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Source:China Scholars Abroad,2017,Vol.



Author:陈正;Gustave Williams;



3.Progress of Research on Aeolian Sediment Transport Influenced by Tide

Author:He Yanyu;Liu Jianhui;Cai Feng;Li Bailiang;Wang Lihui;Ning Qingqian

Source:Journal of Desert Research,2018,Vol.38

Abstract:Alternate wetting and drying beachface induced by tide is one of the most important process influencing beach aeolian sediment transport.From the aspects of temporal and spatial variabilities of surface moisture content and cyclical variation of wind fetch length,as well as their own effect on beach aeolian sediment transport in the environment of alternate wetting and drying induced by tide,this paper summarizes the main progress and achievements of beach aeolian sediment transport influenced by tide.The main conclusions of this review are shown as:(1)The relationship between surface moisture variabilities and tidal oscillation is nonlinear,which is separated by a double hysteresis effect induced by watertable and capillary fringe;(2)A positive correlation between aeolian sediment transport threshold and surface moisture has been found in the case of surface moisture less than critical moisture threshold and the beach aeolian transport system will nearly shut down once surface moisture greater than critical moisture threshold;(3)The correlation between aeolian mass flux and fetch length can be divided into three stages according to the equilibrium state of sediment transport:positive before equilibrium state,negative after equilibrium state and irrelevant during equilibrium state.Finally,some necessary future research directions in China are put forward,according to the present research situation of beach aeolian sediment transport influenced by tide.

4.The embryonic toxicity evaluation of deoxynivalenol (DON) by murine embryonic stem cell test and human embryonic stem cell test models

Author:Fang, HQ;Zhi, Y;Yu, Z;Lynch, RA;Jia, XD

Source:FOOD CONTROL,2018,Vol.86

Abstract:Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a group B trichothecene and a common contaminant of food crops worldwide. DON is known to cause a spectrum of diseases in animals and humans such as vomiting and gastroenteritis and has been shown to cross the human placental barrier: therefore, dietary exposure during pregnancy could lead to exposure of the fetus. Since the mechanism of DON toxicity action has not been thoroughly elucidated, further evaluation of the underlying mechanisms of DON's embryotoxicity is needed. This is especially important for developing exposure guidance recommendations, especially those targeted towards pregnant women. In the present study, murine embryonic stem cell test (mEST) and human embryonic stem cell test (hEST) models were developed according to protocols of the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). Different concentrations of DON were administered to mouse embryonic stem cells D3 (mESC-D3), mouse Balbic-3T3 (3T3) embryo fibroblast cells, and human embryonic stem cells H9 (hESC-H9) for 10 days to detect the 50%% inhibitory proliferation concentration (1050) of mESC-D3 cells, 313 cells, and hESC-H9 cells with DON. Differentiation of ESCs was initiated by embryoid body (EBs) formation. EBs were exposed to different concentrations of DON for 10 days. The expression of cardiomyocyte differentiation gene alpha-myosin heavy chain (alpha-MHC) was detected by real-time PCR and the 50%% inhibition of cardiomyocyte differentiation (ID50) was determined. Based on the values of IC50 and ID50, functions I, II, and III were calculated by three linear discriminant functions in the EST model and the embryotoxicity of DON was described by comparing the three functions. Results of the three endpoints of DON in murine EST were 0.141 mu g/ml (IC50 3T3), 0.085 mu g/ml (IC50 D3), and 0.110 mu g/ml (ID50 D3). The function I (-34.43), function II (-18.62), and function III (1.98) were calculated for DON by them EST model. The three endpoints of DON in hEST were 0.13 mu g/ml (IC50 313), 0.11 mu g/ml (IC50 H9), and 0.078 mu g/ml (ID50). Function I (-25.97), function II (-13.18), and function III (-0.12) were calculated based on IC50 and ID50. Since function III > function II > function I, according to the EST criteria, DON was determined to have strong embryo toxicity both by mEST and hEST. Moreover, the hEST model, which excluded species differences, is suggested to be a more accurate and reliable method for the evaluation of chemical embryotoxicity. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

5.A new perspective on landscape impact in bee populations:Considering the bee gut microbiome

