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61.Social-media based secondary distribution of HIV self-testing among Chinese men who have sex with men: A pilot implementation programme assessment

Author:Wu, D;Smith, MK;Ong, JJ;Ritchwood, T;Fu, H;Pan, SW;Tucker, JD;Zhou, Y;Tang, W


62.Demo Abstract: Smart City: a real-time environmental monitoring system on green roof

Author:Zhao, ZH;Wang, JH;Fu, CX;Liu, DW;Li, BL


Abstract:The research on the green roof is of great importance in the field of urban beautification and improving ecological effect. According to the previous research, plants have shown a significant impact on the absorption of PM2.5. Therefore, it is justified that the appropriate planting design or some particular combinations of plants can be considered as a solution, dealing with the urban fine particulate matter (PM2.5). This paper presented a work in progress on developing wireless sensor networks (WSN) system based on a prototype wind tunnel, which is used for the simulation of the green roof. Several data collection processes are handled by this system, where the concentration of PM2.5, wind speed, temperature & relative humidity are obtained and stored in the database simultaneously. Additionally, users are able to real-timely define their commands in details, controlling the sensor's height through a GUI on the website. Experimental and simulation results and measurements have verified the validity of the wind tunnel module as well as the reliability of the sensor network. The system can be operated on thousands of devices when the packet delay maintained in a low level.

63.Investigating the Temporal and Spatial Variability of Total Ozone Column in the Yangtze River Delta Using Satellite Data: 1978-2013

Author:Chen, LJ;Yu, BL;Chen, ZQ;Li, BL;Wu, JP

Source:REMOTE SENSING,2014,Vol.6

Abstract:The objective of this work is to analyze the temporal and spatial variability of the total ozone column (TOC) trends over the Yangtze River Delta, the most populated region in China, during the last 35 years (1978-2013) using remote sensing-derived TOC data. Due to the lack of continuous and well-covered ground-based TOC measurements, little is known about the Yangtze River Delta. TOC data derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) for the period 1978-2005 and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for the period 2004-2013 were used in this study. The spatial, long-term, seasonal, and short-term variations of TOC in this region were analyzed. For the spatial variability, the latitudinal variability has a large range between 3%% and 13%%, and also represents an annual cycle with maximum in February and minimum in August. In contrast, the longitudinal variability is not significant and just varies between 2%% and 4%%. The long-term variability represented a notable decline for the period 1978-2013. The ozone depletion was observed significantly during 1978-1999, with linear trend from (-3.2 +/- 0.7) DU/decade to (-10.5 +/- 0.9) DU/decade. As for seasonal variability, the trend of TOC shows a distinct seasonal pattern, with maximum in April or May and minimum in October or November. The short-term analysis demonstrates the day-to-day changes as well as the six-week system persistence of the TOC. The results can provide comprehensive descriptions of the TOC variations in the Yangtze River Delta and benefit climate change research in this region.

64.Mutual relationships of suspended sediment, turbidity and visual clarity in New Zealand rivers

Author:Ballantine, DJ;Hughes, AO;Davies-Colley, RJ


Abstract:Many river water quality monitoring programmes do not measure suspended particulate matter (SPM) mass concentrations despite significant interest in its multiple effects on aquatic ecosystems. Regular monthly sampling usually intercepts rivers in baseflow when suspended sediment mass concentrations and fluxes are relatively low and not of particular interest. New Zealand's National Rivers Water Quality Network (NRWQN) is probably typical in not measuring SPM mass, although visual clarity and nephelometric turbidity are routinely measured. In order to better characterize SPM in NZ rivers, total suspended sediment (TSS) was temporarily added to the NRWQN. Turbidity, visual clarity and TSS are mutually inter-related over all 77 sites, although with considerable data scatter. However, within individual rivers turbidity and visual clarity are typically fairly closely related to TSS and provide fair to excellent surrogates. Therefore, TSS need not be measured routinely because it can be estimated with sufficient precision for many purposes from visibility or turbidity.

