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1.The effects of the bioanode on the microbial community and element profile in paddy soil

Author:Williamson, G;Chen, Z


Abstract:In paddy soil the reductive dissolution of iron oxide and the availability of organic matter plays an important role in arsenic release under anaerobic conditions. Microbial fuel cells have been shown to reduce organic matter (OM) content and the rate in which this occurs strongly relate to the external resistance applied. In this study we investigated the effects of bioanode operating at different external resistance on the paddy soil microbial community and iron and arsenic concentration. The results show that MFC can be used to reduce soil pore water iron and arsenic concentration and the extent in which this occurs depend on the external resistance applied. The MFC is able to mitigate arsenic release by decreasing organic matter availability. Furthermore, our finding shows that external resistance had a significant influence on the bacterial community composition that develop on the bioanode however only had minimal effect on the community of the bulk soil. These findings suggest that the sMFC can influence the iron and arsenic concentration by reducing OM content and the microbial community that develop in the bioanode vicinity.

2.High Baseline CD4 Counts and Antiretroviral Therapy Cessation

Author:Pan, SW;Shen, ZY;Xing, H;Ruan, YH;Shao, YM


3.Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Author:Karp, DS;Chaplin-Kramer, R;Meehan, TD;Martin, EA;DeClerck, F;Grab, H;Gratton, C;Hunt, L;Larsen, AE;Martinez-Salinas, A;O'Rourke, ME;Rusch, A;Poveda, K;Jonsson, M;Rosenheim, JA;Schellhorn, NA;Tscharntke, T;Wratten, SD;Zhang, W;Iverson, AL;Adler, LS;Albrecht, M;Alignier, A;Angelella, GM;Anjum, MZ;Avelino, J;Batary, P;Baveco, JM;Bianchi, FJJA;Birkhofer, K;Bohnenblust, EW;Bommarco, R;Brewer, MJ;Caballero-Lopez, B;Carriere, Y;Carvalheiro, LG;Cayuela, L;Centrella, M;Cetkovic, A;Henri, DC;Chabert, A;Costamagna, AC;De la Mora, A;de Kraker, J;Desneux, N;Diehl, E;Diekotter, T;Dormann, CF;Eckberg, JO;Entling, MH;Fiedler, D;Franck, P;van Veen, FJF;Frank, T;Gagic, V;Garratt, MPD;Getachew, A;Gonthier, DJ;Goodell, PB;Graziosi, I;Groves, RL;Gurr, GM;Hajian-Forooshani, Z;Heimpel, GE;Herrmann, JD;Huseth, AS;Inclan, DJ;Ingrao, AJ;Iv, P;Jacot, K;Johnson, GA;Jones, L;Kaiser, M;Kaser, JM;Keasar, T;Kim, TN;Kishinevsky, M;Landis, DA;Lavandero, B;Lavigne, C;Le Ralec, A;Lemessa, D;Letourneau, DK;Liere, H;Lu, YH;Lubin, Y;Luttermoser, T;Maas, B;Mace, K;Madeira, F;Mader, V;Cortesero, AM;Marini, L;Martinez, E;Martinson, HM;Menozzi, P;Mitchell, MGE;Miyashita, T;Molina, GAR;Molina-Montenegro, MA;O'Neal, ME;Opatovsky, I;Ortiz-Martinez, S;Nash, M;Ostman, O;Ouin, A;Pak, D;Paredes, D;Parsa, S;Parry, H;Perez-Alvarez, R;Perovic, DJ;Peterson, JA;Petit, S;Philpott, SM;Plantegenest, M;Plecas, M;Pluess, T;Pons, X;Potts, SG;Pywell, RF;Ragsdale, DW;Rand, TA;Raymond, L;Ricci, B;Sargent, C;Sarthou, JP;Saulais, J;Schackermann, J;Schmidt, NP;Schneider, G;Schuepp, C;Sivakoff, FS;Smith, HG;Whitney, KS;Stutz, S;Szendrei, Z;Takada, MB;Taki, H;Tamburini, G;Thomson, LJ;Tricault, Y;Tsafack, N;Tschumi, M;Valantin-Morison, M;Trinh, MV;van der Werf, W;Vierling, KT;Werling, BP;Wickens, JB;Wickens, VJ;Woodcock, BA;Wyckhuys, K;Xiao, HJ;Yasuda, M;Yoshioka, A;Zou, Y