Author:Tang Min;Zou Yi;Su Qinzhi;Zhou Xin

Source:Biodiversity Science,2019,Vol.27

Abstract:Pollinator bees are providers of an important ecosystem service,and their survival relies completely on the landscape.Now with the landscape dominated by agriculture,bee diversity has been significantly reduced.Studies suggest that bee populations decline as agricultural land-use increases due to increased exposure to detrimental pesticides.Further,the protein content of pollen is highly important for the growth and development of a bee,and different landscapes provide distinct sources of nutrition.Although many studies have demonstrated the apparent impacts of landscape change on the population dynamics and individual survival of the bees,the underpinning mechanisms remain largely unknown.On the other hand,an increasing body of literature has shown that bee gut symbionts are of great importance to the health of the host bees in absorbing nutrients and resisting pathogens.When foraging,pollinator bees are exposed to particular microbes from pollen and nectar which have been suggested to be a source of some bee gut symbionts and could be either probiotics or pathogens.Together with landscape-related nutrition and pesticides,environmental microbes have been reported to affect bee microbiomes significantly.A number of pilot studies suggest that landscape change could affect bee microbiota,thereby influencing host health.An important linkage,however,is missing between environmental microbiota,especially those associated with the flowers,and that of the bee gut in a changing habitat.It is worth exploring how gut microbiomes respond to landscape changes.This will hopefully help us identify landscape types that are friendly to bees,so proper land-use can be implemented to protect the bees.

6.Regulating effect of agricultural landscape pattern on ecological pest control by natural enemies

Author:Jiang Ting;Fu Daomeng;Zhang Wanna;Zou Yi;Xiao Haijun

Source:Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology,2019,Vol.30

Abstract:It,s well known that regional agricultural landscape pattern can significantly regulate the relationship between plants,herbivorous insects and natural enemies. The improvement of the ecosystem services of regional agricultural landscape pattern has profound impacts on pest control, which has received much interests in current landscape ecology and pest control studies. This review systematically summarized the impacts of agricultural landscape pattern,as well as its succession on the diversity and ecological pests control of important natural enemies. From the perspective of different natural enemies,the impacts of agricultural landscape pattern on natural predators,parasitoids, beneficial microorganisms and its ecological pests control functions were all recapped. We outlined crop spatial distribution and vegetation habitat management strategies. This review could provide useful insights in improving the ecosystem services of natural enemies in agricultural landscape based on the vegetation habitat management, and offer theoretical support for regional ecological agriculture in response to the strategy of chemical pesticide reduction application'.

7.Several characteristics of beach aeolian sand transport influenced by tide: A case study in the Yuandangao Beach,Pingtan Island,Fujian Province

Author:He Yanyu;Liu Jianhui;Cai Feng;Li Bailiang;Wang Lihui;Zhou Changmao

Source:Acta Oceanologica Sinica,2018,Vol.40

Abstract:Coastal aeolian is a typical product of sea,land and air interaction. Based on a comprehensive observation of beach aeolian sand in the Yuandangao beach of Pingtan Island,Fujian Province,this paper aims to explore and summarize the vertical distribution,entrainment and transport characteristics of beach aeolian sand influenced by tide. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The vertical distribution of wind-sand flow in intertidal zone is almost entirely(98.9%%) in the range of 0 -30 cm,and the specific distribution function varies with different particle size; (2) The threshold velocity of beach aeolian sand is significantly higher than that of inland desert,and the changing process of it in the tidal circulation mainly reflects the interaction between average surface moisture and fetch length; (3) The wind-blown sand flux of intertidal zone involves the interaction of average surface moisture,fetch length and wind speed,and the dominant factors of its changing process vary in different stages of ebb and flow; (4) Entrainment of sand from a dry source and transport across a moist surface is one of the typical beach aeolian sand transport mode,with a short delivered distance at a time,and a highly relayed way of overall transport.