65.Antibiotic resistance genes in manure-amended soil and vegetables at harvest

Author:Wang, FH;Qiao, M;Chen, Z;Su, JQ;Zhu, YG


Abstract:Lettuce and endive, which can be eaten raw, were planted on the manure-amended soil in order to explore the influence of plants on the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in bulk soil and rhizosphere soil, and the occurrence of ARGs on harvested vegetables. Twelve ARGs and one integrase gene Until) were detected in all soil samples. Five ARGs (sulI, tetG, tetC, tetA, and tetM) showed lower abundance in the soil with plants than those without. ARGs and intI1 gene were also detected on harvested vegetables grown in manure-amended soil, including endophytes and phyllosphere microorganisms. The results demonstrated that planting had an effect on the distribution of ARGs in manure-amended soil, and ARGs were detected on harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil, which had potential threat to human health. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

66.Detailed alluvial fan geomorphology in a high-arctic periglacial environment, Svalbard: application of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) surveys

Author:Tomczyk, AM;Ewertowski, MW;Stawska, M;Rachlewicz, G

Source:JOURNAL OF MAPS,2019,Vol.15

Abstract:A 1:850 detailed map of the geomorphology of the Dynamisk Creek alluvial fan on Svalbard was produced based on very high-resolution data collected using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in 2014. The map documents features within the surface of the fan (0.35 km(2)), emphasizing their relative temporal activity. Fluvial flows were the most important geomorphological processes responsible for aggradation and modification of the fan surface. However, at present most of the fan area is inactive (about 75%% of the whole fan surface) and stabilized by vegetation and mosses. Furthermore, in some places, niveo-aeolian (6%% of the fan surface) and snow avalanches (1.5%% of the fan surface) deposits have been noticed. In addition to the map, detailed morphometric characteristics of the fan and its catchment are also provided. The presented work illustrates the enormous usefulness of small UAVs for the study of fan surfaces in periglacial environments.

67.Water Bodies' Cooling Effects on Urban Land Daytime Surface Temperature: Ecosystem Service Reducing Heat Island Effect

Author:Wu, ZJ;Zhang, YX


Abstract:The urban heat island (UHI) effect caused by urbanization is a major environmental concern. Utilizing cooling effects of water bodies as one type of ecosystem service is an important way to mitigate UHI in urban areas during the daytime. This study aims to examine the influence of water bodies' cooling effects on the urban land surface temperature (LST). The potential influence on the relationship between urban land cover and the LST are also discussed. The daytime LST in April was retrieved from Landsat-8 thermal infrared band and the grid-based method was adopted to analyze the potential influence. The results indicated that Suzhou Bay is broadly capable of lowering daytime temperatures. The cooling distance can reach 800 m in horizontal space, and the maximum cooling effect was 3.02 degrees C. Furthermore, the distance to the Suzhou Bay is a great factor for the relationship between land cover and the LST. We found that the cooling effects have weakened the correct quantitative correlation between land cover (e.g., green space and impervious surface) and the LST, particularly green space in the range of 200 m. In addition, the cooling effects have strengthened the cool edge phenomenon when analyzing the relationship between the normal difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the LST. We suggest that the distance to the water bodies should be effectively utilized in the microclimate regulation provided by ecosystem services of water bodies. When investigating the thermal effects of urban land, urban planners and designers should consider water bodies' effects on surrounding areas. These findings have implications for understanding the role of water bodies with ecosystem services of temperature mitigation, which must be fully appreciated for sustainable urban and landscape planning.

68.Fear of nosocomial HIV infection may be a barrier to HIV testing among young college and university students in Suzhou, China

Author:Wang, WQ;Shi, X;Jiang, YF;Zhao, HR;Ong, JJ;Wu, D;Tucker, JD;Terris-Prestholt, F;Pan, SW


Abstract:Objective:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test uptake among college and university students in China remains suboptimal. This study aimed to identify and weigh the relative importance of HIV testing preferences among university students in China.Participants and methods:Qualitative interviews and discrete choice experiments (DCE) were used to identify and assess HIV testing preferences in hypothetical HIV testing scenarios. Study participants were sexually experienced university students in Suzhou city, China.Results:198 participants completed 1980 DCE choice tasks. Risk of nosocomial HIV infection, accuracy, and distance were identified as the most important factors when deciding whether to test for HIV. Risk of nosocomial HIV infection was the most influential factor, accounting for 35.5%% of the variation in participants' DCE stated choices.Conclusions:Fear of HIV nosocomial infection may be influencing HIV test preferences and possibly test uptake among university students in China. Interventions should consider addressing students' fear of HIV nosocomial infection as a potential barrier to HIV testing.