Abstract:The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win-win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are measured. Here, we use a pest-control database encompassing 132 studies and 6,759 sites worldwide to model natural enemy and pest abundances, predation rates, and crop damage as a function of landscape composition. Our results showed that although landscape composition explained significant variation within studies, pest and enemy abundances, predation rates, crop damage, and yields each exhibited different responses across studies, sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing in landscapes with more noncrop habitat but overall showing no consistent trend. Thus, models that used landscape-composition variables to predict pest-control dynamics demonstrated little potential to explain variation across studies, though prediction did improve when comparing studies with similar crop and landscape features. Overall, our work shows that surrounding noncrop habitat does not consistently improve pest management, meaning habitat conservation may bolster production in some systems and depress yields in others. Future efforts to develop tools that inform farmers when habitat conservation truly represents a win-win would benefit from increased understanding of how landscape effects are modulated by local farm management and the biology of pests and their enemies.

4.Effects of particulate matter (PM2.5) and associated acidity on ecosystem functioning: response of leaf litter breakdown

Author:Wu, WT;Zhang, YX


Abstract:Particulate matter (PM2.5 with the diameter2.5m) as one of the most harmful and complex pollutants can reduce environment quality and affect human health. Through acidification by wet deposition, PM2.5 can cause acid rain to impact aquatic ecosystems. However, our understanding of PM2.5 effect on ecosystem functioning is highly limited. This study investigated the relationship between PM2.5 concentration, associated acidity, and leaf litter breakdown of three tree species in laboratory experimental mesocosms, which are weeping willow (Salix babylonica), camphor tree(Cinnamomum camphora), and the south magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora). We found that leaf litter breakdown was significant affected by PM2.5 and associated acidity. With the increase of acidity, the leaf breakdown rate of all three tree species decreased. With the increase of PM2.5 concentration, the leaf breakdown rates of those leaves slowed down. When considering the influence of leaf toughness, willow leaves with lower toughness had a higher breakdown rate than that of camphor tree and the south magnolia. Our study suggests that PM2.5 has significant impact on the aquatic ecosystem functioning through increasing acidification in aquatic environment. Hence, along with ecological restoration of local aquatic habitats, further freshwater ecosystem management should include reducing air pollution through regional efforts of best ecosystem management.

5.Out of the Closet, Into the Clinic: Opportunities for Expanding Men Who Have Sex With Men-Competent Services in China

Author:Watson, J;Tang, WM;Pan, S;Wu, D;Zhao, PP;Cao, BL;Liu, CC;Bien, C;Huang, WT;Luo, ZZ;Tucker, JD


Abstract:Background Despite the high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden among men who have sex with men (MSM), there is little research on health services provided to MSM in China and other low- and middle-income countries. Discrimination and inadequate services may discourage MSM from seeking health care services. This study examined essential services provided to MSM and health care discrimination among MSM in China. Methods A nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted among MSM who saw a physician in the last 24 months in China. The survey included items on sociodemographic information, HIV testing, experiences from the last physician encounter, and history of perceived health care discrimination. We defined MSM-competent physicians as physicians who asked their patient about having sex with other men, asked about anal sex, and either asked about or recommended HIV testing at the most recent visit. Results Among the 503 participants, 35.0%% (176/503) saw an MSM-competent physician. In multivariate analyses, respondents who saw an MSM-competent physician were more likely to be younger (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.87; 95%% confidence interval [CI], 0.81-0.94), have a primary care physician (AOR, 3.24; 95%% CI, 1.85-5.67), and be living with HIV (AOR, 2.01; 95%% CI, 1.13-3.56). 61.2%% (308/503) of MSM had ever experienced health care discrimination. Conclusions Our data suggest that there is variability in the extent to which physicians are meeting the needs of MSM in China. There is an urgent need to evaluate and expand MSM-competent services in China.

