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1.对学术不端,美国大学怎么管?

Author:吴波;

Source:China Scholars Abroad,2017,Vol.

Abstract:每个教授都有责任为寻求知识保持自己的学术诚信。不遵守学术诚信标准的教授,将受到惩罚或被开除。学术诚信被公认为科研与创造的基础,科学的本质是发现事实,科研的结果需要被重复验证。一项造假的研究,或一项抄袭他人观点的研究,将极大伤害到科学研究的可重复性、客观性及科研人员的研究热情。因此,学术诚信是科学研究发展的根基。在美国,科学研究带来的创新活力让其始终保持着全球竞争力,对于学术不端这一棘手问题,也有多家机构联合参与并作慎重处理。

2.稻田重金属污染土壤的微生物电化学修复方法

Author:陈正;Gustave Williams;

Source:中国土壤学会土壤环境专业委员会第二十次会议暨农田土壤污染与修复研讨会摘要集,2018,Vol.

Abstract:重金属是水稻土中常见的污染物。目前水稻田的修复以通过物理翻耕,化学修复剂使用,超富集植物修复和田间管理等方法为主。在前期研究基础上,我们提出了一种新型的基于微生物燃料电池技术的水稻田重金属修复方法。微生物燃料电池技术是一种环境友好地将环境中的有机物,通过附着在电极表面的产电微生物,将有机质中的化学能转变为电能的技术。对于镉等金属污染物,微生物燃料电池可作为电动修复的电源,将土壤中的镉、锌等阳离子驱动到阴极室,从而达到与土壤分离的目的。初步的实验表面,经过78天的运行,土壤中的一半左右的镉和锌转移到了阴极室。此外,我们还考察了土壤微生物燃料电池对土壤孔隙水中的砷的控制能力,结果表明土壤微生物燃料...

3.Progress of Research on Aeolian Sediment Transport Influenced by Tide

Author:He Yanyu;Liu Jianhui;Cai Feng;Li Bailiang;Wang Lihui;Ning Qingqian

Source:Journal of Desert Research,2018,Vol.38

Abstract:Alternate wetting and drying beachface induced by tide is one of the most important process influencing beach aeolian sediment transport.From the aspects of temporal and spatial variabilities of surface moisture content and cyclical variation of wind fetch length,as well as their own effect on beach aeolian sediment transport in the environment of alternate wetting and drying induced by tide,this paper summarizes the main progress and achievements of beach aeolian sediment transport influenced by tide.The main conclusions of this review are shown as:(1)The relationship between surface moisture variabilities and tidal oscillation is nonlinear,which is separated by a double hysteresis effect induced by watertable and capillary fringe;(2)A positive correlation between aeolian sediment transport threshold and surface moisture has been found in the case of surface moisture less than critical moisture threshold and the beach aeolian transport system will nearly shut down once surface moisture greater than critical moisture threshold;(3)The correlation between aeolian mass flux and fetch length can be divided into three stages according to the equilibrium state of sediment transport:positive before equilibrium state,negative after equilibrium state and irrelevant during equilibrium state.Finally,some necessary future research directions in China are put forward,according to the present research situation of beach aeolian sediment transport influenced by tide.

4.The embryonic toxicity evaluation of deoxynivalenol (DON) by murine embryonic stem cell test and human embryonic stem cell test models