69.Estimating the impact threshold for wind-blown sand

Author:Li, BL;Ellis, JT;Sherman, DJ


Abstract:In many aeolian studies, it is commonplace to use Bagnold's (1936) equation to calculate threshold shear velocity (u*(t),), which includes an empirical constant, A, typically set at about 0.082 for maintaining saltation (the dynamic, or impact, threshold). Here, we present data from a pilot study to assess the variability of A to improve estimations of u*(t), which in turn, should improve transport rate predictions. Using field data from three coastal environments, we measured or calculated all parameters within the Lettau and Lettau (1978) model and u*(t) equation. In Jericoacoara, Brazil (BRA), Inch, Ireland (IRE), and Esposende, Portugal (POR) wind velocities were measured with cup anemometer towers and transport rates were measured using traps for 31 data runs lasting 120 to 1020 seconds each. Mean grain sizes were 0.17 mm (IRE), 0.31 mm (POR), and 0.30 mm (BRA), and mean shear velocities were 0.38 m s(-1) (IRE), 0.40 m s(-1) (POR), and 0.49 in 54 (BRA). Empirically determined, adjusted A values ranged from 0.02 to 0.21 with a mean and standard deviation of 0.11 and 0.04. No relationship exists between estimates of A and grain Reynolds number. A statistically significant (p < 0.001), negative relationship was found between A and mass transport rate, leading to substantial over-prediction of transport rates near the threshold and under-prediction during fast winds if a constant of 0.082 is used.

70.Survival analysis of brown plant hoppers (Nilaparvata lugens) in rice using video recordings of predation events

Author:Hemerik, L;Bianchi, F;van de Wiel, I;Fu, DM;Zou, Y;Xiao, HJ;van der Werf, W

Source:BIOLOGICAL CONTROL,2018,Vol.127

Abstract:The brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stal, is a major rice pest in South-East Asia. While brown plant hopper (BPH) populations can be regulated by natural enemies, there is limited quantitative information available about the contribution of different predator species to BPH mortality. Our study has three aims: (i) assess the relative contribution of different predator species to BPH mortality in rice fields, (ii) assess diurnal patterns in BPH predation, and (iii) assess the seasonal variation in BPH predation. We quantified predation of live mobile BPH in three rice fields using video recording and assessed densities frogs, a major predator group, by direct counts. In 864 h of video recording, 102 mortality events were observed. Frogs (Ranidae), wolf spiders (Lycosidae) and jumping spiders (Salticidae) were the main predators, accounting for 76%%, 13%% and 9%% of the BPH predation events, respectively. There were large differences in frog density across fields, and there was more predation during the evening (63%% predation events) than during the day (37%%). Survival analysis indicated that predation risk quickly decreased with time after the onset of recording sessions and that most predation happened within the first 10 min. The results confirm the often overlooked contribution of frogs to BPH predation, but also highlight the substantial variation in predator pressure and frog abundance across farmers' fields. While camera observations provide compelling information on the identity and relative importance of natural enemies in predation of pests, further development of methods is needed to minimize possible biases resulting from disturbance when making camera observations to quantify predation risk.

71.Global patterns and drivers of ecosystem functioning in rivers and riparian zones

