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1.Computer-supported collaboration in language learning

Author:Zou, Bin

Source:Monitoring and Assessment in Online Collaborative Environments Emergent Computational Technologies for E-Learning Support,2009,Vol.

Abstract:Studies suggest that the computer can support collaborative learning between learners. This chapter discusses collaboration between language learners while using computer-based tasks. The researcher aims to look at in what ways students collaborate when completing tasks using computers during language learning, particularly in developing their listening and speaking skills. This chapter also explores the possibilities of monitoring and assessment for this collaborative language learning. The analysis is based on interview, observation and questionnaire data from both teachers and students at two UK university language centers. The findings indicate that collaboration in computer-based environments organized by teachers is useful for students to develop their language skills. Computer-supported collaboration increases students' confidence and encourages them to maintain active learning, thus reduces the passive reliance on teachers' feedback. © 2010, IGI Global.

2.E-commerce systems for software agents: Challenges and opportunities

Author:Tadjouddine,Emmanuel M.

Source:E-Business Issues, Challenges and Opportunities for SMEs: Driving Competitiveness,2010,Vol.

Abstract:It is hoped agent mediated e-commerce will be carried out as open systems of agents interoperating between different institutions, where different auction protocols may be in use. The authors argue that in order to put such a scenario to work, agents will need a method to automatically verify the properties of a previously unseen auction protocol. This, in turn poses the problem of automatically verifying desirable properties in order to trust a given auction mechanism. This challenge needs be addressed so that the business scenario of agent mediated e-commerce becomes a reality. In this chapter, the authors discuss salient opportunities for SMEs in addressing the issues of enabling software agents (e.g., PDAs, mobile phones) to connect to auction houses and verify desirable properties that need to hold before engaging any transactions. © 2011, IGI Global.

3.CPE 207: Software engineering

Author:Stankovic,Nenad;Lambacher,Stephen G.

Source:Handbook of Curriculum Development,2010,Vol.

Abstract:This paper describes a new second-year undergraduate project course in software engineering. The course aims to broaden students' experience, knowledge, and skills. The students worked on six one semester projects. We motivate and assess this pedagogy by our pre- and post-findings, and explain the rationale behind it. The outcome revealed that the students had the capability and motivation to engage in solving many complex managerial, organizational, and technical problems with little guidance and supervision. This suggests that they maintained their focus on the system rather than on individual tasks, which facilitated their understanding of the course material and software lifecycle. © 2010 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

4.Enhancing the performance of local binary patterns for face recognition by spectral regression

Author:Zhang, Bailing ; Zhang, Yanchun

Source:Advanced Topics in Biometrics,2011,Vol.

5.Writer identification with hybrid edge directional features and nonlinear dimension reduction

Author:Zhang, Bailing ; Zhang, Yanchun

Source:Advanced Topics in Biometrics,2011,Vol.

6.Supporting design thinking with evocative digital diagrams

Author:Herr, Christiane M.

Source:Computational Design Methods and Technologies Applications in CAD, CAM and CAE Education,2012,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter presents a digitally supported approach to creative thinking through diagrammatic visuals. Diagrammatic visuals can support designing by evoking thoughts and by raising open questions in conversational exchanges with designers. It focuses on the educational context of the architectural design studio, and introduces a software tool, named Algogram, which allows designers to employ diagrams in challenging conventional assumptions and for generating new ideas. Results from testing the tool and the way of approaching conceptual designing encouraged by it within an undergraduate design studio suggest a potential for refocusing of attention in digital design support development towards diagrams. In addition to the conventional emphasis on the variety of tool features and the ability of the tool to assist representational modeling of form, this chapter shows how a diagram-based approach can acknowledge and harness the creative potential of designers' constructive seeing. © 2012, IGI Global.

7.An empirical study strategically assessing the role of the state government in corporate governance, ownership and performance of SOEs

Author:Pak,Donald Henry Ah;Ding,Xiaoming

Source:China and the Global Economy in the 21st Century,2012,Vol.

8.Organisational flexibility through human capital development

Author:Martins,Ana;Martins,Isabel;Petiz,Orlando

Source:Knowledge Management Innovations for Interdisciplinary Education: Organizational Applications,2012,Vol.

Abstract:The current knowledge economy has brought several challenges to contemporary organisations. There is need for flexibility on the part of key players, namely individual employees as well as organisations as a whole; this flexibility arises from the innovation in both products and services. The complexity of knowledge requires an education that enhances softer skills. The intellectual capacity, creativity, and adaptability of individuals gives rise to greater flexibility. This strengthens the fact that there is a change of paradigm in the way human capital is viewed. Through the human-oriented perspective, knowledge is seen as collective sense making and social practice. The objective of this chapter lies in this context of complexity, change, and adaptation within an economic and social reality based on knowledge. Therefore, the chapter aims to reflect upon Knowledge Management in companies such as universities where tacit knowledge is stored as intellectual capital in the minds of both lecturers and students and to highlight the need to instill the new paradigm which fosters knowledge creation and sharing in universities. © 2013, IGI Global.

9.Chengzhongcun in China

Author:Zhong,Sheng

Source:China: Development and Governance,2012,Vol.

10.The neo-liberal turn: ‘Culture’-led urban regeneration in Shanghai

Author:Zhong,Sheng

Source:The Routledge Companion to Urban Regeneration,2013,Vol.

Abstract:The chapter problematizes the nature of ‘culture’-led urban regeneration practices in Shanghai by differentiating between the intentions of regenerative efforts and the real outcomes of policy initiatives. Based on the case study of Shanghai Sculpture Space, the chapter reveals that Shanghai’s so-called ‘culture’- led urban regeneration program implemented through public-private partnership was actually propertyled. The biggest beneficiaries of the process were landed interests. The heavy involvement of the local state and government-linked institutions, however, did not result in the honoring of community sociocultural needs that a genuine culture-led urban regeneration project would require.

11.Recursive learning of genetic algorithms with task decomposition and varied rule set

Author:Fang, Lei ; Guan, Sheng-Uei ; Zhang, Haofan

Source:Modeling Applications and Theoretical Innovations in Interdisciplinary Evolutionary Computation,2013,Vol.

Abstract:Rule-based Genetic Algorithms (GAs) have been used in the application of pattern classification (Corcoran & Sen, 1994), but conventional GAs have weaknesses. First, the time spent on learning is long. Moreover, the classification accuracy achieved by a GA is not satisfactory. These drawbacks are due to existing undesirable features embedded in conventional GAs. The number of rules within the chromosome of a GA classifier is usually set and fixed before training and is not problem-dependent. Secondly, conventional approaches train the data in batch without considering whether decomposition solves the problem. Thirdly, when facing large-scale real-world problems, GAs cannot utilise resources efficiently, leading to premature convergence. Based on these observations, this paper develops a novel algorithmic framework that features automatic domain and task decomposition and problem-dependent chromosome length (rule number) selection to resolve these undesirable features. The proposed Recursive Learning of Genetic Algorithm with Task Decomposition and Varied Rule Set (RLGA) method is recursive and trains and evolves a team of learners using the concept of local fitness to decompose the original problem into sub-problems. RLGA performs better than GAs and other related solutions regarding training duration and generalization accuracy according to the experimental results. © 2013 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

12.Public housing in Shanghai: A tool with multiple purposes

Author:Chang,Ying;Chen,Jie

Source:The Future of Public Housing: Ongoing Trends in the East and the West,2013,Vol.

Abstract:Direct state provision of housing remains an important element of housing regime in many countries. This chapter traces recent experience of public housing development in Shanghai. It focuses the roles of two major public housing programmes, namely Relocation Housing and the new PRH (public rental housing) programme, in Shanghai's recent socio-spatial dynamics. It is shown that the public housing programme in Shanghai is mainly a result of deliberate urban development policy in line with other strategies such as city marketing, and gentrification. Thus we suggest that the Shanghai municipality government appropriates the new public housing regime as institutions to buttress local economic competitiveness. Our analysis is augmented with data from a questionnaire survey of PRH tenants in Shanghai. Finally, we identify challenges for the future development of public housing sector in China.

13.Computer-assisted foreign language teaching and learning Technological advances

Author:Zou, Bin ; Xing, Minjie ; Xiang, Catherine H. ; Wang, Yuping ; Sun, Mingyu

Source:Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning Technological Advances,2013,Vol.

Abstract:Educational technologies continue to advance the ways in which we teach and learn. As these technologies continue to improve our communication with one another, computer-assisted foreign language learning has provided a more efficient way of communication between different languages. Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning Technological Advances highlights new research and an original framework that brings together foreign language teaching, experiments and testing practices that utilize the most recent and widely used e-learning resources. This comprehensive collection of research will offer linguistic scholars, language teachers, students, and policymakers a better understanding of the importance and influence of e-learning in second language acquisition. © 2013 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

14.A new fashion capital: Shanghai

Author:de la Garza,Armida;Ding,Peng

Source:Fashion Cultures Revisited: Theories, Explorations and Analysis,2013,Vol.

15.Using a virtual learning environment to promote autonomous language learning for Chinese students

Author:Jordan, Eoin ; Coyle, Mark

Source:Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning Technological Advances,2013,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter examines a semester-long Moodle-based programme of monitored quizzes designed to encourage first-year Chinese students at an English medium university in China to engage in English language self-study and autonomous learning. Usage statistics and questionnaire data were collected and analysed in order to investigate overall quiz participation rates, usage patterns across the semester, and the extent to which the programme affected students' attitudes towards self-study. The results indicated that participation rates in the quizzes were high, although activity on the programme pages did decline as the semester progressed. Students also reported via the questionnaire that the programme had helped them learn how to organise their own self-study. However, statistics from Moodle revealed that many participants were not taking the quizzes on a regular, weekly basis, as had been intended, suggesting that the programme may have only been partially successful in fostering autonomous study skills. © 2013 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

16.A tale of two cities in regional entrepreneurial policymaking: A comparative study of Suzhou and Wuxi from a path-dependence perspective

Author:Liu,Yipeng;Cao,Xuanwei;Xing,Yijun

Source:Self-Reinforcing Processes in and among Organizations,2013,Vol.

17.A wiki platform for language and intercultural communication

Author:Xing, Minjie ; Zou, Bin ; Wang, Dongshuo

Source:Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning Technological Advances,2013,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter studies a wiki project that electronically links English students learning Business Chinese in the UK and Chinese students learning Business English in China. The focus is placed upon enhancing English/Chinese language skills and intercultural communication competence. Students' messages on the wiki illustrate that cultural values and cultural competence are important parts of business communication. The results of a questionnaire survey and a focus group interview indicate that the interaction between language learners and native speakers not only helped students improve each other's language, but also allowed them to understand the business norms and behaviours in another culture. The chapter concludes with a proposal that wikis can be a platform for enhancing language output and intercultural communication competence, if well designed and monitored. © 2013 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

18.Cosmopolitanism, Christianity, and the contemporary Chinese context: Impacts upon second language motivation

Author:Ding,Peng

Source:Christian Faith and English Language Teaching and Learning: Research on the Interrelationship of Religion and ELT,2013,Vol.