Author:Fang, HQ;Zhi, Y;Yu, Z;Lynch, RA;Jia, XD

Source:FOOD CONTROL,2018,Vol.86

Abstract:Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a group B trichothecene and a common contaminant of food crops worldwide. DON is known to cause a spectrum of diseases in animals and humans such as vomiting and gastroenteritis and has been shown to cross the human placental barrier: therefore, dietary exposure during pregnancy could lead to exposure of the fetus. Since the mechanism of DON toxicity action has not been thoroughly elucidated, further evaluation of the underlying mechanisms of DON's embryotoxicity is needed. This is especially important for developing exposure guidance recommendations, especially those targeted towards pregnant women. In the present study, murine embryonic stem cell test (mEST) and human embryonic stem cell test (hEST) models were developed according to protocols of the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). Different concentrations of DON were administered to mouse embryonic stem cells D3 (mESC-D3), mouse Balbic-3T3 (3T3) embryo fibroblast cells, and human embryonic stem cells H9 (hESC-H9) for 10 days to detect the 50%% inhibitory proliferation concentration (1050) of mESC-D3 cells, 313 cells, and hESC-H9 cells with DON. Differentiation of ESCs was initiated by embryoid body (EBs) formation. EBs were exposed to different concentrations of DON for 10 days. The expression of cardiomyocyte differentiation gene alpha-myosin heavy chain (alpha-MHC) was detected by real-time PCR and the 50%% inhibition of cardiomyocyte differentiation (ID50) was determined. Based on the values of IC50 and ID50, functions I, II, and III were calculated by three linear discriminant functions in the EST model and the embryotoxicity of DON was described by comparing the three functions. Results of the three endpoints of DON in murine EST were 0.141 mu g/ml (IC50 3T3), 0.085 mu g/ml (IC50 D3), and 0.110 mu g/ml (ID50 D3). The function I (-34.43), function II (-18.62), and function III (1.98) were calculated for DON by them EST model. The three endpoints of DON in hEST were 0.13 mu g/ml (IC50 313), 0.11 mu g/ml (IC50 H9), and 0.078 mu g/ml (ID50). Function I (-25.97), function II (-13.18), and function III (-0.12) were calculated based on IC50 and ID50. Since function III > function II > function I, according to the EST criteria, DON was determined to have strong embryo toxicity both by mEST and hEST. Moreover, the hEST model, which excluded species differences, is suggested to be a more accurate and reliable method for the evaluation of chemical embryotoxicity. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

5.A new perspective on landscape impact in bee populations:Considering the bee gut microbiome

Author:Tang Min;Zou Yi;Su Qinzhi;Zhou Xin

Source:Biodiversity Science,2019,Vol.27

Abstract:Pollinator bees are providers of an important ecosystem service,and their survival relies completely on the landscape.Now with the landscape dominated by agriculture,bee diversity has been significantly reduced.Studies suggest that bee populations decline as agricultural land-use increases due to increased exposure to detrimental pesticides.Further,the protein content of pollen is highly important for the growth and development of a bee,and different landscapes provide distinct sources of nutrition.Although many studies have demonstrated the apparent impacts of landscape change on the population dynamics and individual survival of the bees,the underpinning mechanisms remain largely unknown.On the other hand,an increasing body of literature has shown that bee gut symbionts are of great importance to the health of the host bees in absorbing nutrients and resisting pathogens.When foraging,pollinator bees are exposed to particular microbes from pollen and nectar which have been suggested to be a source of some bee gut symbionts and could be either probiotics or pathogens.Together with landscape-related nutrition and pesticides,environmental microbes have been reported to affect bee microbiomes significantly.A number of pilot studies suggest that landscape change could affect bee microbiota,thereby influencing host health.An important linkage,however,is missing between environmental microbiota,especially those associated with the flowers,and that of the bee gut in a changing habitat.It is worth exploring how gut microbiomes respond to landscape changes.This will hopefully help us identify landscape types that are friendly to bees,so proper land-use can be implemented to protect the bees.

6.Regulating effect of agricultural landscape pattern on ecological pest control by natural enemies

Author:Jiang Ting;Fu Daomeng;Zhang Wanna;Zou Yi;Xiao Haijun

Source:Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology,2019,Vol.30

Abstract:It,s well known that regional agricultural landscape pattern can significantly regulate the relationship between plants,herbivorous insects and natural enemies. The improvement of the ecosystem services of regional agricultural landscape pattern has profound impacts on pest control, which has received much interests in current landscape ecology and pest control studies. This review systematically summarized the impacts of agricultural landscape pattern,as well as its succession on the diversity and ecological pests control of important natural enemies. From the perspective of different natural enemies,the impacts of agricultural landscape pattern on natural predators,parasitoids, beneficial microorganisms and its ecological pests control functions were all recapped. We outlined crop spatial distribution and vegetation habitat management strategies. This review could provide useful insights in improving the ecosystem services of natural enemies in agricultural landscape based on the vegetation habitat management, and offer theoretical support for regional ecological agriculture in response to the strategy of chemical pesticide reduction application'.