Author:Tiegs, SD;Costello, DM;Isken, MW;Woodward, G;McIntyre, PB;Gessner, MO;Chauvet, E;Griffiths, NA;Flecker, AS;Acuna, V;Albarino, R;Allen, DC;Alonso, C;Andino, P;Arango, C;Aroviita, J;Barbosa, MVM;Barmuta, LA;Baxter, CV;Bell, TDC;Bellinger, B;Boyero, L;Brown, LE;Bruder, A;Bruesewitz, DA;Burdon, FJ;Callisto, M;Canhoto, C;Capps, KA;Castillo, MM;Clapcott, J;Colas, F;Colon-Gaud, C;Cornut, J;Crespo-Perez, V;Cross, WF;Culp, JM;Danger, M;Dangles, O;de Eyto, E;Derry, AM;Villanueva, VD;Douglas, MM;Elosegi, A;Encalada, AC;Entrekin, S;Espinosa, R;Ethaiya, D;Ferreira, V;Ferriol, C;Flanagan, KM;Fleituch, T;Shah, JJF;Frainer, A;Friberg, N;Frost, PC;Garcia, EA;Lago, LG;Soto, PEG;Ghate, S;Giling, DP;Gilmer, A;Goncalves, JF;Gonzales, RK;Graca, MAS;Grace, M;Grossart, HP;Guerold, F;Gulis, V;Hepp, LU;Higgins, S;Hishi, T;Huddart, J;Hudson, J;Imberger, S;Iniguez-Armijos, C;Iwata, T;Janetski, DJ;Jennings, E;Kirkwood, AE;Koning, AA;Kosten, S;Kuehn, KA;Laudon, H;Leavitt, PR;da Silva, ALL;Leroux, SJ;Leroy, CJ;Lisi, PJ;MacKenzie, R;Marcarelli, AM;Masese, FO;Mckie, BG;Medeiros, AO;Meissner, K;Milisa, M;Mishra, S;Miyake, Y;Moerke, A;Mombrikotb, S;Mooney, R;Moulton, T;Muotka, T;Negishi, JN;Neres-Lima, V;Nieminen, ML;Nimptsch, J;Ondruch, J;Paavola, R;Pardo, I;Patrick, CJ;Peeters, ETHM;Pozo, J;Pringle, C;Prussian, A;Quenta, E;Quesada, A;Reid, B;Richardson, JS;Rigosi, A;Rincon, J;Risnoveanu, G;Robinson, CT;Rodriguez-Gallego, L;Royer, TV;Rusak, JA;Santamans, AC;Selmeczy, GB;Simiyu, G;Skuja, A;Smykla, J;Sridhar, KR;Sponseller, R;Stoler, A;Swan, CM;Szlag, D;Teixeira-de Mello, F;Tonkin, JD;Uusheimo, S;Veach, AM;Vilbaste, S;Vought, LBM;Wang, CP;Webster, JR;Wilson, PB;Woelfl, S;Xenopoulos, MA;Yates, AG;Yoshimura, C;Yule, CM;Zhang, YX;Zwart, JA

Source:SCIENCE ADVANCES,2019,Vol.5

Abstract:River ecosystems receive and process vast quantities of terrestrial organic carbon, the fate of which depends strongly on microbial activity. Variation in and controls of processing rates, however, are poorly characterized at the global scale. In response, we used a peer-sourced research network and a highly standardized carbon processing assay to conduct a global-scale field experiment in greater than 1000 river and riparian sites. We found that Earth's biomes have distinct carbon processing signatures. Slow processing is evident across latitudes, whereas rapid rates are restricted to lower latitudes. Both the mean rate and variability decline with latitude, suggesting temperature constraints toward the poles and greater roles for other environmental drivers (e.g., nutrient loading) toward the equator. These results and data set the stage for unprecedented "next-generation biomonitoring" by establishing baselines to help quantify environmental impacts to the functioning of ecosystems at a global scale.

72.Direct and indirect health impacts of climate change on the vulnerable elderly population in East China

Author:Kinay, P;Morse, AP;Villanueva, EV;Morrissey, K;Staddon, PL


Abstract:The latest scientific advances on the impacts of climate change on the health of the elderly in East China were reviewed consulting peer-reviewed publications from 2000 to 2017. The direct impacts of climate change result from rising temperatures, heat waves, and increases in the frequency of complex extreme weather events such as windstorms, floods, and droughts. The health and social consequences of these events are far reaching, ranging from reduced labour productivity and heat-related deaths through to direct physical injury during extreme weather events, the spread of infectious diseases, and mental health effects following widespread flooding or prolonged drought. Research has indicated that climate change will have the greatest impact on vulnerable groups of people, including the elderly population. However, there is a dearth of empirical evidence, a lack of focus on vulnerable segments of the population (especially elderly), limited understanding of how health status will change in the future, and lack of acknowledgement of how different regions in China vary in terms of the consequences of climate change. The main risk in East China that climate change may exacerbate is flooding (sea level rise, coastal and riverine, flood risk). However in some regions of East China such as in the provinces of Anhui, Jiangsu, Hebei, and Shandong the biggest climate change risk is considered to be drought. Main health risks linked to climate change are evident as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases (heat stroke, exhaustion, and asthma), often caused by interactions between heat wave episodes and concurrent poor air quality.