6.Spatial Variation of Urban Thermal Environment and Its Relation to Green Space Patterns: Implication to Sustainable Landscape Planning

Author:Wu, ZJ;Zhang, YX


Abstract:The rapid changes of land covers in urban areas are one of major environmental concerns because of their environmental impacts. Such land cover changes include the transformation of green space to impervious surface, and the increase of land surface temperature (LST). The objective of this study was to examine the spatial variation of urban landscape composition and configuration, as well as their influences on LST in Suzhou City, China. Landsat-8 image was processed to extract land covers and retrieve LSTs that were used to study relationship between spatial variation of LST and land covers. The results indicated that there was a significantly negative correlation between mean LST and green space coverage along the urban-rural gradients. With every 10%% increased green space coverage, the mean LST drop was about 1.41 degrees C. A grid-base analysis performed at various grid sizes indicated that an increase in the percentage of surface water body area has a greater cooling effect of the mean LST than a vegetation increase. The mean LST had a significantly negative correlation with both the shape and aggregation indexes of the green space patches. Our results suggest that the sustainable landscape planning of green space in a typical city with a large water area should include both the vegetation and the surface water covers. The increased percentage of vegetation and surface water covers had the greatest cooling effect on an urban thermal environment, which is one of the ecosystem services that green space provides. A dense distribution of green space patches with complex shapes should be considered in urban sustainable landscape planning for increasing ecosystem services.


Author:陈正;Gustave Williams;



8.Progress of Research on Aeolian Sediment Transport Influenced by Tide

Author:He Yanyu;Liu Jianhui;Cai Feng;Li Bailiang;Wang Lihui;Ning Qingqian

Source:Journal of Desert Research,2018,Vol.38

Abstract:Alternate wetting and drying beachface induced by tide is one of the most important process influencing beach aeolian sediment transport.From the aspects of temporal and spatial variabilities of surface moisture content and cyclical variation of wind fetch length,as well as their own effect on beach aeolian sediment transport in the environment of alternate wetting and drying induced by tide,this paper summarizes the main progress and achievements of beach aeolian sediment transport influenced by tide.The main conclusions of this review are shown as:(1)The relationship between surface moisture variabilities and tidal oscillation is nonlinear,which is separated by a double hysteresis effect induced by watertable and capillary fringe;(2)A positive correlation between aeolian sediment transport threshold and surface moisture has been found in the case of surface moisture less than critical moisture threshold and the beach aeolian transport system will nearly shut down once surface moisture greater than critical moisture threshold;(3)The correlation between aeolian mass flux and fetch length can be divided into three stages according to the equilibrium state of sediment transport:positive before equilibrium state,negative after equilibrium state and irrelevant during equilibrium state.Finally,some necessary future research directions in China are put forward,according to the present research situation of beach aeolian sediment transport influenced by tide.

9.The embryonic toxicity evaluation of deoxynivalenol (DON) by murine embryonic stem cell test and human embryonic stem cell test models