19.Emerging research on swarm intelligence and algorithm optimization

Author:Shi, Yuhui

Source:Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Throughout time, scientists have looked to nature in order to understand and model solutions for complex real-world problems. In particular, the study of self-organizing entities, such as social insect populations, presents a new opportunity within the field of artificial intelligence. Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization discusses current research analyzing how the collective behavior of decentralized systems in the natural world can be applied to intelligent system design. Discussing the application of swarm principles, optimization techniques, and key algorithms being used in the field, this publication serves as an essential reference for academicians, upper-level students, IT developers, and IT theorists. © 2015 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

20.Emerging Issues

Author:Phiri,Michael;Chen,Bing

Source:SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology,2014,Vol.

Abstract:This brief started by looking at the changing context for national and international healthcare systems, before reviewing the healthcare premises information, guidance and tools that underlie the approach in which sustainability is to be seen as integrated with evidence-based design rather than as divorced and separate themes. However, to understand the role these aspects play, it is also essential to consider both the historical context and, in particular, the organisational structures of the different healthcare systems whether these are national or international. This chapter discusses emerging issues from the approach that adopts design for sustainability integrated with evidence-based design. The aim is to help decision-making within the area of healthcare premises, planning and design whether this is nationally or globally. The crucial emerging issues start with the problem of definitions of ‘Evidence’ and ‘Sustainability’ but include the debates surrounding several themes: Centralisation versus Decentralisation, the nature of Public versus Private Sector Involvement, National versus International Standards to Prescription versus Performance Standards. Addressing these issues has an important bearing on the development of design for sustainability and evidence-based design as science.

21.Population diversity of particle swarm optimizer solving single-and multi-objective problems

Author:Cheng, Shi ; Shi, Yuhui ; Qin, Quande

Source:Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Premature convergence occurs in swarm intelligence algorithms searching for optima. A swarm intelligence algorithm has two kinds of abilities exploration of new possibilities and exploitation of old certainties. The exploration ability means that an algorithm can explore more search places to increase the possibility that the algorithm can find good enough solutions. In contrast, the exploitation ability means that an algorithm focuses on the refinement of found promising areas. An algorithm should have a balance between exploration and exploitation, that is, the allocation of computational resources should be optimized to ensure that an algorithm can find good enough solutions effectively. The diversity measures the distribution of individuals' information. From the observation of the distribution and diversity change, the degree of exploration and exploitation can be obtained. Another issue in multiobjective is the solution metric. Pareto domination is utilized to compare two solutions; however, solutions are almost Pareto non-dominated for multiobjective problems with more than ten objectives. In this chapter, the authors analyze the population diversity of a particle swarm optimizer for solving both single objective and multiobjective problems. The population diversity of solutions is used to measure the goodness of a set of solutions. This metric may guide the search in problems with numerous objectives. Adaptive optimization algorithms can be designed through controlling the balance between exploration and exploitation. © 2015 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

22.The book as site: Alternative modes of representing and documenting architecture

Author:Macken,Marian

Source:The Routledge Companion to Design Research,2014,Vol.

23.A Review of Design Approaches + Strategies

Author:Phiri,Michael;Chen,Bing

Source:SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Identification and analysis of design strategies is essential for this brief to increase our knowledge and understanding in order to provide a rationale basis and underpin the joint approach to property and asset or infrastructure design and management. These are advocated as a way to address in the healthcare sector fragmentation, duplication, redundancy, unsustainable transportation and non-standardisation due to the creation of varying levels of accommodation standards. Design strategies are important because they can aid organisations determine what to produce and do (products or outcomes), how and when to do it (process) and how consistently innovative the products are and over time perform responding to changing contexts (performance) while delivering on return on investment. They can therefore play a vital integrating role in connecting design endeavours to organisation’s business strategy, in identifying the core business and focus of an organisation, in adopting the latest technologies, translating insights into actions and their prioritisation. A brief review of a selection of the main design approaches and strategies from the many that have been advocated for architectural healthcare design in recent times is conducted to provide a suitable basis for the development of technical guidance and tools. These include interrelated design for sustainability, evidence-based design, lean health care and lean-led design, six sigma, simulation modelling, learning from completed construction projects [post-project evaluations (PPE) and post-occupancy evaluations (POE)] and varying combinations of these. Identifying approaches towards measuring and monitoring the environmental impact of new buildings and refurbishment of existing buildings is essential to respond to how best projects in future minimise direct environmental effect. The underlying premise includes the use of different materials, how to manage resources optimally and lessons learnt from the most innovative methods which have been undertaken or applied to address these issues.

24.Feasibility and acceptability of in-depth annotated parallel corpus-aided translation teaching

Author:Wang,Hui

Source:Handbook of Research on Teaching Methods in Language Translation and Interpretation,2014,Vol.

Abstract:© 2015 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. This chapter probes into the feasibility and acceptability of integrating an in-depth annotated parallel corpus into the translation classroom. It proceeds from outlining the conceptual and structural features of English/Chinese Online Translation Teaching Platform, an in-depth annotated parallel corpus designed for teaching and (self-) learning of translation. With a 90-minute lecture as a demo, it illustrates how the combined unity of course teaching materials and the platform, as well as the teaching method and the annotation mode of the corpus, can be effectively achieved. It then discusses users' perceptions of the use of the platform in classroom teaching as shown in a recent survey and points out the possibilities of future development.

25.Experimental study on boundary constraints handling in particle swarm optimization from a population diversity perspective

Author:Cheng, Shi ; Shi, Yuhui ; Qin, Quande

Source:Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Premature convergence happens in Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for solving both multimodal problems and unimodal problems. With an improper boundary constraints handling method, particles may get "stuck in" the boundary. Premature convergence means that an algorithm has lost its ability of exploration. Population diversity is an effective way to monitor an algorithm's ability of exploration and exploitation. Through the population diversity measurement, useful search information can be obtained. PSO with a different topology structure and a different boundary constraints handling strategy will have a different impact on particles' exploration and exploitation ability. In this chapter, the phenomenon of particles getting "stuck in" the boundary in PSO is experimentally studied and reported. The authors observe the position diversity time-changing curves of PSOs with different topologies and different boundary constraints handling techniques, and analyze the impact of these settings on the algorithm's abilities of exploration and exploitation. From these experimental studies, an algorithm's abilities of exploration and exploitation can be observed and the search information obtained; therefore, more effective algorithms can be designed to solve problems. © 2015 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

26.A review of healthcare technical guidance/standards, norms and tools

Author:Phiri, Michael ; Chen, Bing

Source:SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology,2014,Vol.

Abstract:The development and update of healthcare premises planning information, technical guidance and tools in health care are controversial and have tended to engender a lot of debate. This is because many interrelated issues are involved, for example, stewardship (whether public or private), regulation (extent of compliance and associated penalties for non-compliance), rationale (whether prescription or performance based), quality, responsibilities and costs of development and updates to keep this information relevant and responsive to changing healthcare practice and technology. In recent years, there have also been many concerns over the ever-increasing amount of advice on best practice standards in the planning and design of healthcare facilities due to burgeoning safety legislation, raising expectations for quality and safety improvements and demands for effectiveness and to achieve value for money. The introduction of new procurement routes such as private finance initiative, public-private partnerships over and above the traditional one has added complexity. A summative rather than a comprehensive review of the healthcare planning information, healthcare facility briefing systems and tools provides an appropriate basis to evaluate some of the issues identified above. The review also answers the question of need for technical guidance and tools in healthcare over and above the planning regulation and building control applied to other types of the built environment. Traditional focus of building control has, in recent times, seen expanded state interventions in health and safety, including prevention of fire risk in buildings to application of rules, regulations and standards relating to the form and performance of buildings and the built environment. This has been necessary not only in order for building design to respond to increased threats to health and safety posed by terrorism and climate change but also to address sociopsychological and cultural issues related to place-making and sustainable urban living. As a result, there has been a proliferation of state-centred legal forms of regulation, formations and a plethora of rules, standards and governance practices as well as requirements by insurance companies to identify, prevent and contain risk (Imrie and Street 2011). © The Author(s) 2014.

27.Transportation costs as a barrier to globalization for nine Asian countries including China

Author:Xu,Junqian;Julian,Craig C.

Source:Research Handbook on the Globalization of Chinese Firms,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Asia Nine, as one of the most crowded places in the world, is composed of both advanced economies - Hong Kong, Japan, Korea and Singapore - and developing countries - China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand. Bilateral trade between Asia Nine has increased dramatically since these countries joined the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) agreement in 1989. Actually all these countries have links with the ancient Chinese cultural sphere and their languages are often derived from Classical Chinese; trade between these countries may date back a thousand years. The cultural and linguistic similarities may have facilitated transport and trade, but bilateral trade between these countries is very historically dependent and most East Asian countries have a colonial relationship with Japan, which as a historical factor would more or less affect bilateral trade. A comparison of transportation costs as a percentage of total trade in both developed countries and developing countries is presented in Table 2.1. G7 countries are included to enable a comparison to be made with Asia Nine. Over the last two decades, generally speaking, transportation costs as a percentage of total trade in the developed countries have declined less than those in the developing countries. As is evident from Table 2.1, however, transport costs as a percentage of total trade are decreasing in both developed and developing countries.

28.Introduction

Author:Phiri,Michael;Chen,Bing

Source:SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology,2014,Vol.