7.Several characteristics of beach aeolian sand transport influenced by tide: A case study in the Yuandangao Beach,Pingtan Island,Fujian Province

Author:He Yanyu;Liu Jianhui;Cai Feng;Li Bailiang;Wang Lihui;Zhou Changmao

Source:Acta Oceanologica Sinica,2018,Vol.40

Abstract:Coastal aeolian is a typical product of sea,land and air interaction. Based on a comprehensive observation of beach aeolian sand in the Yuandangao beach of Pingtan Island,Fujian Province,this paper aims to explore and summarize the vertical distribution,entrainment and transport characteristics of beach aeolian sand influenced by tide. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The vertical distribution of wind-sand flow in intertidal zone is almost entirely(98.9%%) in the range of 0 -30 cm,and the specific distribution function varies with different particle size; (2) The threshold velocity of beach aeolian sand is significantly higher than that of inland desert,and the changing process of it in the tidal circulation mainly reflects the interaction between average surface moisture and fetch length; (3) The wind-blown sand flux of intertidal zone involves the interaction of average surface moisture,fetch length and wind speed,and the dominant factors of its changing process vary in different stages of ebb and flow; (4) Entrainment of sand from a dry source and transport across a moist surface is one of the typical beach aeolian sand transport mode,with a short delivered distance at a time,and a highly relayed way of overall transport.

8.Sex education in American progressive era and its inspiration on current sex education of Chinese adolescents

Author:WU Bo

Source:Chinese Journal of Human Sexuality,2018,Vol.27

Abstract:本文简单回顾美国在从农业社会向工业社会转型的进步时代推动性教育的历史环境与各种社会力量,包括从以性道德观念在家庭内部作为性教育的主要内容和形式,到大众对生育态度的改变,对性功能态度的改变,以及由于道德衰落、嫖娼等在转型时代加剧,从而导致军队新兵性病猖獗,迫使美国政府介入并主导性病的治疗和预防。受当时进步主义思潮影响,美国政府在社会变革中扮演了执行角色。因此,笔者认为,世界卫生组织1975年发布的性健康定义适用于今天中国青少年对性教育的需求。通过对美国转型期推动性教育各种因素的历史回顾,笔者建议,对性问题、性教育问题展开质性研究,推动专业人士的交流,专业人士积极与媒体沟通,有效向大众传递性教育的...

9.Effect of Beach Nourishment on the Coastal Aeolian Sand Accumulation: a case study in Pingtan,Fujian,China

Author:Liu Jianhui;Cai Feng;Li Bailiang;Lei Gang;Qi Hongshuai;Zhang Zhenwei;Li Bing

Source:Journal of Desert Research,2016,Vol.36

Abstract:After the implementation of the beach nourishment project,some environmental issues come up accompanying with the function of mitigating beach erosion and protecting the coast.Especially in the coast with strong wind,nourishment alters the environmental factors of beachface,which significantly impact the characteristics of aeolian sand transport and wind-blown sand flux.To study the aeolian sand transport and sediment accumulation after beach nourishment,Longfengtou beach in Pingtan Island,Fujian province,has beach taken as a typical study area.It is indicated that the beach characters such as dry beach width,surface sediment grain size,surface moisture and beach elevation,have significant impacts on beach aeolian sand transport and deposition process.The main conclusions of this study are showed as:(1)the increase of dry beach elevation enhance the wind speed of beach surface,which improves beach surface aeolian sand transport rate and wind-blown sand flux;(2)the elongation of dry beach width of nourished beach increases the fetch and provides sufficient sediment resource for aeolian sediment transport,and also elongates the duration of sediment transport;(3)after nourishment,the lower sediment moisture of beach surface decreases beach sediment transport threshold velocity and reinforces beach surface aeolian transport.