73.Beta Diversity Partitioning and Drivers of Variations in Fish Assemblages in a Headwater Stream: Lijiang River, China

Author:Huang, LL;Huang, J;Wu, ZQ;Mo, YM;Zou, Q;Jeppesen, E;Wu, NC


Abstract:Beta diversity partitioning has currently received much attention in research of fish assemblages. However, the main drivers, especially the contribution of spatial and hydrological variables for species composition and beta diversity of fish assemblages are less well studied. To link species composition to multiple abiotic variables (i.e., local environmental variables, hydrological variables, and spatial variables), the relative roles of abiotic variables in shaping fish species composition and beta diversity (i.e., overall turnover, replacement, and nestedness) were investigated in the upstream Lijiang River. Species composition showed significant correlations with environmental, hydrological, and spatial variables, and variation partitioning revealed that the local environmental and spatial variables outperformed hydrological variables, and especially abiotic variables explained a substantial part of the variation in the fish composition (43.2%%). The overall species turnover was driven mostly by replacement (87.9%% and 93.7%% for SOrensen and Jaccard indices, respectively) rather than nestedness. Mantel tests indicated that the overall species turnover (ss(SOR) and ss(JAC)) and replacement (ss(SIM) and ss(JTU)) were significantly related to hydrological, environmental, and spatial heterogeneity, whereas nestedness (ss(SNE) or ss(JNE)) was insignificantly correlated with abiotic variables (P > 0.05). Moreover, the pure effect of spatial variables on overall species turnover (ss(SOR) and ss(JAC)) and replacement (ss(SIM) and ss(JTU)), and the pure effect of hydrological variables on replacement (ss(SIM) and ss(JTU)), were not important (P > 0.05). Our findings demonstrated the relative importance of interactions among environmental, hydrological, and spatial variables in structuring fish assemblages in headwater streams; these fish assemblages tend to be compositionally distinct, rather than nested derivatives of one another. Our results, therefore, indicate that maintaining natural flow dynamics and habitat continuity are of vital importance for conservation of fish assemblages and diversity in headwater streams.

74.Spatio-temporal patterns and predictions of size-fractionated chlorophyll a in a large subtropical river, China

Author:Sun, JH;Li, WW;Wu, NH;Lai, ZN;Du, WL;Jia, HJ;Ge, DY;Wang, C


Abstract:Spatio-temporal patterns in chlorophyll a (Chl-a) from size-fractionated phytoplankton were examined in the Pearl River (PR), China, during 2015 and 2016. The concentration of total Chl-a was a good indicator of spatial patterns, since it increased along a nutrient gradient. A nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) model showed clearly a spatial pattern in the distribution of size-fractionated Chl-a, dividing the study area into three groups of sampling sites. The three groups represented sites at the West River (G1), the central Pearl River Delta (G2) and the Guangzhou City center (G3). Temporal changes in physicochemical factors among the three groups were not obvious. And the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model showed G1 and G2 were mostly explained by physical factors, G3 was closely associated with chemical factors. The potential of using size-fractionated Chl-a data as an indicator of water quality was compared using two other size-based methods; the morphological traits of the algae Aulacoseira granulata and using functional groups (FGs) combined with trait-based (algae volume) classifications of benthic diatoms. Our study indicated that size-based methods of phytoplankton research could make a useful contribution to determine spatio-temporal patterns in the studied area, providing greater insight into phytoplankton dynamics and enabling better managements of water quality.

75.Impacts of particulate matter (PM2.5) on the behavior of freshwater snail Parafossarulus striatulus

Author:Hartono, D;Lioe, B;Zhang, YX;Li, BL;Yu, JZ


Abstract:Fine particulate (PM2.5) is a severe problem of air pollution in the world. Although many studies were performed on examining effects of PM2.5 on human health, the understanding of PM2.5 influence on aquatic organisms is limited. Due to wet deposition, the pollutants in PM2.5 can enter aquatic ecosystems and affect aquatic organisms. This study tested the hypothesis that PM2.5 will negatively affect the behavior of freshwater snail Parafossarulus striatulus (Benson, 1842). Along with PM2.5, a number of components (Al, Pb, and Zn) that are commonly present in PM2.5 were also tested for their effects on the snail's behavior. The snail behavior was scored using the Behavioral State Score (BSS), ranging from 0 (no movement) to 5 (active locomotion and fully extended body). The result shows that high PM2.5 concentration dose (7.75 mg/L) induced a significant decrease in snails' movement behavior, and such reduced movement. The same behavior was also observed for treatments with chemical components related to PM2.5, including aluminum and acidity (pH 5.0). In contrast, a low concentration of PM2.5 (3.88 mg/L), lead, and zinc did not significantly affect snails' behavior. The results suggest that high PM2.5 deposition in water bodies, associated with acidification and some metals, can have an adverse effect on aquatic organisms.