Author:Fang, HQ;Zhi, Y;Yu, Z;Lynch, RA;Jia, XD

Source:FOOD CONTROL,2018,Vol.86

Abstract:Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a group B trichothecene and a common contaminant of food crops worldwide. DON is known to cause a spectrum of diseases in animals and humans such as vomiting and gastroenteritis and has been shown to cross the human placental barrier: therefore, dietary exposure during pregnancy could lead to exposure of the fetus. Since the mechanism of DON toxicity action has not been thoroughly elucidated, further evaluation of the underlying mechanisms of DON's embryotoxicity is needed. This is especially important for developing exposure guidance recommendations, especially those targeted towards pregnant women. In the present study, murine embryonic stem cell test (mEST) and human embryonic stem cell test (hEST) models were developed according to protocols of the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). Different concentrations of DON were administered to mouse embryonic stem cells D3 (mESC-D3), mouse Balbic-3T3 (3T3) embryo fibroblast cells, and human embryonic stem cells H9 (hESC-H9) for 10 days to detect the 50%% inhibitory proliferation concentration (1050) of mESC-D3 cells, 313 cells, and hESC-H9 cells with DON. Differentiation of ESCs was initiated by embryoid body (EBs) formation. EBs were exposed to different concentrations of DON for 10 days. The expression of cardiomyocyte differentiation gene alpha-myosin heavy chain (alpha-MHC) was detected by real-time PCR and the 50%% inhibition of cardiomyocyte differentiation (ID50) was determined. Based on the values of IC50 and ID50, functions I, II, and III were calculated by three linear discriminant functions in the EST model and the embryotoxicity of DON was described by comparing the three functions. Results of the three endpoints of DON in murine EST were 0.141 mu g/ml (IC50 3T3), 0.085 mu g/ml (IC50 D3), and 0.110 mu g/ml (ID50 D3). The function I (-34.43), function II (-18.62), and function III (1.98) were calculated for DON by them EST model. The three endpoints of DON in hEST were 0.13 mu g/ml (IC50 313), 0.11 mu g/ml (IC50 H9), and 0.078 mu g/ml (ID50). Function I (-25.97), function II (-13.18), and function III (-0.12) were calculated based on IC50 and ID50. Since function III > function II > function I, according to the EST criteria, DON was determined to have strong embryo toxicity both by mEST and hEST. Moreover, the hEST model, which excluded species differences, is suggested to be a more accurate and reliable method for the evaluation of chemical embryotoxicity. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

10.Ethnicity and HIV vulnerabilities among men who have sex with men in China

Author:Pan, SW;Carpiano, RM;Li, DL;Zhang, Z;Schechter, MT;Spittal, PM;Ruan, YH


Abstract:Ethnic affiliation can define sociocultural boundaries and contribute to the HIV vulnerabilities faced by men who have sex with men (MSM). This study investigated the influence of ethnic affiliation on HIV vulnerabilities among MSM in North China. Our study analyzed a cross-sectional survey of MSM (n=398) in two major North China cities. We examined associations between ethnic affiliation and (a) HIV status, (b) sexual behaviors and experiences, and (c) substance use. Compared to ethnic majority Han MSM: MSM belonging to ethnic minority groups of South China had significantly greater odds of HIV infection (AOR: 7.40; 95%% CI: 2.33-23.47) and experience of forced sex (AOR: 3.27; 95%% CI: 1.12-9.52). Compared to ethnic majority Han MSM, Ethnic Hui MSM had significantly lower odds of condomless anal sex (AOR: 0.41; 95%% CI: 0.21-0.82) and significantly greater odds of circumcision (AOR: 2.62; 95%% CI: 1.24-5.51). HIV prevalence and riskier sexual behaviors among MSM in China appear to vary significantly by ethnic affiliation. Current epidemiological practices of aggregating all ethnic minority groups in China into a single category may be masking important interethnic differences in HIV risk, and precluding opportunities for more culturally appropriate interventions.

11.Demo Abstract: Smart City: a real-time environmental monitoring system on green roof

Author:Zhao, ZH;Wang, JH;Fu, CX;Liu, DW;Li, BL


Abstract:The research on the green roof is of great importance in the field of urban beautification and improving ecological effect. According to the previous research, plants have shown a significant impact on the absorption of PM2.5. Therefore, it is justified that the appropriate planting design or some particular combinations of plants can be considered as a solution, dealing with the urban fine particulate matter (PM2.5). This paper presented a work in progress on developing wireless sensor networks (WSN) system based on a prototype wind tunnel, which is used for the simulation of the green roof. Several data collection processes are handled by this system, where the concentration of PM2.5, wind speed, temperature & relative humidity are obtained and stored in the database simultaneously. Additionally, users are able to real-timely define their commands in details, controlling the sensor's height through a GUI on the website. Experimental and simulation results and measurements have verified the validity of the wind tunnel module as well as the reliability of the sensor network. The system can be operated on thousands of devices when the packet delay maintained in a low level.

