Find Research Output

Research Output
  • All
  • Scholar Profiles
  • Research Units
  • Research Output
Filter
Department Publication Year Content Type Data Sources

SELECTED FILTERS

BOOK
Clear all

41.Factor prices and geographical economics

Author:Brakman,Steven;Van Marrewijk,Charles

Source:Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Economic Geography,2015,Vol.

Abstract:A key result in neoclassical trade theory, or the Heckscher–Ohlin model, is the so-called factor price equalization theorem (FPE; see Leamer, 2012 for a survey). It states that countries engaged in free trade that produce the same set of commodities, using similar techniques, have identical factor prices. This is a surprising result if one considers that in this stylized neoclassical world, countries that differ with respect to factor supplies still have the same factor prices. This result implies that, for example, (il)legal immigrants do not affect local wages. The differences in factor supplies are absorbed by differences in the commodity bundle that a country produces. In equilibrium, a labor-abundant country produces more of the labor-intensive commodity, and the capital-abundant country more of the capital-intensive commodity. So an inflow of migrants does not lower wages because this inflow increases production of the labor-intensive commodity and thereby raises demand for labor. Consumers are not affected either because international trade corrects for the differences in local supply and demand (the excess supply of the labor-intensive commodity is traded in order to restore equilibrium). In a closed economy this outcome is not possible because an increase in labor supply and the resulting increase of the production of the labor-intensive commodity would lower its price and also wages. If this seems too good to be true, this opinion is correct. FPE is a mathematical result that has produced an enormous (empirical) literature, but, as observed by Leamer and Levinsohn (1995, p. 1357), ‘the real question isn’t whether FPE is true or not. Trust us, it isn’t true. The real question is what causes the violations we observe.’ In addition there is also no unambiguous evidence of global convergence of factor prices (Milanovic, 2005).

42.Empirical studies in geographical economics

Author:Chang,Han Hsin;Van Marrewijk,Charles;Schramm,Marc

Source:Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Economic Geography,2015,Vol.

Abstract:Since the seminal work of Krugman (1991) led the way, many researchers have further analyzed and explained the intricate connections between international trade flows, factor mobility, agglomeration and production; see Brakman et al. (2009) for an overview of the literature. As explained in Brakman and Van Marrewijk (Chapter 3 of this volume), there are now three ‘core’ models of new economic geography, or ‘geographical economics’, as we prefer to label it: (i) Krugman’s model based on labor mobility; (ii) the solvable human capital model based on Forslid and Ottaviano (2003); and (iii) the intermediate goods model based on Krugman and Venables (1995). All these models give rise to similar dynamics and core–periphery patterns with path-dependency and multiple long-run equilibria. This chapter focuses on empirical studies that stay relatively close to the core models in geographical economics. Our contribution is limited to providing an update of the contributions regarding four key features of geographical economics as identified by Head and Mayer (2004a, p. 2616): A large market potential raises local factor prices. ● A large market will increase demand for local factors of production and this raises factor rewards. Regions surrounded by or close to regions with high real income (indicating strong spatial demand linkages) will have relatively higher wages. ● A large market potential induces factor inflows. Footloose factors of production will be attracted to those markets where firms pay relatively high factor rewards. In the Krugman core model footloose workers move to the region with highest real wage and similarly firms prefer locations with good market access. ● Reduction in trade costs induces agglomeration, at least beyond a critical level of transport or trade costs. For a large range of transport costs a change in these costs may not lead to a change in the equilibrium degree of agglomeration, but if a shock moves the economy beyond its break or sustain point the economy goes from spreading to agglomeration, or vice versa, respectively. This also implies that more economic integration (interpreted as a lowering of transport costs) should at some point lead to (more) agglomeration of the footloose activities and factors of production. ● Shock sensitivity. Changes in the economic environment can (but need not!) trigger a change in the equilibrium spatial distribution of economic activity. This hypothesis goes to the heart of the idea that geographical economics models are characterized by multiple equilibria.

43.Neighbourhood determinants for life satisfaction of older people in Beijing

Author:Yan,Bingqiu;Gao,Xiaolu;Breitung,Werner

Source:Mobility, Sociability and Well-Being of Urban Living,2015,Vol.