8.Sex education in American progressive era and its inspiration on current sex education of Chinese adolescents

Author:WU Bo

Source:Chinese Journal of Human Sexuality,2018,Vol.27


9.Effect of Beach Nourishment on the Coastal Aeolian Sand Accumulation: a case study in Pingtan,Fujian,China

Author:Liu Jianhui;Cai Feng;Li Bailiang;Lei Gang;Qi Hongshuai;Zhang Zhenwei;Li Bing

Source:Journal of Desert Research,2016,Vol.36

Abstract:After the implementation of the beach nourishment project,some environmental issues come up accompanying with the function of mitigating beach erosion and protecting the coast.Especially in the coast with strong wind,nourishment alters the environmental factors of beachface,which significantly impact the characteristics of aeolian sand transport and wind-blown sand flux.To study the aeolian sand transport and sediment accumulation after beach nourishment,Longfengtou beach in Pingtan Island,Fujian province,has beach taken as a typical study area.It is indicated that the beach characters such as dry beach width,surface sediment grain size,surface moisture and beach elevation,have significant impacts on beach aeolian sand transport and deposition process.The main conclusions of this study are showed as:(1)the increase of dry beach elevation enhance the wind speed of beach surface,which improves beach surface aeolian sand transport rate and wind-blown sand flux;(2)the elongation of dry beach width of nourished beach increases the fetch and provides sufficient sediment resource for aeolian sediment transport,and also elongates the duration of sediment transport;(3)after nourishment,the lower sediment moisture of beach surface decreases beach sediment transport threshold velocity and reinforces beach surface aeolian transport.

10.Effects of Boron Treatment on Arsenic Uptake and Efflux in Rice Seedlings

Author:Zhu Yi;Sun Guoxin;Chen Zheng;Hu Ying;Zheng Ruilun

Source:Environmental Science,2018,Vol.39

Abstract:The impacts of boron ( B) root application and foliar spray on arsenic ( As) uptake,translocation,and efflux by /in rice seedlings ( Oryza sativa L. ) were investigated in three hydroponic experiments. The addition of B to culture medium did not alter concentrations of arsenite ( As[Ⅲ]) ,arsenate ( As[Ⅴ]) ,and total As,nor did it alter transfer coefficients or uptake efficiency of As in rice seedlings under either As( Ⅲ) or As( Ⅴ) exposure. Foliar B supply increased shoot B concentrations 15. 8-fold,and decreased root As concentrations and As uptake efficiency by 20. 9%% and 18. 0%% under As( Ⅴ) treatment,and by 12. 6%% and 13. 8%% under As( Ⅲ) treatment,respectively,yet did not significantly decrease shoot As concentrations ( P > 0. 05) . Interestingly,foliar B supply reduced root B concentrations by up to 47. 1%% under exposure to As( Ⅴ) but not As( Ⅲ) ,and corresponding root B concentrations were 85. 3%% higher in As( Ⅴ) treatment than in As( Ⅲ) treatment on average ( P < 0. 05) . Both total As and As( Ⅴ) concentrations were positively related to B concentration in rice roots under As( Ⅴ) treatment following foliar B supply ( P < 0. 05) . Rice seedlings extruded 105. 2%% more As after As( Ⅲ) -pretreatment than after As( Ⅴ) -pretreatment. Foliar B supply increased the amount of As excreted by As( Ⅲ) -pretreated rice root by 14. 0%%-16. 9%% ( P > 0. 05) ,and had no effect on the As efflux of As( Ⅴ) -pretreatment seedlings. A range of 45. 9%%-70. 7%% of root As was excreted to solution during one week. These results indicate that the root application of B at four times the concentration of As can slightly decrease As accumulation by rice,whereas foliar B supply is conducive to a decline in As acquisition by rice roots. It is likely that the B channel is at least not the main pathway for As( Ⅲ) entering into rice roots,and the As( Ⅴ) distribution mechanism in rice plants may be shared with that of B.



Source:Jiangsu Agricultural Sciences,2018,Vol.46


12.Graphene Based Electrochemical Sensor for the Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds

Author:Yixin Zhang;Kim KT Lau;

Source:Learning Weekly,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Many household consumables contain volatile organic compounds(VOCs)as the active ingredient.Long term exposure to VOCs could cause various health problems,especially to the respiratory system.Graphene has attracted a lot of attention recently for its potential to be used as sensing material for VOCs...