Abstract:© 2014, The Author(s). Worldwide, healthcare organisations are facing challenges and demands to improve design quality and safety of their estate, while addressing burgeoning safety legislation and austere funding arrangements due to the 2007–2010 financial crisis and economic downturn. This has created an imperative for all providers, commissioners and regulators to address how the healthcare environment may need to change. Although widely acknowledged that healthcare guidance/standards and tools are essential to enhance quality and safety in health care, no studies have been published, nor indeed been carried out, with regard to their usefulness. By their very nature, studying guidance and tools is rarely an attractive subject for practitioners and academics alike. However, notable publications include sustainable healthcare architecture aimed at covering the twin big and complex subjects of sustainability and healthcare architecture (Guenther and Vittori: Sustainable healthcare architecture, 2007); a step-by-step guide of how to implement an evidence-based design (EBD) process and those seeking to learn the methodology for EBD of healthcare facilities (Cama: Evidence-based healthcare design, 2009); and a description of evidence-based healthcare facility design that is meant to support quality care and reduce costs (McCullough: Evidence-based healthcare design, 2009). Crucially, the lack of studies and consequently dearth of publications that focus on the role of technical guidance and tools is manifested by the absence of policies and appropriate strategies, as well as a rationale, not only for aiding decision-making in healthcare organisations, but also for acknowledging that, fundamentally, technologies, policies and services are subject to shorter life cycles than the relatively inflexible built assets that support them. This Springer Brief aims to increase our understanding of the role played by technical guidance/standards and tools in design, construction and operation of healthcare facilities as well as ultimately establishing the impact of the physical environment on staff and patient outcomes. Consequently, the aim is for the development of guidance and tools that will aid the creation of architectural environments of quality and safety, which will lead to positive patients’ health outcomes and improved staff productivity.

29.Optimization of drilling process via weightless swarm algorithm

Author:Ting,T. O.

Source:Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization,2014,Vol.

Abstract:In this chapter, the main objective of maximizing the Material Reduction Rate (MRR) in the drilling process is carried out. The model describing the drilling process is adopted from the authors' previous work. With the model in hand, a novel algorithm known as Weightless Swarm Algorithm is employed to solve the maximization of MRR due to some constraints. Results show that WSA can find solutions effectively. Constraints are handled effectively, and no violations occur; results obtained are feasible and valid. Results are then compared to previous results by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. From this comparison, it is quite impossible to conclude which algorithm has a better performance. However, in general, WSA is more stable compared to PSO, from lower standard deviations in most of the cases tested. In addition, the simplicity of WSA offers abundant advantages as the presence of a sole parameter enables easy parameter tuning and thereby enables this algorithm to perform to its fullest.

30.Research handbook on the globalization of Chinese firms

Author:Julian,Craig C.;Ahmed,Zafar U.;Xu,Junqian

Source:Research Handbook on the Globalization of Chinese Firms,2014,Vol.

Abstract:© Craig C. Julian, Zafar U. Ahmed and Junqian Xu 2014. This comprehensive research Handbook encompasses an expansive range of perspectives on the globalization process of Chinese firms. Eminent global scholars provide contributions on a variety of topics, including: • industrial innovation; • technological innovation and learning; • the performance of Chinese international joint ventures,; • the global consumer; • Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) including barriers to FDI and FDI in China’s hinterland areas; • the globalization of Chinese business practices in Africa; • the Human Resource Management Transfer Process; • Corporate Information Disclosure in China’s Stock Market; and • the home employment effect.

31.The empirical link between innovation, learning and performance in Chinese international joint ventures

Author:Julian,Craig C.;Xu,Junqian

Source:Research Handbook on the Globalization of Chinese Firms,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Although the literature on international joint ventures (IJVs) is already sizeable and steadily growing, there is a paucity of studies on at least one critical issue relating to the growth of IJVs in Asian economies, namely, the salient factors influencing IJV marketing performance. In the international business literature there are many studies that identify important determinants of IJV performance in general (Johnson et al., 2001; Lee and Beamish, 1995; Makino and Beamish, 1998). However, the literature does not adequately cover the issues relating to IJV marketing performance. In the international business literature, studies on marketing performance are largely confined to those firms involved in direct or indirect exporting (Cavusgil and Zou, 1994; Julian, 2003) with very little empirical evidence on IJV marketing performance. Given that successful marketing performance is critical to overall successful business performance (Crocombe, 1991), and the deficiency in the level of empirical evidence on IJV marketing performance, we decided to focus on marketing performance in order to enhance the already significant body of IJV literature. IJV marketing performance is defined as the degree to which the IJV’s marketing objectives, both economic and strategic, with respect to a product/service are achieved in a foreign market (that foreign market being China) through the planning and implementation of a specific marketing plan.

32.An optimization algorithm based on brainstorming process

Author:Shi, Yuhui

Source:Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization,2014,Vol.

Abstract:In this chapter, the human brainstorming process is modeled, based on which two versions of a Brain Storm Optimization (BSO) algorithm are introduced. Simulation results show that both BSO algorithms perform reasonably well on ten benchmark functions, which validates the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed BSO algorithms. Simulation results also show that one of the BSO algorithms, BSO-II, performs better than the other BSO algorithm, BSO-I, in general. Furthermore, average inter-cluster distance Dc and inter-cluster diversity De are defined, which can be used to measure and monitor the distribution of cluster centroids and information entropy of the population over iterations. Simulation results illustrate that further improvement could be achieved by taking advantage of information revealed by Dc, which points at one direction for future research on BSO algorithms. © 2015 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

33.Conclusions

Author:Phiri,Michael;Chen,Bing

Source:SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology,2014,Vol.

Abstract:To achieve success, providers, commissioners and regulators of the delivery of healthcare or more specifically the accommodation in which health and social care is provided need to proactively embrace the principles of design for sustainability integrated with evidence-based design. Also of importance is that the process involves users or occupants of the healthcare facilities. Otherwise, efforts to meet sustainability targets and aspirations for design quality improvement are futile without a meaningful engagement of users. This means that the imperative is for a cultural shift and raising awareness among the users and managers of healthcare facilities at both the local level of a clinic, the geographical health economy comprising hospitals, clinics and care homes, and the national healthcare system as well as globally. A culture change and increased awareness is also not enough but needs to be translated into actions by both individuals and organisations. Within the organisation, the support needs to emanate from the top down in order to be effective. Applying and implementing design for sustainability is perhaps the greatest challenge for any organisation that adopts and commits to this approach. The case studies in this brief highlight the different starting points and focus. In particular, the strategy in the UK has tended to be that of providing publicly sponsored and funded health care guidance and design tools to aid the design process compared with the US where the focus on practice has encouraged private firms to implement principles of sustainable evidence-based design.

34.Case Studies: Design Practice and Application of Healthcare Technical Guidance and Tools

Author:Phiri,Michael;Chen,Bing

Source:SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Through a number of carefully selected purpose-built Case Studies from the UK, EU, USA, China and Australasia, this section indicates how strategies that integrate sustainability and evidence-based design have been implemented in healthcare design practice. The aim is to document the key drivers for these case study projects and the consequences of applying these design approaches. In doing so, the brief seeks to increase our understanding of the relationship between theory and practice, thus uncovering mechanisms to embed sustainability and evidence-based design in working practices. Ultimately, this will improve efficiency and effectiveness in the delivery of positive healthcare outcomes.

35.Bio-Inspired Computation and Optimization: An Overview

Author:Yang,Xin She;Chien,Su Fong;Ting,Tiew On

Source:Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications,2015,Vol.

Abstract:All design problems in telecommunications can be formulated as optimization problems, and thus may be tackled by some optimization techniques. However, these problems can be extremely challenging due to the stringent time requirements, complex constraints, and a high number of design parameters. Solution methods tend to use conventional methods such as Lagrangian duality and fractional programming in combination with numerical solvers, while new trends tend to use evolutionary algorithms and swarm intelligence. This chapter provides a summary review of the bio-inspired optimization algorithms and their applications in telecommunications. We also discuss key issues in optimization and some active topics for further research.

36.Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications

Author:Yang,Xin She;Chien,Su Fong;Ting,Tiew On

Source:Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications,2015,Vol.

Abstract:Bio-inspired computation, especially those based on swarm intelligence, has become increasingly popular in the last decade. Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications reviews the latest developments in bio-inspired computation from both theory and application as they relate to telecommunications and image processing, providing a complete resource that analyzes and discusses the latest and future trends in research directions. Written by recognized experts, this is a must-have guide for researchers, telecommunication engineers, computer scientists and PhD students.

37.Gothic forms of time: Architecture, Romanticism, Medievalism

Author:Duggett,Tom

Source:Romantic Gothic: An Edinburgh Companion,2015,Vol.

38.Media Coverage and Stock Returns: Evidence from Chinese Cross-Listed Firms

Author:Wang,Chen;Ding,Rong;Hou,Wenxuan;Lee,Edward

Source:Experiences and Challenges in the Development of the Chinese Capital Market,2015,Vol.

39.Factor prices and geographical economics

Author:Brakman,Steven;Van Marrewijk,Charles

Source:Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Economic Geography,2015,Vol.

Abstract:A key result in neoclassical trade theory, or the Heckscher–Ohlin model, is the so-called factor price equalization theorem (FPE; see Leamer, 2012 for a survey). It states that countries engaged in free trade that produce the same set of commodities, using similar techniques, have identical factor prices. This is a surprising result if one considers that in this stylized neoclassical world, countries that differ with respect to factor supplies still have the same factor prices. This result implies that, for example, (il)legal immigrants do not affect local wages. The differences in factor supplies are absorbed by differences in the commodity bundle that a country produces. In equilibrium, a labor-abundant country produces more of the labor-intensive commodity, and the capital-abundant country more of the capital-intensive commodity. So an inflow of migrants does not lower wages because this inflow increases production of the labor-intensive commodity and thereby raises demand for labor. Consumers are not affected either because international trade corrects for the differences in local supply and demand (the excess supply of the labor-intensive commodity is traded in order to restore equilibrium). In a closed economy this outcome is not possible because an increase in labor supply and the resulting increase of the production of the labor-intensive commodity would lower its price and also wages. If this seems too good to be true, this opinion is correct. FPE is a mathematical result that has produced an enormous (empirical) literature, but, as observed by Leamer and Levinsohn (1995, p. 1357), ‘the real question isn’t whether FPE is true or not. Trust us, it isn’t true. The real question is what causes the violations we observe.’ In addition there is also no unambiguous evidence of global convergence of factor prices (Milanovic, 2005).

40.Empirical studies in geographical economics

Author:Chang,Han Hsin;Van Marrewijk,Charles;Schramm,Marc

Source:Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Economic Geography,2015,Vol.