12.Survival analysis of brown plant hoppers (Nilaparvata lugens) in rice using video recordings of predation events

Author:Hemerik, L;Bianchi, F;van de Wiel, I;Fu, DM;Zou, Y;Xiao, HJ;van der Werf, W

Source:BIOLOGICAL CONTROL,2018,Vol.127

Abstract:The brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stal, is a major rice pest in South-East Asia. While brown plant hopper (BPH) populations can be regulated by natural enemies, there is limited quantitative information available about the contribution of different predator species to BPH mortality. Our study has three aims: (i) assess the relative contribution of different predator species to BPH mortality in rice fields, (ii) assess diurnal patterns in BPH predation, and (iii) assess the seasonal variation in BPH predation. We quantified predation of live mobile BPH in three rice fields using video recording and assessed densities frogs, a major predator group, by direct counts. In 864 h of video recording, 102 mortality events were observed. Frogs (Ranidae), wolf spiders (Lycosidae) and jumping spiders (Salticidae) were the main predators, accounting for 76%%, 13%% and 9%% of the BPH predation events, respectively. There were large differences in frog density across fields, and there was more predation during the evening (63%% predation events) than during the day (37%%). Survival analysis indicated that predation risk quickly decreased with time after the onset of recording sessions and that most predation happened within the first 10 min. The results confirm the often overlooked contribution of frogs to BPH predation, but also highlight the substantial variation in predator pressure and frog abundance across farmers' fields. While camera observations provide compelling information on the identity and relative importance of natural enemies in predation of pests, further development of methods is needed to minimize possible biases resulting from disturbance when making camera observations to quantify predation risk.

13.Several characteristics of beach aeolian sand transport influenced by tide: A case study in the Yuandangao Beach,Pingtan Island,Fujian Province

Author:He Yanyu;Liu Jianhui;Cai Feng;Li Bailiang;Wang Lihui;Zhou Changmao

Source:Acta Oceanologica Sinica,2018,Vol.40

Abstract:Coastal aeolian is a typical product of sea,land and air interaction. Based on a comprehensive observation of beach aeolian sand in the Yuandangao beach of Pingtan Island,Fujian Province,this paper aims to explore and summarize the vertical distribution,entrainment and transport characteristics of beach aeolian sand influenced by tide. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The vertical distribution of wind-sand flow in intertidal zone is almost entirely(98.9%%) in the range of 0 -30 cm,and the specific distribution function varies with different particle size; (2) The threshold velocity of beach aeolian sand is significantly higher than that of inland desert,and the changing process of it in the tidal circulation mainly reflects the interaction between average surface moisture and fetch length; (3) The wind-blown sand flux of intertidal zone involves the interaction of average surface moisture,fetch length and wind speed,and the dominant factors of its changing process vary in different stages of ebb and flow; (4) Entrainment of sand from a dry source and transport across a moist surface is one of the typical beach aeolian sand transport mode,with a short delivered distance at a time,and a highly relayed way of overall transport.

14.Blood pressure measurement techniques: Assessing performance in outpatient settings of a tertiary-level hospital in Rwanda

Author:Kabakambira, JD;Niyonsenga, Z;Hategeka, M;Igiraneza, G;Benurugo, G;Lucero-Prisno, DE;Hategeka, C


Abstract:Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality globally. Hypertension is a known modifiable risk factor for CVD. Diagnosis and management of hypertension hinges upon accurate blood pressure (BP) measurement. In this study, we assessed performance to recommended guidelines for BP measurement in Rwanda. In 2017, a cross-sectional study investigating performance on 11 techniques recommended for BP measurement was undertaken across outpatient settings of 3 departments at the University Teaching Hospital of Kigali, Rwanda. Performance was checked by an inside observer. The study enrolled 164 patients. The overall mean performance on the 11 BP measurement techniques was 5.69 (+/- 1.02) out of the 11 possible points. There was no significant difference in performance across departments (P=.28). The findings suggest that performance on currently recommended guidelines for BP measurement is not optimal. Going forward, it is important to implement interventions that will enhance performance given that diagnosis and management of hypertension depend upon accurate BP measurement.