Abstract:Demographic change and ageing societies are an increasingly critical issue for researchers and policymakers across the world and in particular in China, where the government’s population control strategies have since the late 1970s substantially changed social and demographic structures. At the same time, the traditional role of families in caring for elderly people is diminishing. In this situation, the neighbourhood as a living environment and as a platform for service provision is growing in importance for the elderly. Building on the authors’ previous proposition that age-friendly urban planning needs to take differences between neighbourhood types into account, the objective of this study is to identify which neighbourhood factors concretely contribute to the life satisfaction of seniors in different Beijing neighbourhoods. For this purpose, we used structural equation modelling (SEM) and found social support to be the primary neighbourhood factor affecting life satisfaction amongst the urban elderly in Beijing. We then differentiated between aged neighbourhoods with a high number of older people and others with less elderly residents, and found dwelling conditions and community-provided senior services to be additional critical indicators of satisfaction in the former and accessibility to services in the latter. Accordingly, we suggest tailoring government interventions that aim at age-friendly environments differently in different neighbourhoods.

44.Gothic forms of time: Architecture, Romanticism, Medievalism

Author:Duggett,Tom

Source:Romantic Gothic: An Edinburgh Companion,2015,Vol.

45.Media Coverage and Stock Returns: Evidence from Chinese Cross-Listed Firms

Author:Wang,Chen;Ding,Rong;Hou,Wenxuan;Lee,Edward

Source:Experiences and Challenges in the Development of the Chinese Capital Market,2015,Vol.

46.Bio-Inspired Computation and Optimization: An Overview

Author:Yang,Xin She;Chien,Su Fong;Ting,Tiew On

Source:Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications,2015,Vol.

Abstract:All design problems in telecommunications can be formulated as optimization problems, and thus may be tackled by some optimization techniques. However, these problems can be extremely challenging due to the stringent time requirements, complex constraints, and a high number of design parameters. Solution methods tend to use conventional methods such as Lagrangian duality and fractional programming in combination with numerical solvers, while new trends tend to use evolutionary algorithms and swarm intelligence. This chapter provides a summary review of the bio-inspired optimization algorithms and their applications in telecommunications. We also discuss key issues in optimization and some active topics for further research.

47.Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications

Author:Yang,Xin She;Chien,Su Fong;Ting,Tiew On

Source:Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications,2015,Vol.

Abstract:Bio-inspired computation, especially those based on swarm intelligence, has become increasingly popular in the last decade. Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications reviews the latest developments in bio-inspired computation from both theory and application as they relate to telecommunications and image processing, providing a complete resource that analyzes and discusses the latest and future trends in research directions. Written by recognized experts, this is a must-have guide for researchers, telecommunication engineers, computer scientists and PhD students.

48.PBL and technology-supported learning: Exploring the right blend

Author:Huijser,Henk;Kek,Megan Yih Chyn A.

Source:Problem-Based Learning: Perspectives, Methods and Challenges,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2016 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. In the introduction to her book Problem-based Learning Online, Maggi Savin-Baden (2006) outlined the key challenges of using problem-based learning (PBL) online. Her two main underlying points were firstly that we do not really know or understand fully what it is we have created in PBL online, which she terms ‘unrealised complexity,’ and secondly that there has been considerable effort expended on the development of managed learning environments rather than the pedagogy of such development. In many ways, these underlying points are still highly relevant today, and they affect a number of key concerns and research questions that were identified at the time: • whether (and how) PBL online would affect the existence of face-to-face problem-based learning • whether it would destroy some of the original goals of PBL such as learning in groups, group work, or critical thinking This chapter combines theories of Problem Based Learning (PBL) with technologysupported learning practice to bridge the divide between theory and practice as it relates to the development of online PBL curricula. To make a theoretical argument about why PBL is a good approach to teaching in the 21st century is not so difficult, as it appears to tick all the right boxes. However, there is a large gap between the theory and the practice especially because PBL has the biggest potential impact if it is seen as a holistic approach to learning and teaching, rather than as one of many teaching techniques that include curriculum design, assessment, e-learning or any other element of learning and teaching that can be addressed in isolation. Any rewards, however small, from PBL can be achieved by design in a holistic manner and at the curriculum level. This means in turn that the implementation of PBL on an institutional level often encounters major obstacles and challenges, ranging from professional development needs to expectations about resource needs. In short, the theory behind PBL is convincing, but the link to practice is not always explicitly made. This paper attempts to address this gap between PBL theory and practice, by exploring a combination of PBL theory and blended learning theory and applying them to a practical application model. This is crucial if the goal is to revitalise problem-based learning for a new generation of learners, and to make it a relevant and rewarding pedagogical approach for this generation.