Abstract:Since the seminal work of Krugman (1991) led the way, many researchers have further analyzed and explained the intricate connections between international trade flows, factor mobility, agglomeration and production; see Brakman et al. (2009) for an overview of the literature. As explained in Brakman and Van Marrewijk (Chapter 3 of this volume), there are now three ‘core’ models of new economic geography, or ‘geographical economics’, as we prefer to label it: (i) Krugman’s model based on labor mobility; (ii) the solvable human capital model based on Forslid and Ottaviano (2003); and (iii) the intermediate goods model based on Krugman and Venables (1995). All these models give rise to similar dynamics and core–periphery patterns with path-dependency and multiple long-run equilibria. This chapter focuses on empirical studies that stay relatively close to the core models in geographical economics. Our contribution is limited to providing an update of the contributions regarding four key features of geographical economics as identified by Head and Mayer (2004a, p. 2616): A large market potential raises local factor prices. ● A large market will increase demand for local factors of production and this raises factor rewards. Regions surrounded by or close to regions with high real income (indicating strong spatial demand linkages) will have relatively higher wages. ● A large market potential induces factor inflows. Footloose factors of production will be attracted to those markets where firms pay relatively high factor rewards. In the Krugman core model footloose workers move to the region with highest real wage and similarly firms prefer locations with good market access. ● Reduction in trade costs induces agglomeration, at least beyond a critical level of transport or trade costs. For a large range of transport costs a change in these costs may not lead to a change in the equilibrium degree of agglomeration, but if a shock moves the economy beyond its break or sustain point the economy goes from spreading to agglomeration, or vice versa, respectively. This also implies that more economic integration (interpreted as a lowering of transport costs) should at some point lead to (more) agglomeration of the footloose activities and factors of production. ● Shock sensitivity. Changes in the economic environment can (but need not!) trigger a change in the equilibrium spatial distribution of economic activity. This hypothesis goes to the heart of the idea that geographical economics models are characterized by multiple equilibria.

41.Neighbourhood determinants for life satisfaction of older people in Beijing

Author:Yan,Bingqiu;Gao,Xiaolu;Breitung,Werner

Source:Mobility, Sociability and Well-Being of Urban Living,2015,Vol.

Abstract:Demographic change and ageing societies are an increasingly critical issue for researchers and policymakers across the world and in particular in China, where the government’s population control strategies have since the late 1970s substantially changed social and demographic structures. At the same time, the traditional role of families in caring for elderly people is diminishing. In this situation, the neighbourhood as a living environment and as a platform for service provision is growing in importance for the elderly. Building on the authors’ previous proposition that age-friendly urban planning needs to take differences between neighbourhood types into account, the objective of this study is to identify which neighbourhood factors concretely contribute to the life satisfaction of seniors in different Beijing neighbourhoods. For this purpose, we used structural equation modelling (SEM) and found social support to be the primary neighbourhood factor affecting life satisfaction amongst the urban elderly in Beijing. We then differentiated between aged neighbourhoods with a high number of older people and others with less elderly residents, and found dwelling conditions and community-provided senior services to be additional critical indicators of satisfaction in the former and accessibility to services in the latter. Accordingly, we suggest tailoring government interventions that aim at age-friendly environments differently in different neighbourhoods.

42.Hybrid metaheuristic algorithms: Past, present, and future

Author:Ting,T. O.;Yang,Xin She;Cheng,Shi;Huang,Kaizhu

Source:Studies in Computational Intelligence,2015,Vol.585

Abstract:Hybrid algorithms play a prominent role in improving the search capability of algorithms. Hybridization aims to combine the advantages of each algorithm to form a hybrid algorithm, while simultaneously trying to minimize any substantial disadvantage. In general, the outcome of hybridization can usually make some improvements in terms of either computational speed or accuracy. This chapter surveys recent advances in the area of hybridizing different algorithms. Based on this survey, some crucial recommendations are suggested for further development of hybrid algorithms.

43.Bio-Inspired Approaches in Telecommunications

Author:Chien,Su Fong;Zarakovitis,C. C.;Ting,Tiew On;Yang,Xin She

Source:Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications,2015,Vol.

Abstract:Bio-inspired algorithms are modern optimization tools that are capable of solving complex design problems in many applications. Such algorithms aim to speed up the optimization process so as to tackle tougher optimization problems. Some of these algorithms, such as particle swarm optimization and cuckoo search, have been found to be much more feasible and practical in obtaining the optimal solution, compared to conventional mathematical methods. In this chapter, we will review design problems and their solution methods concerning resource and power allocations in orthogonal frequency division multiple access systems.

44.The role of foreign firms in China’s urban transformation A case study of Suzhou

Author:Kim, Hyung Min

Source:Population Mobility, Urban Planning and Management in China,2015,Vol.

Abstract:To a large extent the Chinese government has relied upon foreign direct investment (FDI) to stimulate economic growth. Inward FDI, which has expanded massively in China after the opening up policy, is significant to Chinese cities at least in the following three aspects. First, inward FDI contributes to economic vitality as it involves production in cities. Second, the establishment of foreign firms has facilitated rural-to-urban migration, and thus stimulated urban growth. As inward FDI is mostly labour-intensive manufacturing, an influx of foreign capital has been accompanied by an increase in the number of rural migrants. Third, foreign firms have brought foreign nationals to Chinese cities, thus creating demand for multicultural services and adding to the vibrancy of the city. This chapter examines these three outcomes at China’s national level using Suzhou as a case study. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

45.Structural diversity, surface composition, and redox behavior in the LA0.6SR0.4CoO3-PrO2-delta system

Author:Konysheva, Elena Yu. ; Bukaemskiy, Andrey A. ; Kuznetsov, Michail V. ; Ma, Tianzheng ; Ermolenko, Yurii E.

Source:Advances in Chemistry Research,2015,Vol.25

Abstract:Phase composition, crystal structure of components, surface composition, and redox behavior were explored in the (100-x) La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-xPrO2-δ (LSCPx) system under air. At high temperatures, a fraction of La0.6Sr0.4CoO3 perovskite phase interacts with praseodymium oxide, forming a new layered perovskite-like phase relating to the Ruddlesden-Popper family of An+1BnO3n+1 compounds with n=1. The Ruddlesden-Popper phase with K2NiF4-type structure (I4/mmm, no.139) exists in a wide compositional range. At room temperature the LSCPx (2 ≤ x ≤ 40) are two-phase compositions, comprising of the perovskite phase with rhombohedral distortion ( R3c, no. 167) and Ruddlesden-Popper phase. Evolution of lattice parameters for both perovskite and Ruddlesden-Popper phases with the raise in the Pr content was discussed. La0.93Sr0.62Pr0.45CoO4 compound with Ruddlesden-Popper structure was synthesized. Both single phase La0.93Sr0.62Pr0.45CoO4 and newly formed Ruddlesden-Popper phase in the two-phase LSCPx (2 ≤ x ≤ 40) exhibit similar behavior with the temperature variation (25-820oC) the expansion of the unit cell along the c-axis is noticeably stronger than within the a-b plain. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study indicates stronger accommodation of Sr cations within the Ruddlesden-Popper structure. Surface depletion in Co decreases in the two-phase LSCPx compositions with the raise in the fraction of the phase with the Ruddlesden-Popper structure, assuming that the presence of a second phase can facilitate the re-arrangement of cations between the volume and surface. The total oxygen exchange between the gas phase and the two-phase LSCPx (2 ≤ x ≤ 20) compositions decreases gradually with the increase in Pr content in the composites and it becomes almost negligible in the LSCPx (20 ≤ x ≤ 40). This result is unexpected and could be associated with the simultaneous involvement of Pr and Co cations in the redox process. © 2015 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

46.A framework for operational agility: How SMEs are evaluating their supply chain integration

Author:Reid,Iain;Ismail,Hossam;Sharifi,Hossein

Source:Managing in a VUCA World,2015,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter seeks to show how small medium enterprises (SMEs) have become more responsive to deal with the unexpected changes in the business environment. However, the impact on SME's is not always clear, as resources required to implement such strategic responsiveness are often fall beyond what is considered to be acceptable risk. In this chapter an integrated approach is proposed to facilitate the 'responsiveness' when faced with uncertainty and environmental turbulences in supply chain design thus contributing to the notion of Operational Agility and Supply Chain Integration (SCI). The framework is based on earlier work developed by the authors, which focused on the integration of operational agility tools and techniques through external intervention. An implementation model is presented in which the practical aspects of the framework stages are presented. The framework is validated through case study observations, a number of issues raised in the framework are discussed and validated.

47.Complexity, scientific creativity and clustering

Author:Andersson,Åke E.;Andersson,David Emanuel;Harsman,Björn;Daghbashyan,Zara

Source:The Rise of the City: Spatial Dynamics in the Urban Century,2015,Vol.

48.Problem-based learning into the future: Imagining an agile PBL ecology for learning

Author:Kek,Megan Yih Chyn A.;Huijser,Henk

Source:Problem-Based Learning into the Future: Imagining an Agile PBL Ecology for Learning,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2017. In this book we respond to a higher education environment that is on the verge of profound changes by imagining an evolving and agile problem-based learning ecology for learning. The goal of doing so is to humanise university education by pursuing innovative approaches to student learning, teaching, curricula, assessment, and professional learning, and to employ interdisciplinary methods that go far beyond institutional walls and include student development and support, curriculum sustainability, research and the scholarship of teaching and learning, as well as administration and leadership. An agile problem-based learning (PBL) ecology for learning deliberately blurs the boundaries between disciplines, between students and teachers, between students and employers, between employers and teachers, between academics and professional staff, between formal and informal learning, and between teaching and research. It is based on the recognition that all of these elements are interconnected and constantly evolving, rather than being discrete and static. Throughout this book, our central argument is that there is no single person who is responsible for educating students. Rather, it is everyone’s responsibility - teachers, students, employers, administrators, and wider social networks, inside and outside of the university. Agile PBL is about making connections, rather than erecting barriers. In summary, this book is not about maintaining comfort zones, but rather about becoming comfortable with discomfort. The actual implementation is beyond the scope of this book and we envisage that changing perceptions towards this vision will itself be a mammoth task. However, we believe that the alternative of leaving things as they are would ultimately prove untenable, and more distressingly, would leave a generation of students afraid to think, feel, and act for themselves, let alone being able to face the challenges of the 21st century.

49.A pedagogical approach to designing the future of China’s urban fringe

Author:Kiddle,Rebecca;Kim,Joon Sik;Chen,Bing

Source:Urban China's Rural Fringe: Actors, Dimensions and Management Challenges,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2016 Giulio Verdini, Yiwen Wang, Xiaonan Zhang and the contributors. To safeguard the overall quality of the development of urban and rural areas, as increasingly addressed in China’s strategic policy documents, there is an urgent need to provide a new vision for planning education, nurturing an interdisciplinary learning environment that can promote critical thinking as a basis for action or intervention. The urban and rural nexus highlights an area of particular tension as it works to house existing villagers alongside the rising middle classes keen for a more suburban/rural aspect (see Sturzacker and Law in this volume). This challenges planners to think beyond the scope of statutory systems and consider planning as an activity that professionals facilitate, rather than own or monopolize. The planning education system should, therefore, equip prospective planners with not only professional knowledge, but the capability to involve a range of stakeholders in more genuinely collaborative ways. On the urban fringe where very diverse social groups and needs meet, this ability to involve the range of stakeholders in decision-making processes is all the more important.

