvert-Marsh, L;Bond, W;Bond-Lamberty, B;Boom, A;Boonman, CCF;Bordin, K;Boughton, EH;Boukili, V;Bowman, DMJS;Bravo, S;Brendel, MR;Broadley, MR;Brown, KA;Bruelheide, H;Brumnich, F;Bruun, HH;Bruy, D;Buchanan, SW;Bucher, SF;Buchmann, N;Buitenwerf, R;Bunker, DE;Burger, J;Burrascano, S;Burslem, DFRP;Butterfield, BJ;Byun, C;Marques, M;Scalon, MC;Caccianiga, M;Cadotte, M;Cailleret, M;Camac, J;Camarero, JJ;Campany, C;Campetella, G;Campos, JA;Cano-Arboleda, L;Canullo, R;Carbognani, M;Carvalho, F;Casanoves, F;Castagneyrol, B;Catford, JA;Cavender-Bares, J;Cerabolini, BEL;Cervellini, M;Chacon-Madrigal, E;Chapin, K;Chapin, FS;Chelli, S;Chen, SC;Chen, AP;Cherubini, P;Chianucci, F;Choat, B;Chung, KS;Chytry, M;Ciccarelli, D;Coll, L;Collins, CG;Conti, L;Coomes, D;Cornelissen, JHC;Cornwell, WK;Corona, P;Coyea, M;Craine, J;Craven, D;Cromsigt, JPGM;Csecserits, A;Cufar, K;Cuntz, M;da Silva, AC;Dahlin, KM;Dainese, M;Dalke, I;Dalle Fratte, M;Anh, TDL;Danihelka, J;Dannoura, M;Dawson, S;de Beer, AJ;De Frutos, A;De Long, JR;Dechant, B;Delagrange, S;Delpierre, N;Derroire, G;Dias, AS;Diaz-Toribio, MH;Dimitrakopoulos, PG;Dobrowolski, M;Doktor, D;Drevojan, P;Dong, N;Dransfield, J;Dressler, S;Duarte, L;Ducouret, E;Dullinger, S;Durka, W;Duursma, R;Dymova, O;E-Vojtko, A;Eckstein, RL;Ejtehadi, H;Elser, J;Emilio, T;Engemann, K;Erfanian, MB;Erfmeier, A;Esquivel-Muelbert, A;Esser, G;Estiarte, M;Domingues, TF;Fagan, WF;Fagundez, J;Falster, DS;Fan, Y;Fang, JY;Farris, E;Fazlioglu, F;Feng, YH;Fernandez-Mendez, F;Ferrara, C;Ferreira, J;Fidelis, A;Finegan, B;Firn, J;Flowers, TJ;Flynn, DFB;Fontana, V;Forey, E;Forgiarini, C;Francois, L;Frangipani, M;Frank, D;Frenette-Dussault, C;Freschet, GT;Fry, EL;Fyllas, NM;Mazzochini, GG;Gachet, S;Gallagher, R;Ganade, G;Ganga, F;Garcia-Palacios, P;Gargaglione, V;Garnier, E;Garrido, JL;de Gasper, AL;Gea-Izquierdo, G;Gibson, D;Gillison, AN;Giroldo, A;Glasenhardt, MC;Gleason, S;Gliesch, M;Goldberg, E;Goldel, B;Gonzalez-Akre, E;Gonzalez-Andujar, JL;Gonzalez-Melo, A;Gonzalez-Robles, A;Graae, BJ;Granda, E;Graves, S;Green, WA;Gregor, T;Gross, N;Guerin, GR;Gunther, A;Gutierrez, AG;Haddock, L;Haines, A;Hall, J;Hambuckers, A;Han, WX;Harrison, SP;Hattingh, W;Hawes, JE;He, TH;He, PC;Heberling, JM;Helm, A;Hempel, S;Hentschel, J;Herault, B;Heres, AM;Herz, K;Heuertz, M;Hickler, T;Hietz, P;Higuchi, P;Hipp, AL;Hirons, A;Hock, M;Hogan, JA;Holl, K;Honnay, O;Hornstein, D;Hou, EQ;Hough-Snee, N;Hovstad, KA;Ichie, T;Igic, B;Illa, E;Isaac, M;Ishihara, M;Ivanov, L;Ivanova, L;Iversen, CM;Izquierdo, J;Jackson, RB;Jackson, B;Jactel, H;Jagodzinski, AM;Jandt, U;Jansen, S;Jenkins, T;Jentsch, A;Jespersen, JRP;Jiang, GF;Johansen, JL;Johnson, D;Jokela, EJ;Joly, CA;Jordan, GJ;Joseph, GS;Junaedi, D;Junker, RR;Justes, E;Kabzems, R;Kane, J;Kaplan, Z;Kattenborn, T;Kavelenova, L;Kearsley, E;Kempel, A;Kenzo, T;Kerkhoff, A;Khalil, MI;Kinlock, NL;Kissling, WD;Kitajima, K;Kitzberger, T;Kjoller, R;Klein, T;Kleyer, M;Klimesova, J;Klipel, J;Kloeppel, B;Klotz, S;Knops, JMH;Kohyama, T;Koike, F;Kollmann, J;Komac, B;Komatsu, K;Konig, C;Kraft, NJB;Kramer, K;Kreft, H;Kuhn, I;Kumarathunge, D;Kuppler, J;Kurokawa, H;Kurosawa, Y;Kuyah, S;Laclau, JP;Lafleur, B;Lallai, E;Lamb, E;Lamprecht, A;Larkin, DJ;Laughlin, D;Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y;le Maire, G;le Roux, PC;le