13.Climatic Causes of the Selenium-deficient Soil Belt in China

Author:SUN Guoxin;LI Yuan;LI Gang;CHEN Zheng;ZHU Yongguan



14.Bioaccumulation of rare earth elements in paddy soils in and surrounding the REEs Mine

Author:LIU Panpan;CHEN Zheng;SUN Guoxin;LI Hong

Source:Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae,2016,Vol.36

Abstract:© 2016, Science Press. All right reserved. The increasing production of rare earth elements (REEs) in southern China may greatly impact the local ecosystem and agriculture. Therefore, the movement of rare earth elements (REEs) from paddy soils in the REEs mines and surrounding areas to different rice tissues were studied. Results showed that REEs concentrations in mining paddy soils was in a range between 193.82 mg·kg-1 and 965.28 mg·kg-1, with a mean value of 332.55 mg·kg-1. It was about 3 times higher than the background REEs in China. REEs have similar physicochemical properties during their migration and accumulation process in the soil-rice system. The REEs levels in different rice tissues were in the order of root > leaf > grain. The iron plaque on the rice roots surface does not show significant barrier effects on the accumulation of REEs. The mobility and bioavailability characteristics of REEs in rice-soil system are closely related to the genotypes of rice and physicochemical properties of soil.

15.Inspiration from the design and implementation of sex education at Welsh primary schools

Author:WU Bo

Source:Chinese Journal of Human Sexuality,2018,Vol.27


16.Ultrathin free-standing graphene oxide film based flexible touchless sensor

Author:Liu Lin;Wang Yingyi;Li Guanghui;Qin Sujie;Zhang Ting

Source:Journal of Semiconductors,2018,Vol.39

Abstract:Ultrathin free-standing graphene oxide (GO) films were fabricated by vacuum filtration method assisted with Ni(OH)2 nanosheets as the sacrifice layer. The surface of the obtained GO film is very clean as the Ni(OH)2 nanosheets can be thoroughly etched by HCl. The thickness of the GO films can be well-controlled by changing the volume of GO dispersion, and the thinnest GO film reached ~12 nm. As a novel and transparent dielectric material, the GO film has been applied as the dielectric layer for the flexible touchless capacitive sensor which can effectively distinguish the approaching of an insulator or a conductor.

17.Assessment of Iodine Status among Pregnant Women and Neonates Using Neonatal Thyrotropin (TSH) in Mainland China after the Introduction of New Revised Universal Salt Iodisation (USI) in 2012: A Re-Emergence of Iodine Deficiency?

Author:Zhou, H;Ma, ZF;Lu, YM;Pan, BY;Shao, J;Wang, LY;Du, YY;Zhao, QH


Abstract:Iodine deficiency during pregnancy can cause iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). However, it is unclear about iodine and thyroid status of Chinese pregnant women and neonates after the implementation of the revised universal salt iodisation (USI) level in 2012. Therefore, the aim of the cross-sectional study was to determine iodine nutrition and thyroid status among pregnant women and their neonates in China after the implementation of USI. Medical records of pregnant women and neonates in Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital between January 2016 and December 2017 were reviewed and included. We included 3060 mother-and-newborn pairs in the study. Mean age of participants was 28.2 +/- 4.1 years. TSH, FT3, and FT4 of participants were within normal reference range. The overall mean neonatal TSH, birth weight, and prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) were 4.86 +/- 2.06 mIU/L, 3358 +/- 455 g, and 3.2%%, respectively. The prevalence of neonatal TSH values >5 mIU/L was 29.3%%, suggesting iodine deficiency in the region. In conclusion, our results indicated iodine deficiency in the region, according to the neonatal TSH cutoff recommended by WHO/UNICEF/IGD. More efforts are urgently required to improve iodine status of pregnant women in the region in order to prevent a re-emergence of iodine deficiency.



Source:World Education Information,2017,Vol.30

Abstract:美国威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校是一所美国顶尖的研究型大学。全校4万名学生中近1万名是研究生,全校共有159个硕士点,110个博士点,每年毕业的硕士生300余名,博士生200余名。作为顶尖研究型大学,丰富的图书馆资源是必不可少的。威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校一共有40多个专业图书馆,馆藏700万册图书、5万多份期刊杂志、600多万份微缩胶,是全美大学中的第11大图书馆。文章系笔者在健康科学图书馆工作期间对该馆馆长朱丽·施奈德(Julie Schneider)女士采访整理而成。
Total 18 results found
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