50.Rural regeneration in the Yangtze River Delta: The challenge and potential for rural heritage tourism development

Author:Wang,Yiwen

Source:Urban China's Rural Fringe: Actors, Dimensions and Management Challenges,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2016 Giulio Verdini, Yiwen Wang, Xiaonan Zhang and the contributors. The diversification of the functional uses of agricultural land has grown in importance since the concept of sustainable development became a matter of global concern before the turn of the new century. Multi-functionality of agricultural land often refers to the production of other goods, services or values in addition to crop and livestock, such as food security, leisure activities, recreational opportunities and cultural tourism (Daugstad et al. 2006). Arguably, rural tourism has been one of the most effective tools for diversifying economic activities and generating additional income for the rural community. It has played an important role in regenerating the declining economy of the countryside as a result of intensive global food trading (Sharpley and Vass 2006). While the term ‘rural tourism’ has been perceived and interpreted in various ways, ranging from general leisure activities to hands-on farming practice, it is the role of ‘cultural heritage’ in the current trend of rural tourism development that this research was set to explore.

51.Cultural institutional reform and the changing society in China

Author:Zhong,Sheng

Source:Governing Society In Contemporary China,2016,Vol.

Abstract:Wholly regarded as social welfare and propaganda before the economic reform, cultural production is increasingly linked to profit-making and economic competitiveness in contemporary China. The reform of public cultural institutions and the promotion of cultural industries are reflective of this new understanding. This chapter indicates that the changing society is an important force driving the cultural reform. However, the rush towards market also causes concern to the Party-state and this leads to the redress of the issue in recent years. In light of the multiple roles of culture, this chapter suggests that the energetic vibe from the society would be advantageous in making China a great power of culture….

52.Creativity in the animation industry

Author:Liu,Zheng;Ma,Lei

Source:Exploring the Benefits of Creativity in Education, Media, and the Arts,2016,Vol.

Abstract:In the past 20 years, animation industry has developed rapidly due to the popularity of technology and a market demand on creativity. Large firms such as Disney and Pixar are continuously seeking strategies to expand, improve, and innovate, whereas most Chinese companies, as late comers are upgrading their capability through original design, technology development and policy support. This chapter focuses on the creativity in the animation industry, with an analysis on brand/character development, technology innovation, and policy influence. It starts with an introduction of the creativity in animation industry from both practice and literature perspectives. Then, there are five cases studies into companies with a highlight on their details of creative activities. Discussion is to address the critical issues of creativity in the animation industry, followed by a conclusion and recommendations for future research areas.

53.Collaborative approaches for planning the rural areas of Chinese cities

Author:Zhong,Sheng;Guo,Yu

Source:Urban China's Rural Fringe: Actors, Dimensions and Management Challenges,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2016 Giulio Verdini, Yiwen Wang, Xiaonan Zhang and the contributors. The rapid urbanization process in China has posed significant threats to land resources not only in quantity but also in quality. In the peri-urban areas of Chinese cities, the pressures from urban sprawl have resulted in scattered construction lands mixed with cultivated lands. This highly inefficient use of rural construction, especially in peri-urban areas, has been identified as a major problem and, consequently, rural land consolidation has been increasingly considered as a priority for reaching more sustainable rural planning outcomes. Based on the existing experiences of land ticket reform, this chapter argues that market-based land ticket represents a promising approach to China’s rural land consolidation practises and should be allowed to be used in a wider scope. However, reform of the existing land ticket and rural land consolidation processes is also needed to ensure better results. A perspective from participative and collaborative planning will shed light on how to achieve this outcome.

54.Corporate social responsibility (CSR) in China: A contextual exploration

Author:Kirk Davidson,D.;Yin,Juelin

Source:Comparative Perspectives on Global Corporate Social Responsibility,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2017 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. Despite a growing recognition of national contexts in predicting the dynamics of corporate social responsibility (CSR), the limited prior research has failed to disaggregate national institutions to specify the mechanisms between aspects of national institutional contexts and elements of CSR practices. In this paper we offer a framework for analyzing the nature and status of CSR, which is made up of eight elements: history, religions/ideologies, social norms, geography, political structures, the level of economic development, civil society institutions, and the country's "safety net" provisions. We apply the framework to explain how and why China's understanding of CSR differs from that in Western countries.

55.Developmental swarm intelligence Developmental learning perspective of swarm intelligence algorithms

Author:Shi, Yuhui

Source:Nature-Inspired Computing Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications,2016,Vol.1-3

Abstract:In this article, the necessity of having developmental learning embedded in a swarm intelligence algorithm is confirmed by briefly considering brain evolution, brain development, brainstorming process, etc. Several swarm intelligence algorithms are looked at from developmental learning perspective. Finally, a framework of a developmental swarm intelligence algorithm is given to help understand developmental swarm intelligence algorithms, and to guide to design and/or implement any new developmental swarm intelligence algorithm and/or any developmental evolutionary algorithm. © 2017 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

56.Being middle class in China: Identity, attitudes and behaviour

Author:Miao,Ying

Source:Being Middle Class in China: Identity, Attitudes and Behaviour,2016,Vol.

Abstract:Many studies of the Chinese middle class focus on defining it and viewing its significance for economic development and its potential for sociopolitical modernisation. This book goes beyond such objective approaches and considers middle class people's subjective understanding and diverse experiences of class. Based on extensive original research including social surveys and detailed interviews, the book explores who the middle class think they are, what they think about a wide range of socioeconomic and sociopolitical issues, and why they think as they do. It examines attitudes towards the welfare state, social inequality, nationalism, relations with foreign countries and opinions on many social controversies, thereby portraying middle class people as more than simply luxury consumers and potential agents of democracy. The book concludes that a clear class identity and political consciousness have yet to emerge, but that middle class attitudes are best characterised as searching for a balance between old and new, the traditional and the foreign, the principled and the pragmatic.

57.Social learning in creative Shanghai

Author:Zhong,Sheng

Source:Insurgencies and Revolutions: Reflections on John Friedmann's Contributions to Planning Theory and Practice,2016,Vol.

58.Public participation in contested spatial planning: Learning from a failed urban development project

Author:Zhang,Xiaonan;Sun,Lei

Source:Urban China's Rural Fringe: Actors, Dimensions and Management Challenges,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2016 Giulio Verdini, Yiwen Wang, Xiaonan Zhang and the contributors. Recent work on metropolitan growth in developing countries (see Shaw and Satish 2007; Zhang 2000, 2002) has suggested that changes in governance have a significant influence on urban spatial changes and suburban development. China is taking a decentralization process so the local governments have more power to control public policies, resource allocation and delivery of public goods and services (Zhang 2002). The decentralization of power opens up broad space to multi-scale forms of governance with multi-stakeholder arrangements (Rakodi 2003; Zhao et al. 2009). In the multi-stakeholder arrangement system, conflicting interests should be allowed and negotiation between the government and other sectors replaces mere command control from government. As a result, spatial planning is facing much more challenges stemming from the uncertainties of current local developments (Zhao et al. 2009).

59.Structuring and managing supply network: A review of current literature and conceptual framework

Author:Liu,Zheng

Source:Handbook of Research on Global Supply Chain Management,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2016 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. The concept of supply network has extended supply chain across national borders towards globalization. The aim of this chapter is to provide researchers, business practitioners and university students a picture of the architecture of supply networks. By analyzing two main trends of studies in the field of supply network management, components of supply network are classified into structural and infrastructural factors. Also a comparison is made to identify the difference between supply network and traditionally factory-based manufacturing system. Based on the literature review, a conceptual framework is further proposed which describes the supply network from four essential perspectives: Role/function, Relationship/ alliance, Configuration/reconfiguration, and Risk and crisis management. After presenting detailed models and decision making areas of each perspective, suggestions are given on some emerging topics.

60.Statistical discriminability estimation for pattern classification based on neural incremental attribute learning

Author:Wang,Ting;Puthusserypady,Sadasivan;Guan,Sheng Uei;Wong,Prudence W.H.

Source:Artificial Intelligence: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications,2016,Vol.3

Abstract:Feature ordering is a significant data preprocessing method in Incremental Attribute Learning (IAL), a novel machine learning approach which gradually trains features according to a given order. Previous research has shown that, similar to feature selection, feature ordering is also important based on each feature's discrimination ability, and should be sorted in a descending order of their discrimination ability. However, such an ordering is crucial for the performance of IAL. As the number of feature dimensions in IAL is increasing, feature discrimination ability also should be calculated in the corresponding incremental way. Based on Single Discriminability (SD), where only the feature discrimination ability is computed, a new filter statistical feature discrimination ability predictive metric, called the Accumulative Discriminability (AD), is designed for the dynamical feature discrimination ability estimation. Moreover, a criterion that summarizes all the produced values of AD is employed with a GA (Genetic Algorithm)- based approach to obtain the optimum feature ordering for classification problems based on neural networks by means of IAL. Compared with the feature ordering obtained by other approaches, the method proposed in this paper exhibits better performance in the final classification results. Such a phenomenon indicates that, (i) the feature discrimination ability should be incrementally estimated in IAL, and (ii) the feature ordering derived by AD and its corresponding approaches are applicable with IAL.

61.Analytics on fireworks algorithm solving problems with shifts in the decision space and objective space

Author:Cheng, Shi ; Chen, Junfeng ; Qin, Quande ; Shi, Yuhui ; Zhang, Qingyu

Source:Nature-Inspired Computing Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications,2016,Vol.2-3

Abstract:Fireworks algorithms for solving problems with the optima shift in decision space and/or objective space are analyzed in this paper. The standard benchmark problems have several weaknesses in the research of swarm intelligence algorithms for solving single objective problems. The optimum is in the center of search range, and is the same at each dimension of the search space. The optimum shift in decision space and/or objective space could increase the difficulty of problem solving. A mapping strategy, modular arithmetic mapping, is utilized in the original fireworks algorithm to handle solutions out of search range. The solutions are implicitly guided to the center of search range for problems with symmetrical search range via this strategy. The optimization performance of fireworks algorithm on shift functions may be affected by this strategy. Four kinds of mapping strategies, which include mapping by modular arithmetic, mapping to the boundary, mapping to stochastic region, and mapping to limited stochastic region, are compared on problems with different dimensions and different optimum shift range. From experimental results, the fireworks algorithms with mapping to the boundary, or mapping to limited stochastic region obtain good performance on problems with the optimum shift. This is probably because the search tendency is kept in these two strategies. The definition of population diversity measurement is also proposed in this paper, from observation on population diversity changes, the useful information of fireworks algorithm solving different kinds of problems could be obtained. © 2017 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

62.Advertising in the aging society: Understanding representations, practitioners, and consumers in Japan

Author:Prieler,Michael;Kohlbacher,Florian

Source:Advertising in the Aging Society: Understanding Representations, Practitioners, and Consumers in Japan,2016,Vol.