Roux, E;Lee, T;Lens, F;Lewis, SL;Lhotsky, B;Li, YZ;Li, XE;Lichstein, JW;Liebergesell, M;Lim, JY;Lin, YS;Linares, JC;Liu, CJ;Liu, DJ;Liu, U;Livingstone, S;Llusia, J;Lohbeck, M;Lopez-Garcia, A;Lopez-Gonzalez, G;Lososova, Z;Louault, F;Lukacs, BA;Lukes, P;Luo, YJ;Lussu, M;Ma, SY;Pereira, CMR;Mack, M;Maire, V;Makela, A;Makinen, H;Malhado, ACM;Mallik, A;Manning, P;Manzoni, S;Marchetti, Z;Marchino, L;Marcilio-Silva, V;Marcon, E;Marignani, M;Markesteijn, L;Martin, A;Martinez-Garza, C;Martinez-Vilalta, J;Maskova, T;Mason, K;Mason, N;Massad, TJ;Masse, J;Mayrose, I;McCarthy, J;McCormack, ML;McCulloh, K;McFadden, IR;McGill, BJ;McPartland, MY;Medeiros, JS;Medlyn, B;Meerts, P;Mehrabi, Z;Meir, P;Melo, FPL;Mencuccini, M;Meredieu, C;Messier, J;Meszaros, I;Metsaranta, J;Michaletz, ST;Michelaki, C;Migalina, S;Milla, R;Miller, JED;Minden, V;Ming, R;Mokany, K;Moles, AT;Molnar, VA;Molofsky, J;Molz, M;Montgomery, RA;Monty, A;Moravcova, L;Moreno-Martinez, A;Moretti, M;Mori, AS;Mori, S;Morris, D;Morrison, J;Mucina, L;Mueller, S;Muir, CD;Muller, SC;Munoz, F;Myers-Smith, IH;Myster, RW;Nagano, M;Naidu, S;Narayanan, A;Natesan, B;Negoita, L;Nelson, AS;Neuschulz, EL;Ni, J;Niedrist, G;Nieto, J;Niinemets, U;Nolan, R;Nottebrock, H;Nouvellon, Y;Novakovskiy, A;Nystuen, KO;O'Grady, A;O'Hara, K;O'Reilly-Nugent, A;Oakley, S;Oberhuber, W;Ohtsuka, T;Oliveira, R;Ollerer, K;Olson, ME;Onipchenko, V;Onoda, Y;Onstein, RE;Ordonez, JC;Osada, N;Ostonen, I;Ottaviani, G;Otto, S;Overbeck, GE;Ozinga, WA;Pahl, AT;Paine, CET;Pakeman, RJ;Papageorgiou, AC;Parfionova, E;Partel, M;Patacca, M;Paula, S;Paule, J;Pauli, H;Pausas, JG;Peco, B;Penuelas, J;Perea, A;Peri, PL;Petisco-Souza, AC;Petraglia, A;Petritan, AM;Phillips, OL;Pierce, S;Pillar, VD;Pisek, J;Pomogaybin, A;Poorter, H;Portsmuth, A;Poschlod, P;Potvin, C;Pounds, D;Powell, AS;Power, SA;Prinzing, A;Puglielli, G;Pysek, P;Raevel, V;Rammig, A;Ransijn, J;Ray, CA;Reich, PB;Reichstein, M;Reid, DEB;Rejou-Mechain, M;de Dios, VR;Ribeiro, S;Richardson, S;Riibak, K;Rillig, MC;Riviera, F;Robert, EMR;Roberts, S;Robroek, B;Roddy, A;Rodrigues, AV;Rogers, A;Rollinson, E;Rolo, V;Romermann, C;Ronzhina, D;Roscher, C;Rosell, JA;Rosenfield, MF;Rossi, C;Roy, DB;Royer-Tardif, S;Ruger, N;Ruiz-Peinado, R;Rumpf, SB;Rusch, GM;Ryo, M;Sack, L;Saldana, A;Salgado-Negret, B;Salguero-Gomez, R;Santa-Regina, I;Santacruz-Garcia, AC;Santos, J;Sardans, J;Schamp, B;Scherer-Lorenzen, M;Schleuning, M;Schmid, B;Schmidt, M;Schmitt, S;Schneider, JV;Schowanek, SD;Schrader, J;Schrodt, F;Schuldt, B;Schurr, F;Garvizu, GS;Semchenko, M;Seymour, C;Sfair, JC;Sharpe, JM;Sheppard, CS;Sheremetiev, S;Shiodera, S;Shipley, B;Shovon, TA;Siebenkas, A;Sierra, C;Silva, V;Silva, M;Sitzia, T;Sjoman, H;Slot, M;Smith, NG;Sodhi, D;Soltis, P;Soltis, D;Somers, B;Sonnier, G;Sorensen, MV;Sosinski, EE;Soudzilovskaia, NA;Souza, AF;Spasojevic, M;Sperandii, MG;Stan, AB;Stegen, J;Steinbauer, K;Stephan, JG;Sterck, F;Stojanovic, DB;Strydom, T;Suarez, ML;Svenning, JC;Svitkova, I;Svitok, M;Svoboda, M;Swaine, E;Swenson, N;Tabarelli, M;Takagi, K;Tappeiner, U;Tarifa, R;Tauugourdeau, S;Tavsanoglu, C;te Beest, M;Tedersoo, L;Thiffault, N;Thom, D;Thomas, E;Thompson, K;Thornton, PE;Thuiller, W;Tichy, L;Tissue, D;Tjoelker, MG;Tng, DYP;Tobias, J;Torok, P;Tarin, T;Torres-Ruiz, JM;Tothmeresz, B;Treurnicht, M;Trivellone, V;Trolliet, F;Trotsiuk, V;Tsakalos, JL;Tsiripidis, I;Tysklind, N;Umehara, T;Usoltsev, V;Vadeboncoeur, M;Vaezi, J;Valladares, F;Vamosi, J;van Bodegom, PM;van Breugel, M;Van Cleemput, E;van de Weg, M;van der Merwe, S;van der Plas, F;van der Sande, MT;van Kleunen, M;Van Meerbeek, K;Vanderwel, M;Vanselow, KA;Varhammar, A;Varone, L;Valderrama, MY;Vassilev, K;Vellend, M;Veneklaas, EJ;Verbeeck, H;Verheyen, K;Vibrans, A;Vieira, I;Villacis, J;Violle, C;Vivek, P;Wagner, K;Waldram, M;Waldron, A;Walker, AP;Waller, M;Walther, G;Wang, H;Wang, F;Wang, WQ;Watkins, H;Watkins, J;Weber, U;Weedon, JT;Wei, LP;Weigelt, P;Weiher, E;Wells, AW;Wellstein, C;Wenk, E;Westoby, M;Westwood, A;White, PJ;Whitten, M;Williams, M;Winkler, DE;Winter, K;Womack, C;Wright, IJ;Wright, SJ;Wright, J;Pinho, BX;Ximenes, F;Yamada, T;Yamaji, K;Yanai, R;Yankov, N;Yguel, B;Zanini, KJ;Zanne, AE;Zeleny, D;Zhao, YP;Zheng, JM;Zheng, J;Zieminska, K;Zirbel, CR;Zizka, G;Zo-Bi, IC;Zotz, G;Wirth, C