76.A photovoltaic self-powered gas sensor based on a single-walled carbon nanotube/Si heterojunction

Author:Liu, L;Li, GH;Wang, Y;Wang, YY;Li, T;Zhang, T;Qin, SJ


Abstract:We present a novel photovoltaic self-powered gas sensor based on a p-type single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunction. The energy from visible light suffices to drive the device owing to a built-in electric field (BEF) induced by the differences between the Fermi levels of SWNTs and n-Si.


Author:Wang, WQ;Shi, X;Jiang, YF;Zhao, HR;Ong, J;Pan, S


78.Correlation of Fish Assemblages with Habitat and Environmental Variables in a Headwater Stream Section of Lijiang River, China

Author:Huang, J;Huang, LL;Wu, ZQ;Mo, YM;Zou, Q;Wu, NC;Chen, ZB


Abstract:In order to determine the relationship between stream habitat and fish assemblages, an investigation of fish assemblages and environmental variables in different habitat types was carried out in the headwater stream section of Lijiang River, China, from September to November 2016. In total, 2968 individuals belonging to 4 orders, 11 families, 26 genera and 37 species were collected. Cypriniformes emerged as the most species-rich order, accounting for 62.2%% of the total species. The dominant species were Pseudogastromyzon fangi, Zacco platypus, Acrossocheilus parallens and Erromyzon sinensis. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) revealed that fish assemblages were not affected by habitat type. However, one-way ANOVA results showed that species richness, fish abundance, fish density and Shannon index were significantly affected by habitat type. Redundancy analysis (RDA) further revealed that altitude, velocity, conductivity, turbidity, depth and wetted width had significant relationships within fish assemblages, whereas water temperature, dissolved oxygen and substrate size were less important in this study, and different fish species preferred different environmental variables potentially due to differences in species' ecological requirements. Although habitat type did not affect overall fish assemblages, habitat heterogeneity played an important role in fish diversity. Hence, maintaining diverse stream habitats or restoring them are of key importance for fish diversity conservation and sustainability management of rivers.

79.Regulating effect of agricultural landscape pattern on ecological pest control by natural enemies

Author:Jiang Ting;Fu Daomeng;Zhang Wanna;Zou Yi;Xiao Haijun

Source:Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology,2019,Vol.30

Abstract:It,s well known that regional agricultural landscape pattern can significantly regulate the relationship between plants,herbivorous insects and natural enemies. The improvement of the ecosystem services of regional agricultural landscape pattern has profound impacts on pest control, which has received much interests in current landscape ecology and pest control studies. This review systematically summarized the impacts of agricultural landscape pattern,as well as its succession on the diversity and ecological pests control of important natural enemies. From the perspective of different natural enemies,the impacts of agricultural landscape pattern on natural predators,parasitoids, beneficial microorganisms and its ecological pests control functions were all recapped. We outlined crop spatial distribution and vegetation habitat management strategies. This review could provide useful insights in improving the ecosystem services of natural enemies in agricultural landscape based on the vegetation habitat management, and offer theoretical support for regional ecological agriculture in response to the strategy of chemical pesticide reduction application'.

80.Assessment of self-medication practices with antibiotics among undergraduate university students in Rwanda

Author:Tuyishimire, J;Okoya, F;Adebayo, AY;Humura, F;Lucero-Prisno, DE


Abstract:Introduction: antimicrobial resistance (AR) is on a rise as one of the major global public health threats. It is therefore important to assess contributory factors to the rise in the cases of resistance reported. The main objective of this study was to assess the self-medication practices with antibiotics among the University of Rwanda students in Huye Campus. Methods: a sample of 570 students from all levels and colleges of the University of Rwanda in Huye Campus were selected using a simple random sampling to participate in this study. A questionnaire was administered to be answered individually by the consented respondents where the self-medication practices with antibiotics in the past 6 months were assessed. The results were statistically analyzed using SPSS v.16. Results: the study showed that 12.1%% (n=69) practiced self-medication with antibiotics. The major reason for self-medication with antibiotics was illness not serious to have a consultation (50.72%%). The main diseases being treated were common cold/fever/cough (47.83%%). The most used antibiotic for self-medication was Amoxicillin capsules (59.42%%), while the main source of antibiotics was the community pharmacy (72.42%%). Conclusion: self-medication with antibiotics is not uncommon among the university students. Regarding the main reasons of self-medication with antibiotics, diseases being treated, and the antibiotics used, it was found that all these may be related to the students' lack of knowledge about the need for rational use of antibiotics and a study was needed to confirm it.
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