Abstract:Population aging is a powerful megatrend affecting many countries around the world. This demographic shift has vast effects on societies, economies and businesses, and thus also for the advertising industry. Advertising in the Aging Society presents an insight into advertising practitioners and consumers in Japan.

63.Entrepreneurship in an indigenous community: Sustainable tourism and economic development in a newly inscribed UNESCO World Heritage Site

Author:Chan,Jin Hooi;Zhang,Ying;McDonald,Tom;Qi,Xiaoguang

Source:Indigenous People and Economic Development: An International Perspective,2016,Vol.

Abstract:In June 2013, the Honghe Hani Rice Terraces in China were inscribed as a UNESCO World Cultural Landscape in recognition of their breathtaking beauty and the centuries-long sustainable relationship between the environment and indigenous communities stewarded by unique cultural and religious practices. Based on intensive fieldwork, this chapter discusses the environmental issues currently facing the rice terraces and communities, and the possible effects and implications following the UNESCO inscription. The chapter provides a comprehensive review of the intertwined social, cultural and environmental factors within the site, including out-migration, tourism development and the role of government, sustainability, governance, and entrepreneurship of the local indigenous community. The chapter argues that tourism development and the subsequent World Heritage Site inscription have overwhelmingly brought important effects for local communities, particularly while local communities display an enormous amount of ingenuity in addressing existing challenges and adapting to new opportunities. The benefits of development should be more widely distributed among the communities. This chapter thus highlights the critical role of providing the indigenous community with access to resources such as knowledge, skills and finance to enable greater involvement and participation, while making the case for acknowledgement of the different forms of participation and ownership.

64.The rural fringe in China: Existing conflicts and prospective urban-rural synergies

Author:Verdini,Giulio

Source:Urban China's Rural Fringe: Actors, Dimensions and Management Challenges,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2016 Giulio Verdini, Yiwen Wang, Xiaonan Zhang and the contributors. The rural fringe of Chinese cities is today a transitional place between urban and rural areas where several contradictions take place partly inherited from the past and partly due to recent trends of development. A consolidated body of international literature regarding the conceptualization of the fringe and the urbanrural interaction has already demonstrated that ‘populations and activities described either as “rural” or “urban” are more closely linked both across space and across sectors than is usually thought, and that distinctions are often arbitrary’ (Tacoli 1998). Thus peri-urban households may be ‘multispatial’, with some residents working in towns or others engaged in non-farm activities in the countryside. China, as other emerging countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa, featuring rapid urbanization, is no exception with similar ‘complexities of changing periurban production and livelihood systems’ (Simon 2008).

65.Sustainable entrepreneurship, opportunity creation: A corporate political activity view

Author:Cao,Xuanwei;Fischer,Doris

Source:Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation,2016,Vol.

66.Rural land consolidation in China

Author:Sheng,Zhong

Source:China's Great Urbanization,2016,Vol.

67.Urban China’s rural fringe: Actors, dimensions and management challenges

Author:Verdini,Giulio;Wang,Yiwen;Zhang,Xiaonan

Source:Urban China's Rural Fringe: Actors, Dimensions and Management Challenges,2016,Vol.

68.PBL and technology-supported learning: Exploring the right blend

Author:Huijser,Henk;Kek,Megan Yih Chyn A.

Source:Problem-Based Learning: Perspectives, Methods and Challenges,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2016 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. In the introduction to her book Problem-based Learning Online, Maggi Savin-Baden (2006) outlined the key challenges of using problem-based learning (PBL) online. Her two main underlying points were firstly that we do not really know or understand fully what it is we have created in PBL online, which she terms ‘unrealised complexity,’ and secondly that there has been considerable effort expended on the development of managed learning environments rather than the pedagogy of such development. In many ways, these underlying points are still highly relevant today, and they affect a number of key concerns and research questions that were identified at the time: • whether (and how) PBL online would affect the existence of face-to-face problem-based learning • whether it would destroy some of the original goals of PBL such as learning in groups, group work, or critical thinking This chapter combines theories of Problem Based Learning (PBL) with technologysupported learning practice to bridge the divide between theory and practice as it relates to the development of online PBL curricula. To make a theoretical argument about why PBL is a good approach to teaching in the 21st century is not so difficult, as it appears to tick all the right boxes. However, there is a large gap between the theory and the practice especially because PBL has the biggest potential impact if it is seen as a holistic approach to learning and teaching, rather than as one of many teaching techniques that include curriculum design, assessment, e-learning or any other element of learning and teaching that can be addressed in isolation. Any rewards, however small, from PBL can be achieved by design in a holistic manner and at the curriculum level. This means in turn that the implementation of PBL on an institutional level often encounters major obstacles and challenges, ranging from professional development needs to expectations about resource needs. In short, the theory behind PBL is convincing, but the link to practice is not always explicitly made. This paper attempts to address this gap between PBL theory and practice, by exploring a combination of PBL theory and blended learning theory and applying them to a practical application model. This is crucial if the goal is to revitalise problem-based learning for a new generation of learners, and to make it a relevant and rewarding pedagogical approach for this generation.

69.An investigation on fair trade business: Opportunities and challenges

Author:Zhang,Kaifeng;Liu,Zheng

Source:Handbook of Research on Green Economic Development Initiatives and Strategies,2016,Vol.

Abstract:In the past 20 years, Fair Trade appears as an approach of trading encouraging minimal returns, safety, sustainability and ethics. There are some good practices of Fair Trade supply chain management in the western companies such as the Body Shop; however, the development of Fair Trade business is still a new concept in developing countries such as China. This proposed chapter will start with an introduction of Fair Trade, and then analyze successful cases in the western countries. There will be initial investigation into Fair Trade supply chain management in China, with a focus on its opportunities and challenges. Discussion will be made to address the critical issues of Fair Trade management, followed by a summary of the chapter.

70.Will self and contemporary British society

Author:Matthews,Graham

Source:Will Self and Contemporary British Society,2016,Vol.

Abstract:This stimulating and comprehensive study of Will Self's work spans his entire career and offers insightful readings of all his fictional and non-fictional work up to and including his Booker prize nominated novel Umbrella.

71.Understanding “sustainability” and attitudes of students to the concept of “sustainable development” in China and the UK

Author:Williams,Austin

Source:Green Energy and Technology,2017,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter is an investigation into the way(s) that words and phrases such as, “sustainability” and “the environment” are used within China and the UK. It is a comparative analysis of responses from 18 to 21 year old students of Architecture in both countries – carried out by questionnaire sampling of students from both regions – and provides an initial assessment of the extent and possible meaning of any key differences in understanding of these terms. The discourse on sustainability is well-established in the UK but is not regularly taught as mainstream in Chinese universities, and yet many tutors, lecturers and practitioners educated outside China who are employed or guest lecture in our particular joint China-British university (and evidence shows that this also happens in other Chinese universities) are bringing a Western educational language of sustainability to Chinese students. In my experience, this has led to some discussion among students and this paper – concerning itself with issues related to sustainability – is the start of a wider assessment of social, cultural, practical and political differences in the classroom: in the West and in China. Drawing on a comparison of student responses from one Chinese university and three academically comparable universities in the UK – including questionnaire responses from 115 students studying in UK and 321 students studying in China (436 respondents in total), I examine their understanding of sustainability that might facilitate the use of these concepts more meaningfully. My findings indicate that there are clear disparities between students in China and UK reflecting a different understanding of expectations, settings and context.

72.Manufacturing and logistics networks of korean firms in china: A case study of suzhou industrial park

Author:Liu,Zheng;Kim,Hyung Min;Zhang,Kaifeng

Source:Operations and Service Management: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications,2017,Vol.

Abstract:© 2018 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. The aim of this chapter is to develop a better understanding of interactions of Korean firms in Suzhou in terms of supply chain, manufacturing networks and logistics. By reviewing the key literature in industry clusters, international strategy, manufacturing systems and logistics management, a conceptual framework is designed to capture the key roles of Korean MNE, SMEs, and local SIP service organizations. Case studies and interviews with practitioners provide in-depth knowledge about firms' operation in Suzhou. An industry review of SIP is also conducted from the perspectives of history, policy, infrastructure and local culture. Discussions are made to address the critical issues followed by a summary of the chapter.

73.The algorithms-aided design (AAD)

Author:Tedeschi,Arturo;Lombardi,Davide

Source:Informed Architecture: Computational Strategies in Architectural Design,2017,Vol.

74.Building trust relationship in cross-cultural collaboration: Case studies on two Chinese animation companies

Author:Liu,Zheng;Ma,Lei

Source:Transcontinental Strategies for Industrial Development and Economic Growth,2017,Vol.

Abstract:Internationalization and inter-firm collaboration is a business trend today. Meanwhile, cultural values and managerial practices vary from country to country which makes cross-border management more challenging than the traditional in-house business model. A trusting relationship is essential to business success, yet details of how to build-up and maintain trust are unclear. This paper investigates trust development in cross-border collaboration. The literature review has covered key trust theories and its linkage with culture. To further understand the critical issues in of trust, two in-depth case studies are conducted from the Chinese animation game industry. It is found that in order to achieve long-term business collaboration, companies need to be continuously responsive and adapt their trust models. Based on the case analysis, a general model and a practical model are developed for further testing. Other research topics to further link trust with sustainability are also proposed at the end of the chapter.

75.China’s architecture in a globalizing world: Between socialism and the market

Author:Han,Jiawen

Source:China's Architecture in a Globalizing World: Between Socialism and the Market,2017,Vol.

Abstract:China is currently in the midst of an unprecedented building boom and, indeed, interest in Chinese contemporary architecture has been fuelled by this huge expansion. Through a cutting-edge theoretical discussion of Chinese architecture in relation to Chinese modernity, this book examines this phenomenon in detail. In particular, it highlights how changes in the social-political system, the residual influence of Mao and the demands of the market have each shaped and determined style and form in recent years. Using key case studies of Liu Jiakun, Cui Kai, and URBANUS, it analyses the intricate details of historical pressures and practical strategies affecting Chinese architecture. In doing so, it demonstrates that Chinese architects contribute in specific ways to the international architectural discourse, since they are actively engaging with the complex societal transition of contemporary China and managing the dynamics and conflicts arising during the process. China’s Architecture in a Globalizing World: Between Socialism and the Market offers a lens into the innovation and uniqueness of architectural design in China. As such, this book will be useful for students and scholars of architecture, Chinese culture and society and urban studies.