Source:GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY,2020,Vol.26

Abstract:Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.

2.A global synthesis reveals biodiversity-mediated benefits for crop production

Author:Dainese, M;Martin, EA;Aizen, MA;Albrecht, M;Bartomeus, I;Bommarco, R;Carvalheiro, LG;Chaplin-Kramer, R;Gagic, V;Garibaldi, LA;Ghazoul, J;Grab, H;Jonsson, M;Karp, DS;Kennedy, CM;Kleijn, D;Kremen, C;Landis, DA;Letourneau, DK;Marini, L;Poveda, K;Rader, R;Smith, HG;Tscharntke, T;Andersson, GKS;Badenhausser, I;Baensch, S;Bezerra, ADM;Bianchi, FJJA;Boreux, V;Bretagnolle, V;Caballero-Lopez, B;Cavigliasso, P;Cetkovic, A;Chacoff, NP;Classen, A;Cusser, S;Silva, FDDE;de Groot, GA;Dudenhoffer, JH;Ekroos, J;Fijen, T;Franck, P;Freitas, BM;Garratt, MPD;Gratton, C;Hipolito, J;Holzschuh, A;Hunt, L;Iverson, AL;Jha, S;Keasar, T;Kim, TN;Kishinevsky, M;Klatt, BK;Klein, AM;Krewenka, KM;Krishnan, S;Larsen, AE;Lavigne, C;Liere, H;Maas, B;Mallinger, RE;Pachon, EM;Martinez-Salinas, A;Meehan, TD;Mitchell, MGE;Molina, GAR;Nesper, M;Nilsson, L;O'Rourke, ME;Peters, MK;Plecas, M;Potts, SG;Ramos, DD;Rosenheim, JA;Rundlof, M;Rusch, A;Saez, A;Scheper, J;Schleuning, M;Schmack, JM;Sciligo, AR;Seymour, C;Stanley, DA;Stewart, R;Stout, JC;Sutter, L;Takada, MB;Taki, H;Tamburini, G;Tschumi, M;Viana, BF;Westphal, C;Willcox, BK;Wratten, SD;Yoshioka, A;Zaragoza-Trello, C;Zhang, W;Zou, Y;Steffan-Dewenter, I

Source:SCIENCE ADVANCES,2019,Vol.5

Abstract:Human land use threatens global biodiversity and compromises multiple ecosystem functions critical to food production. Whether crop yield-related ecosystem services can be maintained by a few dominant species or rely on high richness remains unclear. Using a global database from 89 studies (with 1475 locations), we partition the relative importance of species richness, abundance, and dominance for pollination; biological pest control; and final yields in the context of ongoing land-use change. Pollinator and enemy richness directly supported ecosystem services in addition to and independent of abundance and dominance. Up to 50%% of the negative effects of landscape simplification on ecosystem services was due to richness losses of service-providing organisms, with negative consequences for crop yields. Maintaining the biodiversity of ecosystem service providers is therefore vital to sustain the flow of key agroecosystem benefits to society.

3.Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Author:Karp, DS;Chaplin-Kramer, R;Meehan, TD;Martin, EA;DeClerck, F;Grab, H;Gratton, C;Hunt, L;Larsen, AE;Martinez-Salinas, A;O'Rourke, ME;Rusch, A;Poveda, K;Jonsson, M;Rosenheim, JA;Schellhorn, NA;Tscharntke, T;Wratten, SD;Zhang, W;Iverson, AL;Adler, LS;Albrecht, M;Alignier, A;Angelella, GM;Anjum, MZ;Avelino, J;Batary, P;Baveco, JM;Bianchi, FJJA;Birkhofer, K;Bohnenblust, EW;Bommarco, R;Brewer, MJ;Caballero-Lopez, B;Carriere, Y;Carvalheiro, LG;Cayuela, L;Centrella, M;Cetkovic, A;Henri, DC;Chabert, A;Costamagna, AC;De la Mora, A;de Kraker, J;Desneux, N;Diehl, E;Diekotter, T;Dormann, CF;Eckberg, JO;Entling, MH;Fiedler, D;Franck, P;van Veen, FJF;Frank, T;Gagic, V;Garratt, MPD;Getachew, A;Gonthier, DJ;Goodell, PB;Graziosi, I;Groves, RL;Gurr, GM;Hajian-Forooshani, Z;Heimpel, GE;Herrmann, JD;Huseth, AS;Inclan, DJ;Ingrao, AJ;Iv, P;Jacot, K;Johnson, GA;Jones, L;Kaiser, M;Kaser, JM;Keasar, T;Kim, TN;Kishinevsky, M;Landis, DA;Lavandero, B;Lavigne, C;Le Ralec, A;Lemessa, D;Letourneau, DK;Liere, H;Lu, YH;Lubin, Y;Luttermoser, T;Maas, B;Mace, K;Madeira, F;Mader, V;Cortesero, AM;Marini, L;Martinez, E;Martinson, HM;Menozzi, P;Mitchell, MGE;Miyashita, T;Molina, GAR;Molina-Montenegro, MA;O'Neal, ME;Opatovsky, I;Ortiz-Martinez, S;Nash, M;Ostman, O;Ouin, A;Pak, D;Paredes, D;Parsa, S;Parry, H;Perez-Alvarez, R;Perovic, DJ;Peterson, JA;Petit, S;Philpott, SM;Plantegenest, M;Plecas, M;Pluess, T;Pons, X;Potts, SG;Pywell, RF;Ragsdale, DW;Rand, TA;Raymond, L;Ricci, B;Sargent, C;Sarthou, JP;Saulais, J;Schackermann, J;Schmidt, NP;Schneider, G;Schuepp, C;Sivakoff, FS;Smith, HG;Whitney, KS;Stutz, S;Szendrei, Z;Takada, MB;Taki, H;Tamburini, G;Thomson, LJ;Tricault, Y;Tsafack, N;Tschumi, M;Valantin-Morison, M;Trinh, MV;van der Werf, W;Vierling, KT;Werling, BP;Wickens, JB;Wickens, VJ;Woodcock, BA;Wyckhuys, K;Xiao, HJ;Yasuda, M;Yoshioka, A;Zou, Y