15.Sex education in American progressive era and its inspiration on current sex education of Chinese adolescents

Author:WU Bo

Source:Chinese Journal of Human Sexuality,2018,Vol.27


16.Thioarsenic compounds exist in the drinking groundwater

Author:Liang, JH;Chen, Z


Abstract:Arsenic (As) polluted groundwater in Northern China was used as drinking water source and caused severe health problems. Characterization of As speciation is crucial to understand the health risk of As and its biogeochemical behaviors in groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples were collected from 26 wells in Northern China. Arsenic species in the groundwater were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Thioarsenate, one of the As species that is seldom reported in drinking groundwater, was detected in two-third of the sampling wells, even in the samples with total As concentration lower than 10 mu g.L-1. Furthermore, the occurrence of thioarsenate in groundwater samples was dependent on the pH of groundwater, and thioarsenate was transformed to arsenite below a pH value of 8.2. The study demonstrated thioarsenate was prevalent in the alkaline drinking groundwater and would be a new As exposure pathway for the people and livestock living in the As-rich area.

17.Effects of Boron Treatment on Arsenic Uptake and Efflux in Rice Seedlings

Author:Zhu Yi;Sun Guoxin;Chen Zheng;Hu Ying;Zheng Ruilun

Source:Environmental Science,2018,Vol.39

Abstract:The impacts of boron ( B) root application and foliar spray on arsenic ( As) uptake,translocation,and efflux by /in rice seedlings ( Oryza sativa L. ) were investigated in three hydroponic experiments. The addition of B to culture medium did not alter concentrations of arsenite ( As[Ⅲ]) ,arsenate ( As[Ⅴ]) ,and total As,nor did it alter transfer coefficients or uptake efficiency of As in rice seedlings under either As( Ⅲ) or As( Ⅴ) exposure. Foliar B supply increased shoot B concentrations 15. 8-fold,and decreased root As concentrations and As uptake efficiency by 20. 9%% and 18. 0%% under As( Ⅴ) treatment,and by 12. 6%% and 13. 8%% under As( Ⅲ) treatment,respectively,yet did not significantly decrease shoot As concentrations ( P > 0. 05) . Interestingly,foliar B supply reduced root B concentrations by up to 47. 1%% under exposure to As( Ⅴ) but not As( Ⅲ) ,and corresponding root B concentrations were 85. 3%% higher in As( Ⅴ) treatment than in As( Ⅲ) treatment on average ( P < 0. 05) . Both total As and As( Ⅴ) concentrations were positively related to B concentration in rice roots under As( Ⅴ) treatment following foliar B supply ( P < 0. 05) . Rice seedlings extruded 105. 2%% more As after As( Ⅲ) -pretreatment than after As( Ⅴ) -pretreatment. Foliar B supply increased the amount of As excreted by As( Ⅲ) -pretreated rice root by 14. 0%%-16. 9%% ( P > 0. 05) ,and had no effect on the As efflux of As( Ⅴ) -pretreatment seedlings. A range of 45. 9%%-70. 7%% of root As was excreted to solution during one week. These results indicate that the root application of B at four times the concentration of As can slightly decrease As accumulation by rice,whereas foliar B supply is conducive to a decline in As acquisition by rice roots. It is likely that the B channel is at least not the main pathway for As( Ⅲ) entering into rice roots,and the As( Ⅴ) distribution mechanism in rice plants may be shared with that of B.