10.Effects of Boron Treatment on Arsenic Uptake and Efflux in Rice Seedlings

Author:Zhu Yi;Sun Guoxin;Chen Zheng;Hu Ying;Zheng Ruilun

Source:Environmental Science,2018,Vol.39

Abstract:The impacts of boron ( B) root application and foliar spray on arsenic ( As) uptake,translocation,and efflux by /in rice seedlings ( Oryza sativa L. ) were investigated in three hydroponic experiments. The addition of B to culture medium did not alter concentrations of arsenite ( As[Ⅲ]) ,arsenate ( As[Ⅴ]) ,and total As,nor did it alter transfer coefficients or uptake efficiency of As in rice seedlings under either As( Ⅲ) or As( Ⅴ) exposure. Foliar B supply increased shoot B concentrations 15. 8-fold,and decreased root As concentrations and As uptake efficiency by 20. 9%% and 18. 0%% under As( Ⅴ) treatment,and by 12. 6%% and 13. 8%% under As( Ⅲ) treatment,respectively,yet did not significantly decrease shoot As concentrations ( P > 0. 05) . Interestingly,foliar B supply reduced root B concentrations by up to 47. 1%% under exposure to As( Ⅴ) but not As( Ⅲ) ,and corresponding root B concentrations were 85. 3%% higher in As( Ⅴ) treatment than in As( Ⅲ) treatment on average ( P < 0. 05) . Both total As and As( Ⅴ) concentrations were positively related to B concentration in rice roots under As( Ⅴ) treatment following foliar B supply ( P < 0. 05) . Rice seedlings extruded 105. 2%% more As after As( Ⅲ) -pretreatment than after As( Ⅴ) -pretreatment. Foliar B supply increased the amount of As excreted by As( Ⅲ) -pretreated rice root by 14. 0%%-16. 9%% ( P > 0. 05) ,and had no effect on the As efflux of As( Ⅴ) -pretreatment seedlings. A range of 45. 9%%-70. 7%% of root As was excreted to solution during one week. These results indicate that the root application of B at four times the concentration of As can slightly decrease As accumulation by rice,whereas foliar B supply is conducive to a decline in As acquisition by rice roots. It is likely that the B channel is at least not the main pathway for As( Ⅲ) entering into rice roots,and the As( Ⅴ) distribution mechanism in rice plants may be shared with that of B.

11.秸秆还田培肥土壤的效应及机制研究进展

Author:张婷;张一新;向洪勇;

Source:Jiangsu Agricultural Sciences,2018,Vol.46

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12.Graphene Based Electrochemical Sensor for the Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds

Author:Yixin Zhang;Kim KT Lau;

Source:Learning Weekly,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Many household consumables contain volatile organic compounds(VOCs)as the active ingredient.Long term exposure to VOCs could cause various health problems,especially to the respiratory system.Graphene has attracted a lot of attention recently for its potential to be used as sensing material for VOCs...

13.Climatic Causes of the Selenium-deficient Soil Belt in China

Author:SUN Guoxin;LI Yuan;LI Gang;CHEN Zheng;ZHU Yongguan

Source:CURRENT BIOTECHNOLOGY,2017,Vol.7

Abstract:我国土壤硒含量分布严重不均,从东北到西南地区存在一条典型的土壤低硒带,然而该低硒带的成因至今仍不明确。基于硒干湿沉降和挥发的机理,亚洲季风造成的硒沉降和微生物驱动的硒挥发被认为是形成我国低硒带的主要驱动力。其中,夏季季风引起的湿沉降是东南地区富硒的主要原因,而冬季季风引起的干沉降是西北地区富硒的主要原因。中部地区因为硒挥发与沉降量相当,土壤中硒净积累很少,形成了低硒带。而且在全球气候变化的影响下,我国土壤中的硒含量将会呈现下降的趋势。

14.Bioaccumulation of rare earth elements in paddy soils in and surrounding the REEs Mine

Author:LIU Panpan;CHEN Zheng;SUN Guoxin;LI Hong

Source:Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae,2016,Vol.36

Abstract:© 2016, Science Press. All right reserved. The increasing production of rare earth elements (REEs) in southern China may greatly impact the local ecosystem and agriculture. Therefore, the movement of rare earth elements (REEs) from paddy soils in the REEs mines and surrounding areas to different rice tissues were studied. Results showed that REEs concentrations in mining paddy soils was in a range between 193.82 mg·kg-1 and 965.28 mg·kg-1, with a mean value of 332.55 mg·kg-1. It was about 3 times higher than the background REEs in China. REEs have similar physicochemical properties during their migration and accumulation process in the soil-rice system. The REEs levels in different rice tissues were in the order of root > leaf > grain. The iron plaque on the rice roots surface does not show significant barrier effects on the accumulation of REEs. The mobility and bioavailability characteristics of REEs in rice-soil system are closely related to the genotypes of rice and physicochemical properties of soil.