Source:PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,2018,Vol.115

Abstract:The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win-win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are measured. Here, we use a pest-control database encompassing 132 studies and 6,759 sites worldwide to model natural enemy and pest abundances, predation rates, and crop damage as a function of landscape composition. Our results showed that although landscape composition explained significant variation within studies, pest and enemy abundances, predation rates, crop damage, and yields each exhibited different responses across studies, sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing in landscapes with more noncrop habitat but overall showing no consistent trend. Thus, models that used landscape-composition variables to predict pest-control dynamics demonstrated little potential to explain variation across studies, though prediction did improve when comparing studies with similar crop and landscape features. Overall, our work shows that surrounding noncrop habitat does not consistently improve pest management, meaning habitat conservation may bolster production in some systems and depress yields in others. Future efforts to develop tools that inform farmers when habitat conservation truly represents a win-win would benefit from increased understanding of how landscape effects are modulated by local farm management and the biology of pests and their enemies.

4.Antibiotic resistance genes in manure-amended soil and vegetables at harvest

Author:Wang, FH;Qiao, M;Chen, Z;Su, JQ;Zhu, YG

Source:JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS,2015,Vol.299

Abstract:Lettuce and endive, which can be eaten raw, were planted on the manure-amended soil in order to explore the influence of plants on the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in bulk soil and rhizosphere soil, and the occurrence of ARGs on harvested vegetables. Twelve ARGs and one integrase gene Until) were detected in all soil samples. Five ARGs (sulI, tetG, tetC, tetA, and tetM) showed lower abundance in the soil with plants than those without. ARGs and intI1 gene were also detected on harvested vegetables grown in manure-amended soil, including endophytes and phyllosphere microorganisms. The results demonstrated that planting had an effect on the distribution of ARGs in manure-amended soil, and ARGs were detected on harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil, which had potential threat to human health. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

5.Novel SnO2@ZnO hierarchical nanostructures for highly sensitive and selective NO2 gas sensing

Author:Zhang, ZY;Xu, MZ;Liu, L;Ruan, XF;Yan, JF;Zhao, W;Yun, JN;Wang, YN;Qin, SJ;Zhang, T

Source:SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL,2018,Vol.257

Abstract:The novel brush-like (B-) SnO2@ZnO hierarchical nanostructures (HNSs) are successfully synthesized by using a simple two-step hydrothermal method. The SnO2 nanowires (NWs) grow epitaxially on the non-polarized plane of ZnO nanorods (NRs) with a six-fold symmetry. The heterogeneous nucleation-growth processes of SnO2 and ZnO are discussed in detail based on the dissolution-recrystallization mechanism, growth kinetics and Ostwald ripening. The excellent sensing performances of B-SnO2@ZnO HNSs for NO2 gas sensor are developed, including good selectivity, ultra-sensitive, fast response, broad detection range and low detection limits. The detection range of the sensor is measured from 5 ppb to 10 ppm, and the detection limit of the sensor is 5 ppb at 150 degrees C. The response and recovery time which reach 90%% of the final signal is less than 60 s, while retaining the low detection limit. The sensing mechanism is also discussed, and the unique structure of B-(SnO2ZnO)-Zn-@ is the dominating parameter for excellent sensing performances. The improved sensing performance of the HNSs also suggests the possibilities of other 1D materials combination for further sensing applications. (c) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

6.Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering

Author:Carciofo, R;Yang, JY;Song, N;Du, F;Zhang, K

Source:PLOS ONE,2016,Vol.11

Abstract:The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-. 807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research.

7.Aerodynamics and morphodynamics of sand fences: A review

Author:Li, BL;Sherman, DJ

Source:AEOLIAN RESEARCH,2015,Vol.17

Abstract:This paper reviews literature on the aerodynamics and morphodynamics of sand fences. We consider both wind fences for reducing wind erosion, and sand-trapping fences for controlling sand deposition. There has been substantial trial-and-error research based upon installations of sand fences, but only limited research on the fence and site attributes that provide the main aerodynamic and morphodynamic controls of interactions between aeolian systems and the fences. Such attributes include: fence porosity, height, length, width, opening size and geometry, porosity distribution, and external factors such as incoming flow characteristics, roughness length, atmospheric stability, grain size and local landform change. Considerations for the optimal design for both wind fences and sand-trapping fences are presented. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

8.Meta-analysis reveals that pollinator functional diversity and abundance enhance crop pollination and yield