76.Young criminal lives: Life courses and life chances from 1850

Author:Godfrey,Barry;Cox,Pamela;Shore,Heather;Alker,Zoe

Source:Young Criminal Lives: Life Courses and Life Chances from 1850,2017,Vol.

Abstract:Young Criminal Lives is the first cradle-to-grave study of the experiences of some of the thousands of delinquent, ‘difficult’, and destitute children passing through the early English juvenile industrial school and reformatory system. Applying biographical research methodologies to digital data, we have reconstructed the lives, families, and neighbourhoods of 500 children who were sent to reformatory and industrial schools in the north-west of England from courts around the UK over a fifty-year period from the 1860s onwards. For the first time, we have been able to follow these children on their journey in and out of institutional care, and then though to their adulthood and old age. We centre on institutions celebrated in this period for their pioneering approaches to child welfare and others that were investigated for cruelty and scandal. Both were typical of the new kind of state-certified provision offered, from the 1850s onwards, to children who had committed criminal acts, or who were considered ‘vulnerable’ to predation, poverty, and the ‘inheritance’ of criminal dispositions.

77.College students’ perspectives on English-medium instruction and their English learning motivational intensity

Author:Wei,Rining;Feng,Jieyun;Ma,Qing

Source:English-Medium Instruction in Chinese Universities: Perspectives, Discourse and Evaluation,2017,Vol.

78.Big Data A Classification of Acquisition and Generation Methods

Author:Nanjappan, Vijayakumar ; Liang, Hai-Ning ; Wang, Wei ; Man, Ka L.

Source:Big Data Analytics for Sensor-Network Collected Intelligence,2017,Vol.

Abstract:Traditionally, data have been stored in securely protected databases for special purposes, such as satellite imagery data for earth science research or customer transaction data for business analytics. The usefulness of data lies in the fact that they can be examined and analyzed to unearth correlations among data items and to discover knowledge to gain deeper insightful trends. Data analytics has been the key research topic in data mining, knowledge discovery and machine learning for decades. In recent years, the term "data" has experienced a major rejuvenation in many aspects of our lives. The rapid development of the Internet and web technologies allows ordinary users to generate vast amounts of data about their daily lives. On the Internet of Things, the number of connected devices has grown exponentially; each of these produces real-time or near real-time streaming data about our physical world. The resulting data, which is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to be stored, processed, and analyzed with conventional computing methodologies and resources, is referred to as the "Big Data." In this chapter, we focus on a subset of big data digital data and analog data. These two major subsets are further divided as the environmental and personal source of data. We have also highlighted the data types and formats as well as different input mechanisms. These classifications are helpful to understand the active and passive way of data collection and production with explicit and without (i.e., implicit) human involvement. This chapter intends to provide enough information to support the reader to understand the role of digital and analog sources, and how data is acquired, transmitted, and preprocessed using today's growing variety of computing devices and sensors. © 2017 All rights reserved.

79.Structuring and managing supply network: A review of current literature and conceptual framework

Author:Liu,Zheng

Source:Operations and Service Management: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications,2017,Vol.

Abstract:© 2018 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. The concept of supply network has extended supply chain across national borders towards globalization. The aim of this chapter is to provide researchers, business practitioners and university students a picture of the architecture of supply networks. By analyzing two main trends of studies in the field of supply network management, components of supply network are classified into structural and infrastructural factors. Also a comparison is made to identify the difference between supply network and traditionally factory-based manufacturing system. Based on the literature review, a conceptual framework is further proposed which describes the supply network from four essential perspectives: Role/function, Relationship/alliance, Configuration/reconfiguration, and Risk and crisis management. After presenting detailed models and decision making areas of each perspective, suggestions are given on some emerging topics.

80.Migrant workers and China's development: A critical social responsibility perspective

Author:Hack-Polay,Dieu;Qiu,Haiyan

Source:Development-Oriented Corporate Social Responsibility,2017,Vol.2

Abstract:This chapter addresses a critical issue relating to the sustainability of the vast economic progress that the People's Republic of China has made in just over three decades of opening up and becoming a full participant in the global economy. The phenomenal development has brought about good fortune to many of the country's communities but it has also engendered different types of problems. Millions of people have been displaced to become migrant workers and social inequalities remained and even widened. These inequalities are significantly sharp in relation to migrant workers who are incidentally the backbone of China's development and whose labour benefits the myriad of private companies in the country. The chapter concludes that the sustainability of China's development depends largely on the ability and willingness of those beneficiary companies and the State to successfully confront these issues and deal with them.

81.Beyond pragmatism: The pedagogy of the impressed

Author:Williams,Austin

Source:Beyond McDonaldization: Visions of Higher Education,2017,Vol.

Abstract:© 2017 D. Hayes. Everybody loves China these days, but it has not always been thus. Its transformation from an international pariah state to the envy of the world has been even quicker and more impressive than its much-vaunted economic miracle. Emerging from a peasant economy to be the largest trading nation in the world in 35 years is astonishing, but its shift from Tiananmen Square revilement to gaining a seat on the UN Human Rights council in 25 years is no less remarkable. The strategic analyst Gerald Segal published an article in Foreign Affairs in 1999 titled 'Does China Matter?' As The Diplomat magazine now points out, 'today virtually nobody would ask the question'. China and Chinese-ness are everywhere. The phrase 'Chinese Dream' has almost entered the Western canon. China's movie industry is gaining fans as well as providing a source of funding for ailing Western studios. Jack Ma's Alibaba is the most popular destination for online shopping worldwide. And the UN World Tourism Organization predicts that China will be the world's leading travel destination around 2016-2018. Admittedly, there are still Cold Warriors who baulk at the continued use of Mao's face on China's paper currency, or who protest at the illiberal excesses of its one-party state, but it seems that, in general, we're all Chinaphiles now. Former British Prime Minister David Cameron is explicit: 'We want to see China succeed' (Cameron 2012). Nowhere is China emerging as a Western obsession more than in the education sector. China's educational development - or its 'education revolution' as it is often approvingly dubbed - is cited as the way forward for many educationalists and politicians alike. As the West chases the Chinese yuan and tries to safeguard the financial benefits of luring Chinese students to its universities, it might be an appropriate time to explore the reality of Chinese education and what drives it.

82.Fear of crime before 'fear of crime?'

Author:Godfrey,Barry

Source:The Routledge International Handbook on Fear of Crime,2017,Vol.

83.The impact of e-commerce on the clothing retailers: Studies on chinese companies

Author:Ge,Tianlong;Liu,Zheng;Ma,Lei

Source:Mobile Commerce: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications,2017,Vol.3

Abstract:In the past 10 years, e-commerce has developed rapidly in the clothing industry. Many companies seek strategies to expand, innovate, and restructure, and the traditional impact from manufacturing is gradually replaced by customer relationship. E-commerce provides opportunities for both large clothing companies and small retailers. In China, the largest emerging country, there is also a trend for clothing companies to market and establish customer relationship online. This chapter focuses on how Chinese clothing retailers compete through e-commerce platform. It starts with an introduction of clothing industry, supply chain and e-commerce practice from literature perspectives. Then, there are industry review and cases studies into five Chinese clothing companies with a highlight on their management in the context of e-commerce and customer relationship. Discussion will be made to address the critical issues, followed by a summary of the chapter.

84.Fast graph-based semi-supervised learning and its applications

Author:Zhang,Yan Ming;Huang,Kaizhu;Geng,Guang Gang;Liu,Cheng Lin

Source:Semi-Supervised Learning: Background, Applications and Future Directions,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Despite the great success of graph-based transductive learning methods, most of them have serious problems in scalability and robustness. In this chapter, we propose an efficient and robust graph-based transductive classification method, called minimum tree cut (MTC), which is suitable for large scale data. Motivated from the sparse representation of graph, we approximate a graph by a spanning tree. Exploiting the simple structure, we develop a linear-time algorithm to label the tree such that the cut size of the tree is minimized. This significantly improves graph-based methods, which typically have a polynomial time complexity. Moreover, we theoretically and empirically show that the performance of MTC is robust to the graph construction, overcoming another big problem of traditional graph-based methods. Extensive experiments on public data sets and applications on text extraction fromimages demonstrate our method’s advantages in aspect of accuracy, speed, and robustness.

85.Corporate marginal tax rate estimation: Evidence based on China’s listed companies

Author:Nong,Jin;Chen,Yang

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter aims at using an innovative method developed by Blouin et al. (Improved estimates of marginal tax rates: why they are needed, approach, and implications. Memo, 2008) to simulate 1041 China’s listed companies’ corporate marginal tax rate, and comparing the changes in marginal tax rate in the context of 2007 tax reform in China. After simulation and comparison, we find that the annual corporate marginal tax rate has greatly decreased after the new tax policy goes into effect. Besides, the tax effects on marginal tax rates vary with industry and across ownership.

86.The epistemology of Yin-Yang balancing as the root of Chinese cultural traditions: The indigenous features and geocentric implications

Author:Li,Peter Ping

Source:The Psychological and Cultural Foundations of East Asian Cognition: Contradiction, Change, and Holism,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Most Eastern traditional philosophies, such as Taoism, from China, share a set of core themes that constitute a philosophy of wisdom (science-art integration), in contrast to Western philosophies with a focus on knowledge (science-art separation). This chapter argues that the epistemological system of yin-yang balancing is the root of Eastern culture traditions. Building on this theme, the chapter elaborates on the unique features of yin-yang balancing, in contrast to Aristotle's formal logic and Hegel's dialectics in the West. It is posited that yin-yang balancing is more sophisticated (rather than naïve) than all dialectical logic for paradox management, since it is the only system that can truly accommodate and appreciate paradox and has the potential to absorb all Western systems into a geocentric (East-meets-West) meta-system. The chapter concludes with an application of yin-yang balancing to the geocentric integration of the Eastern philosophy of wisdom with the Western philosophy of knowledge, toward a new geocentric meta-paradigm.