18.Ethical Concerns of and Risk Mitigation Strategies for Crowdsourcing Contests and Innovation Challenges: Scoping Review

Author:Tucker, JD;Pan, SW;Mathews, A;Stein, G;Bayus, B;Rennie, S


Abstract:Background: Crowdsourcing contests (also called innovation challenges, innovation contests, and inducement prize contests) can be used to solicit multisectoral feedback on health programs and design public health campaigns. They consist of organizing a steering committee, soliciting contributions, engaging the community, judging contributions, recognizing a subset of contributors, and sharing with the community. Objective: This scoping review describes crowdsourcing contests by stage, examines ethical problems at each stage, and proposes potential ways of mitigating risk. Methods: Our analysis was anchored in the specific example of a crowdsourcing contest that our team organized to solicit videos promoting condom use in China. The purpose of this contest was to create compelling 1-min videos to promote condom use. We used a scoping review to examine the existing ethical literature on crowdsourcing to help identify and frame ethical concerns at each stage. Results: Crowdsourcing has a group of individuals solve a problem and then share the solution with the public. Crowdsourcing contests provide an opportunity for community engagement at each stage: organizing, soliciting, promoting, judging, recognizing, and sharing. Crowdsourcing poses several ethical concerns: organizing-potential for excluding community voices; soliciting-potential for overly narrow participation; promoting-potential for divulging confidential information; judging-potential for biased evaluation; recognizing-potential for insufficient recognition of the finalist; and sharing-potential for the solution to not be implemented or widely disseminated. Conclusions: Crowdsourcing contests can be effective and engaging public health tools but also introduce potential ethical problems. We present methods for the responsible conduct of crowdsourcing contests.

19.Next-generation sequencing showing potential leachate influence on bacterial communities around a landfill in China

Author:Rajasekar, A;Sekar, R;Medina-Roldan, E;Bridge, J;Moy, CKS;Wilkinson, S


Abstract:The impact of contaminated leachate on groundwater from landfills is well known, but the specific effects on bacterial consortia are less well-studied. Bacterial communities in a landfill and an urban site located in Suzhou, China, were studied using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. A total of 153 944 good-quality reads were produced and sequences assigned to 6388 operational taxonomic units. Bacterial consortia consisted of up to 16 phyla, including Proteobacteria (31.9%%-94.9%% at landfill, 25.1%%-43.3%% at urban sites), Actinobacteria (0%%-28.7%% at landfill, 9.9%%-34.3%% at urban sites), Bacteroidetes (1.4%%-25.6%% at landfill, 5.6%%-7.8%% at urban sites), Chloroflexi (0.4%%-26.5%% at urban sites only), and unclassified bacteria. Pseudomonas was the dominant (67%%-93%%) genus in landfill leachate. Arsenic concentrations in landfill raw leachate (RL) (1.11 x 10(3) mu g/L) and fresh leachate (FL2) (1.78 x 10(3) mu g/L) and mercury concentrations in RL (10.9 mu g/L)and FL2 (7.37 mu g/L) exceeded Chinese State Environmental Protection Administration standards for leachate in landfills. The Shannon diversity index and Chao1 richness estimate showed RL and FL2 lacked richness and diversity when compared with other samples. This is consistent with stresses imposed by elevated arsenic and mercury and has implications for ecological site remediation by bio-remediation or natural attenuation.

20.Design of a Smart Sensor Network System for Real-Time Air Quality Monitoring on Green Roof

Author:Zhao, ZH;Wang, JH;Fu, CX;Liu, ZB;Liu, DW;Li, BL

Source:JOURNAL OF SENSORS,2018,Vol.2018

Abstract:The research on the green roof is of great importance in the field of urban beautification and improving ecological effect. According to the previous research, plants have shown a significant impact on the absorption of particulate matter (PM2.5) in the air. Therefore, it is justified that the appropriate planting design or some particular combinations of plants can be considered as a solution, dealing with the urban PM2.5. This paper presented a work in progress on developing wireless sensor networks (WSN) system based on a prototype wind tunnel, which is used for the simulation of the green roof. Several data collection processes are handled by this system, where the concentration of PM2.5, wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity are obtained and stored in the database simultaneously. Additionally, users are able to real-timely define their commands in detail, controlling the sensor's height through a GUI on the website. Experimental and simulation results and measurements have verified the validity of the wind tunnel module as well as the reliability of the sensor network. The system can be operated on thousands of devices when the packet delay maintained in a low level.
Total 39 results found
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