Author:Woodcock, BA;Garratt, MPD;Powney, GD;Shaw, RF;Osborne, JL;Soroka, J;Lindstrom, SAM;Stanley, D;Ouvrard, P;Edwards, ME;Jauker, F;McCracken, ME;Zou, Y;Potts, SG;Rundlof, M;Noriega, JA;Greenop, A;Smith, HG;Bommarco, R;van der Werf, W;Stout, JC;Steffan-Dewenter, I;Morandin, L;Bullock, JM;Pywell, RF

Source:NATURE COMMUNICATIONS,2019,Vol.10

Abstract:How insects promote crop pollination remains poorly understood in terms of the contribution of functional trait differences between species. We used meta-analyses to test for correlations between community abundance, species richness and functional trait metrics with oilseed rape yield, a globally important crop. While overall abundance is consistently important in predicting yield, functional divergence between species traits also showed a positive correlation. This result supports the complementarity hypothesis that pollination function is maintained by non-overlapping trait distributions. In artificially constructed communities (mesocosms), species richness is positively correlated with yield, although this effect is not seen under field conditions. As traits of the dominant species do not predict yield above that attributed to the effect of abundance alone, we find no evidence in support of the mass ratio hypothesis. Management practices increasing not just pollinator abundance, but also functional divergence, could benefit oilseed rape agriculture.

9.Self-Powered UV-Near Infrared Photodetector Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide/n-Si Vertical Heterojunction

Author:Li, GH;Liu, L;Wu, G;Chen, W;Qin, SJ;Wang, Y;Zhang, T

Source:SMALL,2016,Vol.12

Abstract:A novel self-powered photodetector based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/n-Si p-n vertical heterojunction with high sensitivity and fast response time is presented. The photodetector contains a p-n vertical heterojunction between a drop-casted rGO thin film and n-Si. Contacts between the semiconductor layer (rGO, n-Si) and source-drain Ti/Au electrodes allow efficient transfer of photogenerated charge carriers. The self-powered UV-near infrared photodetector shows high sensitivity toward a spectrum of light from 365 to 1200 nm. Under the 600 nm illumination (0.81 mW cm(-2)), the device has a photoresponsivity of 1.52 A W-1, with fast response and recover time (2 ms and 3.7 ms), and the ON/OFF ratios exceed 10 4 when the power density reaches approximate to 2.5 mW cm(-2). The high photoresponse primarily arises from the built-in electric field formed at the interface of n-Si and rGO film. The effect of rGO thickness, rGO reduction level, and layout of rGO/n-Si effective contact area on device performance are also systematically investigated.

10.Global patterns and drivers of ecosystem functioning in rivers and riparian zones

Author:Tiegs, SD;Costello, DM;Isken, MW;Woodward, G;McIntyre, PB;Gessner, MO;Chauvet, E;Griffiths, NA;Flecker, AS;Acuna, V;Albarino, R;Allen, DC;Alonso, C;Andino, P;Arango, C;Aroviita, J;Barbosa, MVM;Barmuta, LA;Baxter, CV;Bell, TDC;Bellinger, B;Boyero, L;Brown, LE;Bruder, A;Bruesewitz, DA;Burdon, FJ;Callisto, M;Canhoto, C;Capps, KA;Castillo, MM;Clapcott, J;Colas, F;Colon-Gaud, C;Cornut, J;Crespo-Perez, V;Cross, WF;Culp, JM;Danger, M;Dangles, O;de Eyto, E;Derry, AM;Villanueva, VD;Douglas, MM;Elosegi, A;Encalada, AC;Entrekin, S;Espinosa, R;Ethaiya, D;Ferreira, V;Ferriol, C;Flanagan, KM;Fleituch, T;Shah, JJF;Frainer, A;Friberg, N;Frost, PC;Garcia, EA;Lago, LG;Soto, PEG;Ghate, S;Giling, DP;Gilmer, A;Goncalves, JF;Gonzales, RK;Graca, MAS;Grace, M;Grossart, HP;Guerold, F;Gulis, V;Hepp, LU;Higgins, S;Hishi, T;Huddart, J;Hudson, J;Imberger, S;Iniguez-Armijos, C;Iwata, T;Janetski, DJ;Jennings, E;Kirkwood, AE;Koning, AA;Kosten, S;Kuehn, KA;Laudon, H;Leavitt, PR;da Silva, ALL;Leroux, SJ;Leroy, CJ;Lisi, PJ;MacKenzie, R;Marcarelli, AM;Masese, FO;Mckie, BG;Medeiros, AO;Meissner, K;Milisa, M;Mishra, S;Miyake, Y;Moerke, A;Mombrikotb, S;Mooney, R;Moulton, T;Muotka, T;Negishi, JN;Neres-Lima, V;Nieminen, ML;Nimptsch, J;Ondruch, J;Paavola, R;Pardo, I;Patrick, CJ;Peeters, ETHM;Pozo, J;Pringle, C;Prussian, A;Quenta, E;Quesada, A;Reid, B;Richardson, JS;Rigosi, A;Rincon, J;Risnoveanu, G;Robinson, CT;Rodriguez-Gallego, L;Royer, TV;Rusak, JA;Santamans, AC;Selmeczy, GB;Simiyu, G;Skuja, A;Smykla, J;Sridhar, KR;Sponseller, R;Stoler, A;Swan, CM;Szlag, D;Teixeira-de Mello, F;Tonkin, JD;Uusheimo, S;Veach, AM;Vilbaste, S;Vought, LBM;Wang, CP;Webster, JR;Wilson, PB;Woelfl, S;Xenopoulos, MA;Yates, AG;Yoshimura, C;Yule, CM;Zhang, YX;Zwart, JA

Source:SCIENCE ADVANCES,2019,Vol.5

Abstract:River ecosystems receive and process vast quantities of terrestrial organic carbon, the fate of which depends strongly on microbial activity. Variation in and controls of processing rates, however, are poorly characterized at the global scale. In response, we used a peer-sourced research network and a highly standardized carbon processing assay to conduct a global-scale field experiment in greater than 1000 river and riparian sites. We found that Earth's biomes have distinct carbon processing signatures. Slow processing is evident across latitudes, whereas rapid rates are restricted to lower latitudes. Both the mean rate and variability decline with latitude, suggesting temperature constraints toward the poles and greater roles for other environmental drivers (e.g., nutrient loading) toward the equator. These results and data set the stage for unprecedented "next-generation biomonitoring" by establishing baselines to help quantify environmental impacts to the functioning of ecosystems at a global scale.