15.Inspiration from the design and implementation of sex education at Welsh primary schools

Author:WU Bo

Source:Chinese Journal of Human Sexuality,2018,Vol.27

Abstract:中国开展小学性教育的主要问题是缺乏教材、师资,以及学生家长的疑虑。对此本文介绍了2012年英国威尔士小学性教育的课程建设过程中,将小学生本人和家长们作为利益相关者,共同参与课程的设计。于是,这项教学资源不仅是由当地公共卫生部门经验丰富的教师设计的,而且还涉及到家长和学生的参与。并且这项教学资源在实施后还得到了来自教师和学生评估。笔者认为这项研究对在特定文化背景下为小学设计和实施特定的性教育项目很有帮助。

16.Ultrathin free-standing graphene oxide film based flexible touchless sensor

Author:Liu Lin;Wang Yingyi;Li Guanghui;Qin Sujie;Zhang Ting

Source:Journal of Semiconductors,2018,Vol.39

Abstract:Ultrathin free-standing graphene oxide (GO) films were fabricated by vacuum filtration method assisted with Ni(OH)2 nanosheets as the sacrifice layer. The surface of the obtained GO film is very clean as the Ni(OH)2 nanosheets can be thoroughly etched by HCl. The thickness of the GO films can be well-controlled by changing the volume of GO dispersion, and the thinnest GO film reached ~12 nm. As a novel and transparent dielectric material, the GO film has been applied as the dielectric layer for the flexible touchless capacitive sensor which can effectively distinguish the approaching of an insulator or a conductor.

17.Assessment of Iodine Status among Pregnant Women and Neonates Using Neonatal Thyrotropin (TSH) in Mainland China after the Introduction of New Revised Universal Salt Iodisation (USI) in 2012: A Re-Emergence of Iodine Deficiency?

Author:Zhou, H;Ma, ZF;Lu, YM;Pan, BY;Shao, J;Wang, LY;Du, YY;Zhao, QH

Source:INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY,2019,Vol.2019

Abstract:Iodine deficiency during pregnancy can cause iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). However, it is unclear about iodine and thyroid status of Chinese pregnant women and neonates after the implementation of the revised universal salt iodisation (USI) level in 2012. Therefore, the aim of the cross-sectional study was to determine iodine nutrition and thyroid status among pregnant women and their neonates in China after the implementation of USI. Medical records of pregnant women and neonates in Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital between January 2016 and December 2017 were reviewed and included. We included 3060 mother-and-newborn pairs in the study. Mean age of participants was 28.2 +/- 4.1 years. TSH, FT3, and FT4 of participants were within normal reference range. The overall mean neonatal TSH, birth weight, and prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) were 4.86 +/- 2.06 mIU/L, 3358 +/- 455 g, and 3.2%%, respectively. The prevalence of neonatal TSH values >5 mIU/L was 29.3%%, suggesting iodine deficiency in the region. In conclusion, our results indicated iodine deficiency in the region, according to the neonatal TSH cutoff recommended by WHO/UNICEF/IGD. More efforts are urgently required to improve iodine status of pregnant women in the region in order to prevent a re-emergence of iodine deficiency.

18.美国研究型大学图书馆的职能与管理——访威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校健康科学图书馆馆长朱丽·施奈德

Author:吴波;

Source:World Education Information,2017,Vol.30

Abstract:美国威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校是一所美国顶尖的研究型大学。全校4万名学生中近1万名是研究生,全校共有159个硕士点,110个博士点,每年毕业的硕士生300余名,博士生200余名。作为顶尖研究型大学,丰富的图书馆资源是必不可少的。威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校一共有40多个专业图书馆,馆藏700万册图书、5万多份期刊杂志、600多万份微缩胶,是全美大学中的第11大图书馆。文章系笔者在健康科学图书馆工作期间对该馆馆长朱丽·施奈德(Julie Schneider)女士采访整理而成。
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