87.Semi-supervised learning: Background, applications and future directions

Author:Zhong,Guoqiang;Huang,Kaizhu

Source:Semi-Supervised Learning: Background, Applications and Future Directions,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Semi-supervised learning is an important area of machine learning. It deals with problems that involve a lot of unlabeled data and very scarce labeled data. The book focuses on state-of-the-art research on semi-supervised learning. In the first chapter, Weng, Dornaika and Jin introduce a graph construction algorithm named the constrained data self-representative graph construction (CSRGC). In the second chapter, to reduce the graph construction complexity, Zhang et al. use anchors that were a special subset chosen from the original data to construct the full graph, while randomness was injected into graphs to improve the classification accuracy and deal with the high dimensionality issue. In the third chapter, Dornaika et al. introduce a kernel version of the Flexible Manifold Embedding (KFME) algorithm. In the fourth chapter, Zhang et al. present an efficient and robust graph-based transductive classification method known as the minimum tree cut (MTC), for large scale applications. In the fifth chapter, Salazar, Safont and Vergara investigated the performance of semi-supervised learning methods in two-class classification problems with a scarce population of one of the classes. In the sixth chapter, by breaking the sample identically and independently distributed (i.i.d.) assumption, one novel framework called the field support vector machine (F-SVM) with both classification (F-SVC) and regression (F-SVR) purposes is introduced. In the seventh chapter, Gong employs the curriculum learning methodology by investigating the difficulty of classifying every unlabeled example. As a result, an optimized classification sequence was generated during the iterative propagations, and the unlabeled examples are logically classified from simple to difficult. In the eighth chapter, Tang combines semi-supervised learning with geo-tagged photo streams and concept detection to explore situation recognition. This book is suitable for university students (undergraduate or graduate) in computer science, statistics, electrical engineering, and anyone else who would potentially use machine learning algorithms; professors, who research artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, machine learning, data mining and related fields; and engineers, who apply machine learning models into their products.

88.Income inequality in China and the role of fiscal policies: An empirical study of Chinese provincial data

Author:Zhang,Fan;Hung,Juann H.

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter conducts panel regressions using provincial data from 2005 to 2010 to investigate whether China’s fiscal system is effective in mitigating the rise in income inequality in those years. On the revenue side, we find that only operation tax has a significant negative effect on income inequality. Value-added tax (VAT), individual and enterprise income tax all have an insignificant impact on income inequality. We suspect the insignificant effect of progressive individual income tax on income inequality reflects tax evasion by the rich. On the spending side, the results indicate that all government expenditures have no significant impacts on reducing income inequality. This suggests that, among other possibilities, government spending lacks efficiency or pays insufficient attention to the needy.

89.The role of the exchange rate in China’s outward foreign direct investment

Author:Ding,Xinyun;Salike,Nimesh

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This research estimates the impact of exchange rate and exchange rate volatility on Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) utilizing panel data in 21 countries from 2004 to 2013. A basic gravity model and fixed effect model are applied to find that both market-seeking motivation and economic openness are positive determinants for Chinese OFDI. A depreciated host country currency is more favorable for Chinese OFDI. On the contrary, exchange rate volatility has adverse effects, meaning Chinese OFDI declines with exchange rate volatility. There is no obvious evidence to support that China has a preference to choose developed or developing countries as its OFDI host countries.

90.The rise in China’s gender income inequality

Author:Sun,Qi;Hung,Juann H.

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This research aims to shed light on the causes of the rising gender income gap in China. We first apply the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method (Oaxaca, Int Eco Rev 14: 693-709, 1973; Blinder, J Hum Res 8: 436-455, 1973) to our survey data to estimate the extent to which that gap can be explained by the difference in human capital characteristics (such as years of education and years of experience). We find that a rising discrimination against females (either due to tradition or otherwise) is not the main cause of the rising gender income gap in China. Instead, we present evidence to propose that two of the three main drivers of China’s economic growth-namely, privatization and urbanization-very likely have contributed to the rise in China’s gender income gap.

91.3D food printing Perspectives    

Author:Sun, Jie ; Zhou, Weibiao ; Huang, Dejian ; Yan, Liangkun

Source:Polymers for Food Applications,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Due to consumers’ growing attention to personal health, food products that focus on personal care, healthy concepts and functional claims are emerging as a new trend. This motivates a growing market for personalized healthy food, which aims to tailor and fabricate diet specifically based on an individual’s health condition. Traditional food preparation processes even with advanced processing technologies cannot meet such demands. Three-dimensional (3D) food printing, also known as Food Layered Manufacture, can be one of the potential ways to bridge this gap. This is a digitally controlled, robotic construction process, which can build up complex 3D food products layer by layer. It aims to revolutionize food manufacturing with customized shape, color, flavor, texture, and even nutrition. Hence, food products can be designed and fabricated to meet individual needs through controlling the amount of printing material and nutrition content. Foods created by 3D printing have already entered the market. A range of 3D printing methods, platforms, materials and recipes have been utilized. This chapter reviews the common approaches and techniques used in food printing. The market challenges, technical difficulties and possible strategies along the pathway of commercialization are also discussed. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018.

93.The state of China’s state capitalism: Evidence of its successes and pitfalls

Author:Hung,Juann H.;Chen,Yang

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This book comprises a collection of well-researched essays on selected contemporary economic and finance issues in China, making a timely contribution to the intellectual intercourse regarding the implications of China’s rise. These essays analyze issues related to the state of China’s ecology, real estate market, inbound and outbound FDI, income inequality, etc., and offer analysis on the policy and institutional causes of those issues. Readers will be able to infer their implications for business opportunities in China and the tradeoff / tension between economic growth and social welfare. Moreover, this book introduces an array of data and data sources useful to scholars and practitioners interested in studying the Chinese model of economic growth. This book will be a valuable resource to journalists and scholars trying to gain insight into China’s extraordinary pace of growth in the past three decades.

94.Editorial: Finance and risk management for international logistics and the supply chain

Author:Gong,Stephen;Cullinane,Kevin

Source:Finance and Risk Management for International Logistics and the Supply Chain,2018,Vol.

95.When Wanda Plaza comes to the Yangtze River Delta: Will the land prices increase?

Author:Zhang,Ziwei;Chen,Yang

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Wanda-one of the Chinese real estate sector leading companies claims that the Wanda Plaza is the “heart” of a city. In this chapter, we use the panel dataset of land transactions during the period of 2008-2016 in 109 counties in Yangtze River Delta to test whether the entry of a new Wanda Plaza increases the county-level average land prices. Using the difference-in-difference (DID) strategy, our estimates suggest that a new Wanda Plaza opening increases the price of the industrial land by about 0.1-0.15%% and increases the price of the residential land by about 0.22-0.25%%.

96.Fiscal decentralization, yardstick competition in determining Chinese local governments’ land conveyance behavior

Author:Yang,Wenyin;Chen,Yang

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter investigates the institutional and political motivation behind Chinese local governments’ land conveyance behavior. The principal-agent model is adopted to illustrate the mechanisms of how yardstick competition and fiscal decentralization encourage land sale. We find that although yardstick competition promotes short-term economic growth, the presence of land finance impairs the “selection effect” of yardstick competition. Using a panel data of 31 Chinese provinces from 2003 to 2011 in a spatial autoregressive model, we show that yardstick competition exerts a large positive impact on the intensity of land sale and leasing, while the influence of fiscal decentralization has a moderate impact and the influence of foreign direct investment (FDI) appears to be insignificant.

97.A Simple Step-Stress Model for Coherent Systems and Associated Inference Based on System Signatures

Author:Zhu,Xiaojun;Mitra,Debanjan;Balakrishnan,Narayanaswamy

Source:Studies in Systems, Decision and Control,2018,Vol.142

Abstract:Coherent systems are important structures in reliability. In this paper, we discuss the maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of model parameters of an system with known signature having an exponential component distribution based on a simple step-stress model. We also develop confidence intervals (CIs) for the model parameters. A detailed Monte Carlo study is carried out to examine the performance of the point and estimates. Finally, a data analysis is performed for illustrating all the inferential methods developed here.

98.Small-Scale public transportable and pre-fabricated buildings Evaluating their functional performance

Author:Xi, Junjie

Source:Small-Scale Public Transportable and Pre-Fabricated Buildings Evaluating their Functional Performance,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This book investigates the design, operation and use of contemporary transportable buildings, and explores how functional performance can be assessed in small-scale examples for public use alongside their relationship to other design elements. The research focuses on three case studies, Chengdu Hualin Elementary School, Exxopolis and Kreod, that do not require a high-technology building environment or complex construction skills. Transportable buildings are defined as those that are transported in a number of parts for assembly on site. Contemporary transportable buildings respond to ecological issues, social impacts, technological innovation and economic demands. They can be used to measure a society’s development in environmental sustainability, innovation and economic growth through various forms. Small-scale transportable buildings fulfil many temporary habitation needs in diverse roles, such as non-emergency transitional housing, ephemeral exhibition buildings and seasonal entertainment facilities. Small-Scale Public Transportable and Pre-Fabricated Buildings will be a useful research text for academics and students in architecture, design and sustainable building performance. © 2018 Junjie Xi.

99.Determinants of the urban investment bonds in China

Author:Li,Daike;Chen,Yang

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter investigates the determinants of the issuance of urban investment bonds (UIBs) across 31 provinces in China during the period of 2005-2013 using a spatial autoregressive model. We find that the provincial governments tend to compete with or imitate their neighboring provinces in bond issuance. The neighborhood can be defined in terms of either geographical proximity or economic performance. We also find that the fiscal gap, governments’ investments in housing and public welfare, and bond level in the previous year have positive association with the issuance of UIBs in China.

100.Self-training field pattern prediction based on kernel methods

Author:Jiang,Haochuan;Huang,Kaizhu;Zhang,Xu Yao;Zhang,Rui

Source:Semi-Supervised Learning: Background, Applications and Future Directions,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Conventional predictors often regard input samples as identically and independently distributed (i.i.d.). Such an assumption does not always hold in many real scenarios, especially when patterns occur as groups, where each group shares a homogeneous style. These tasks are named as the field prediction, which can be divided into the field classification and the field regression. Traditional i.i.d.-based machine learning models would always face degraded performance. By breaking the i.i.d. assump- tion, one novel framework called Field SupportVector Machine (F-SVM) with both classification (F-SVC) and regression (F-SVR) purposes is in- troduced in this chapter. To be specific, the proposed F-SVM predictor is investigated by learning simultaneously both the predictor and the Style Normalization Transformation (SNT) for each group of data (called field). Such joint learning is proved to be even feasible in the high-dimensional kernel space. An efficient alternative optimization algorithm is further designed with the final convergence guaranteed theoretically and experimentally. More importantly, a self-training based kernelized algorithm is also developed to incorporate the F-SVM model with the unknown field during the training phase by learning the transductive SNT to transfer the trained field information to this unknown style data. A series of experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the F-SVM model with both classification and regression tasks by promoting the classification accuracy and declining regression error. Empirical results demonstrate that the proposed F-SVM achieves in several benchmark datasets the best performance so far, significantly better than those state-of-the-art predictors.
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