11.Under-vaccinated groups in Europe and their beliefs, attitudes and reasons for non-vaccination; two systematic reviews

Author:Fournet, N;Mollema, L;Ruijs, WL;Harmsen, IA;Keck, F;Durand, JY;Cunha, MP;Wamsiedel, M;Reis, R;French, J;Smit, EG;Kitching, A;van Steenbergen, JE

Source:BMC PUBLIC HEALTH,2018,Vol.18

Abstract:Background: Despite effective national immunisation programmes in Europe, some groups remain incompletely or un-vaccinated ('under-vaccinated'), with underserved minorities and certain religious/ideological groups repeatedly being involved in outbreaks of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD). Gaining insight into factors regarding acceptance of vaccination of 'under-vaccinated groups' (UVGs) might give opportunities to communicate with them in a trusty and reliable manner that respects their belief system and that, maybe, increase vaccination uptake. We aimed to identify and describe UVGs in Europe and to describe beliefs, attitudes and reasons for non-vaccination in the identified UVGs. Methods: We defined a UVG as a group of persons who share the same beliefs and/or live in socially close-knit communities in Europe and who have/had historically low vaccination coverage and/or experienced outbreaks of VPDs since 1950. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases using specific search term combinations. For the first systematic review, studies that described a group in Europe with an outbreak or low vaccination coverage for a VPD were selected and for the second systematic review, studies that described possible factors that are associated with non-vaccination in these groups were selected. Results: We selected 48 articles out of 606 and 13 articles out of 406 from the first and second search, respectively. Five UVGs were identified in the literature: Orthodox Protestant communities, Anthroposophists, Roma, Irish Travellers, and Orthodox Jewish communities. The main reported factors regarding vaccination were perceived non-severity of traditional "childhood" diseases, fear of vaccine side-effects, and need for more information about for example risk of vaccination. Conclusions: Within each UVG identified, there are a variety of health beliefs and objections to vaccination. In addition, similar factors are shared by several of these groups. Communication strategies regarding these similar factors such as educating people about the risks associated with being vaccinated versus not being vaccinated, addressing their concerns, and countering vaccination myths present among members of a specific UVG through a trusted source, can establish a reliable relationship with these groups and increase their vaccination uptake. Furthermore, other interventions such as improving access to health care could certainly increase vaccination uptake in Roma and Irish travellers.

12.Elevational species richness gradients in a hyperdiverse insect taxon: a global meta-study on geometrid moths

Author:Beck, J;McCain, CM;Axmacher, JC;Ashton, LA;Bartschi, F;Brehm, G;Choi, SW;Cizek, O;Colwell, RK;Fiedler, K;Francois, CL;Highland, S;Holloway, JD;Intachat, J;Kadlec, T;Kitching, RL;Maunsell, SC;Merckx, T;Nakamura, A;Odell, E;Sang, W;Toko, PS;Zamecnik, J;Zou, Y;Novotny, V

Source:GLOBAL ECOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY,2017,Vol.26

Abstract:Aims We aim to document elevational richness patterns of geometrid moths in a globally replicated, multi-gradient setting, and to test general hypotheses on environmental and spatial effects (i. e. productivity, temperature, precipitation, area, mid-domain effect and human habitat disturbance) on these richness patterns. Location Twenty-six elevational gradients world-wide (latitudes 288 S to 518 N). Methods We compiled field datasets on elevational gradients for geometrid moths, a lepidopteran family, and documented richness patterns across each gradient while accounting for local undersampling of richness. Environmental and spatial predictor variables as well as habitat disturbance were used to test various hypotheses. Our analyses comprised two pathways: univariate correlations within gradients, and multivariate modelling on pooled data after correcting for overall variation in richness among different gradients. Results The majority of gradients showed midpeak patterns of richness, irrespective of climate and geographical location. The exclusion of humanaffected sampling plots did not change these patterns. Support for univariate main drivers of richness was generally low, although there was idiosyncratic support for particular predictors on single gradients. Multivariate models, in agreement with univariate results, provided the strongest support for an effect of area-integrated productivity, or alternatively for an elevational area effect. Temperature and the mid-domain effect received support as weaker, modulating covariates, while precipitation-related variables had no explanatory potential. Main conclusions Despite the predicted decreasing diversity-temperature relationship in ectotherms, geometrid moths are similar to ants and salamanders as well as small mammals and ferns in having predominantly their highest diversity at mid-elevations. As in those comparative analyses, single or clear sets of drivers are elusive, but both productivity and area appear to be influential. More comparative elevational studies for various insect taxa are necessary for a more comprehensive understanding of elevational diversity and productivity.

13.Distribution of soil selenium in China is potentially controlled by deposition and volatilization?

Author:Sun, GX;Meharg, AA;Li, G;Chen, Z;Yang, L;Chen, SC;Zhu, YG

Source:SCIENTIFIC REPORTS,2016,Vol.6

Abstract:Elucidating the environmental drivers of selenium (Se) spatial distribution in soils at a continental scale is essential to better understand it's biogeochemical cycling to improve Se transfer into diets. Through modelling Se biogeochemistry in China we found that deposition and volatilization are key factors controlling distribution in surface soil, rather than bedrock-derived Se (<0.1 mg/ kg). Wet deposition associated with the East Asian summer monsoon, and dry deposition associated with the East Asian winter monsoon, are responsible for dominant Se inputs into northwest and southeast China, respectively. In Central China the rate of soil Se volatilization is similar to that of Se deposition, suggesting that Se volatilization offsets it's deposition, resulting in negligible net Se input in soil. Selenium in surface soil at Central China is roughly equal to low petrogenic Se, which is the main reason for the presence of the Se poor belt. We suggest that both deposition and volatilization of Se could play a key role in Se balance in other terrestrial environments worldwide.

14.Water quality trends in New Zealand rivers: 1989-2009

Author:Ballantine, DJ;Davies-Colley, RJ

Source:ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT,2014,Vol.186

Abstract:Recent assessments of water quality in New Zealand have indicated declining trends, particularly in the 40 %% of the country's area under pasture. The most comprehensive long-term and consistent water quality dataset is the National Rivers Water Quality Network (NRWQN). Since 1989, monthly samples have been collected at 77 NRWQN sites on 35 major river systems that, together, drain about 50 %% of New Zealand's land area. Trend analysis of the NRWQN data shows increasing nutrient concentrations, particularly nitrogen (total nitrogen and nitrate), over 21 years (1989-2009). Total nitrogen and nitrate concentrations were increasing significantly over the first 11 years (1989-2000), but for the more recent 10-year period, only nitrate concentrations continued to increase sharply. Also, the increasing phosphorus trends over the first 11 years (1989-2000) levelled off over the later 10-year period (2000-2009). Conductivity has also increased over the 21 years (1989-2009). Visual clarity has increased over the full time period which may be the positive result of soil conservation measures and riparian fencing. NRWQN data shows that concentrations of nutrients increase, and visual clarity decreases (i.e. water quality declines), with increasing proportions of pastoral land in catchments. As such, the increasing nutrient trends may reflect increasing intensification of pastoral agriculture.

15.Indoor air quality in classrooms: Environmental measures and effective ventilation rate modeling in urban elementary schools

Author:Johnson, DL;Lynch, RA;Floyd, EL;Wang, J;Bartels, JN

Source:BUILDING AND ENVIRONMENT,2018,Vol.136

Abstract:Associations have been shown between poor classroom indoor air quality (IAQ) and schoolchildren's risk of asthma, increased absenteeism, and impaired performance on standardized tests. Mechanically ventilated classrooms often lack an adequate fresh air supply. There is also concern that outdoor pollutants, particularly vehicle exhaust products, may penetrate classrooms. The purpose of this work was to characterize IAQ in elementary school classrooms and estimate average effective fresh air ventilation rates under cold, mild, and warm season conditions. IAQ measures were made in third-grade classrooms of 12 elementary schools. Particulate matter, CO2, CO, NO2, total VOCs, and formaldehyde concentrations, as well as relative humidity and temperature, were measured for 24-h periods in each season. Effective fresh air ventilation rates were estimated using a transient mass balance modeling approach. The schools measured had generally adequate temperature and humidity control, extremely low non-occupant related pollutants, and little to no incursion of outdoor vehicle-related pollutants. However, there was a lack of adequate fresh air ventilation in many cases. Ventilation adequacy varied within the schools across seasons but with no consistent pattern, perhaps reflecting variations in class size as well as seasonal demands on the HVAC systems and/or HVAC seasonal operating mode. Transient mass balance method effective fresh air ventilation estimates near or above ASHRAE-recommended fresh air ventilation rates for people-related pollutants corresponded well with good CO2 control in the classrooms.

16.Bacterial community composition at anodes of microbial fuel cells for paddy soils: the effects of soil properties

Author:Wang, N;Chen, Z;Li, HB;Su, JQ;Zhao, F;Zhu, YG

Source:JOURNAL OF SOILS AND SEDIMENTS,2015,Vol.15

Abstract:Anode electrogenic bacteria (AEB) widely exist in paddy soils and play an important role in element biogeochemical cycling. However, little information is available on the role of soil characteristics in shaping AEB community. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the role of soil properties in driving the evolution of anode bacterial communities. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were constructed for five paddy soils with different chemical properties. The bacterial communities at anodes of closed (MFC running) and open (control) circuit MFCs were characterized using 16S rRNA gene-based Illumina sequencing. Paddy soils with higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ammonium (NH4 (+)) concentrations in porewater showed higher MFC performance. Without MFC running, the dominant bacterial community composition was similar among the used five soils with Clostridia as the dominant bacteria at class level. Compared to control treatments, MFC running significantly decreased bacterial diversity and altered the bacterial community composition at anodes. However, the shift of bacterial communities varied with different types of soils. Betaproteobacteria was enriched by 4-30 times after MFC running for low MFC performance soils, while Deltaproteobacteria enriched (4-20 times) for high MFC performance soils. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that DOC, NH4 (+), and dissolved ferrous (Fe2+) significantly shift anode bacterial communities for the five soils with MFC running. We found that high-performing MFCs constructed from paddy soils with high DOC and NH4 (+) concentrations in porewater selected for an active, highly electrogenic bacterial community (dominated by Deltaproteobacteria) at anodes, while the dominant bacterial community for the low-performing MFCs from soils with low DOC and NH4 (+) was Betaproteobacteria. These findings imply that soil properties shape the AEB composition, therefore influencing MFC performance. This study provides new insights into the microbial-mediated carbon and nitrogen cycling in paddy soils.

17.Progress toward universal health coverage in ASEAN

Author:Van Minh, H;Pocock, NS;Chaiyakunapruk, N;Chhorvann, C;Duc, HA;Hanvoravongchai, P;Lim, J;Lucero-Prisno, DE;Ng, N;Phaholyothin, N;Phonvisay, A;Soe, KM;Sychareun, V

Source:GLOBAL HEALTH ACTION,2014,Vol.7

Abstract:Background: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is characterized by much diversity in terms of geography, society, economic development, and health outcomes. The health systems as well as healthcare structure and provisions vary considerably. Consequently, the progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in these countries also varies. This paper aims to describe the progress toward UHC in the ASEAN countries and discuss how regional integration could influence UHC. Design: Data reported in this paper were obtained from published literature, reports, and gray literature available in the ASEAN countries. We used both online and manual search methods to gather the information and 'snowball' further data. Results: We found that, in general, ASEAN countries have made good progress toward UHC, partly due to relatively sustained political commitments to endorse UHC in these countries. However, all the countries in ASEAN are facing several common barriers to achieving UHC, namely 1) financial constraints, including low levels of overall and government spending on health; 2) supply side constraints, including inadequate numbers and densities of health workers; and 3) the ongoing epidemiological transition at different stages characterized by increasing burdens of non-communicable diseases, persisting infectious diseases, and reemergence of potentially pandemic infectious diseases. The ASEAN Economic Community's (AEC) goal of regional economic integration and a single market by 2015 presents both opportunities and challenges for UHC. Healthcare services have become more available but health and healthcare inequities will likely worsen as better-off citizens of member states might receive more benefits from the liberalization of trade policy in health, either via regional outmigration of health workers or intra-country health worker movement toward private hospitals, which tend to be located in urban areas. For ASEAN countries, UHC should be explicitly considered to mitigate deleterious effects of economic integration. Political commitments to safeguard health budgets and increase health spending will be necessary given liberalization's risks to health equity as well as migration and population aging which will increase demand on health systems. There is potential to organize select health services regionally to improve further efficiency. Conclusions: We believe that ASEAN has significant potential to become a force for better health in the region. We hope that all ASEAN citizens can enjoy higher health and safety standards, comprehensive social protection, and improved health status. We believe economic and other integration efforts can further these aspirations.

18.Goji Berries as a Potential Natural Antioxidant Medicine: An Insight into Their Molecular Mechanisms of Action

Author:Ma, ZF;Zhang, HX;Teh, SS;Wang, CW;Zhang, YT;Hayford, F;Wang, LY;Ma, T;Dong, ZH;Zhang, Y;Zhu, YF

Source:OXIDATIVE MEDICINE AND CELLULAR LONGEVITY,2019,Vol.2019

Abstract:Goji berries (Lycium fruits) are usually found in Asia, particularly in northwest regions of China. Traditionally, dried goji berries are cooked before they are consumed. They are commonly used in Chinese soups and as herbal tea. Moreover, goji berries are used for the production of tincture, wine, and juice. Goji berries are high antioxidant potential fruits which alleviate oxidative stress to confer many health protective benefits such as preventing free radicals from damaging DNA, lipids, and proteins. Therefore, the aim of the review was to focus on the bioactive compounds and pharmacological properties of goji berries including their molecular mechanisms of action. The health benefits of goji berries include enhancing hemopoiesis, antiradiation, antiaging, anticancer, improvement of immunity, and antioxidation. There is a better protection through synergistic and additive effects in fruits and herbal products from a complex mixture of phytochemicals when compared to one single phytochemical.

19.Soil organic matter amount determines the behavior of iron and arsenic in paddy soil with microbial fuel cells

Author:Gustave, W;Yuan, ZF;Sekar, R;Ren, YX;Liu, JJY;Zhang, J;Chen, Z

Source:CHEMOSPHERE,2019,Vol.237

Abstract:Arsenic (As) mobility in paddy soils is mainly controlled by iron (Fe) oxides and iron reducing bacteria (IBR). The Fe reducing bacteria are also considered to be enriched on the anode of soil microbial fuel cells (sMFC). Thus, the sMFC may have an impact on elements' behavior, especially Fe and As, mobilization and immobilization in paddy soils. In this study, we found dissolved organic matter (DOC) abundance was a major determinate for the sMFC impact on Fe and As. In the constructed sMFCs with and without water management, distinctive behaviors of Fe and As in paddy soil were observed, which can be explained by the low or high DOC content under different water management. When the sMFC was deployed without water management, i.e. DOC was abundant, the sMFC promoted Fe and As movement into the soil porewater. The As release into the porewater was associated with the enhanced Fe reduction by the sMFC. This was ascribed to the acidification effect of sMFC anode and the increase of Fe reducing bacteria in the sMFC anode vicinity and associated bulk soil. However, when the sMFC was coupled with alternating dry-wet cycles, i.e. DOC was limited, the Fe and As concentrations in the soil porewater dramatically decreased by up to 2.3 and 1.6 fold, respectively, compared to the controls under the same water management regime. This study implies an environmental risk for the in-situ application of sMFC Corresponding in organic matter rich wetlands and also points out a new mitigation strategy for As management in paddy soils. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

20.Single CdS Nanorod for High Responsivity UV-Visible Photodetector

Author:Zhao, W;Liu, L;Xu, MZ;Wang, XW;Zhang, T;Wang, YN;Zhang, ZY;Qin, SJ;Liu, Z

Source:ADVANCED OPTICAL MATERIALS,2017,Vol.5

Abstract:1D nanoscale photodetectors have been extensively investigated for the unique geometry structure and novel physical and chemical properties. The 1D CdS materials have received much attention in the field due to its high photosensitivity and fast response, while how to achieve high responsivity is still in development, despite it is the crucial target to the excellent photodetector. Single crystal CdS nanorods (NRs) are synthesized on SiO2/Si substrate over large scale via the chemical vapor deposition method. The individual single CdS nanorod photodetector have been fabricated by using photolithography process and the responsivity of the photodetector is investigated systematically. At a very low percentage of illumination intensity (2%%, 0.5 mW cm(-2)) under 450 nm, the photodetector exhibited a high responsivity and reached at 1.23 x 10(4) A W-1 with the bias voltages of 2 V. The good crystallinity and large surface of CdS nanorod are the reasons of this excellent performance of CdS based photodetector. The strategy proposed herein appears to hold great potential for a high responsivity with low illumination intensity.
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