49.An investigation on fair trade business: Opportunities and challenges

Author:Zhang,Kaifeng;Liu,Zheng

Source:Handbook of Research on Green Economic Development Initiatives and Strategies,2016,Vol.

Abstract:In the past 20 years, Fair Trade appears as an approach of trading encouraging minimal returns, safety, sustainability and ethics. There are some good practices of Fair Trade supply chain management in the western companies such as the Body Shop; however, the development of Fair Trade business is still a new concept in developing countries such as China. This proposed chapter will start with an introduction of Fair Trade, and then analyze successful cases in the western countries. There will be initial investigation into Fair Trade supply chain management in China, with a focus on its opportunities and challenges. Discussion will be made to address the critical issues of Fair Trade management, followed by a summary of the chapter.

50.Sustainable entrepreneurship, opportunity creation: A corporate political activity view

Author:Cao,Xuanwei;Fischer,Doris

Source:Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation,2016,Vol.

51.Rural land consolidation in China

Author:Sheng,Zhong

Source:China's Great Urbanization,2016,Vol.

52.Urban China’s rural fringe: Actors, dimensions and management challenges

Author:Verdini,Giulio;Wang,Yiwen;Zhang,Xiaonan

Source:Urban China's Rural Fringe: Actors, Dimensions and Management Challenges,2016,Vol.

53.Will self and contemporary British society

Author:Matthews,Graham

Source:Will Self and Contemporary British Society,2016,Vol.

Abstract:This stimulating and comprehensive study of Will Self's work spans his entire career and offers insightful readings of all his fictional and non-fictional work up to and including his Booker prize nominated novel Umbrella.

54.Entrepreneurship in an indigenous community: Sustainable tourism and economic development in a newly inscribed UNESCO World Heritage Site

Author:Chan,Jin Hooi;Zhang,Ying;McDonald,Tom;Qi,Xiaoguang

Source:Indigenous People and Economic Development: An International Perspective,2016,Vol.

Abstract:In June 2013, the Honghe Hani Rice Terraces in China were inscribed as a UNESCO World Cultural Landscape in recognition of their breathtaking beauty and the centuries-long sustainable relationship between the environment and indigenous communities stewarded by unique cultural and religious practices. Based on intensive fieldwork, this chapter discusses the environmental issues currently facing the rice terraces and communities, and the possible effects and implications following the UNESCO inscription. The chapter provides a comprehensive review of the intertwined social, cultural and environmental factors within the site, including out-migration, tourism development and the role of government, sustainability, governance, and entrepreneurship of the local indigenous community. The chapter argues that tourism development and the subsequent World Heritage Site inscription have overwhelmingly brought important effects for local communities, particularly while local communities display an enormous amount of ingenuity in addressing existing challenges and adapting to new opportunities. The benefits of development should be more widely distributed among the communities. This chapter thus highlights the critical role of providing the indigenous community with access to resources such as knowledge, skills and finance to enable greater involvement and participation, while making the case for acknowledgement of the different forms of participation and ownership.

55.The rural fringe in China: Existing conflicts and prospective urban-rural synergies

Author:Verdini,Giulio

Source:Urban China's Rural Fringe: Actors, Dimensions and Management Challenges,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2016 Giulio Verdini, Yiwen Wang, Xiaonan Zhang and the contributors. The rural fringe of Chinese cities is today a transitional place between urban and rural areas where several contradictions take place partly inherited from the past and partly due to recent trends of development. A consolidated body of international literature regarding the conceptualization of the fringe and the urbanrural interaction has already demonstrated that ‘populations and activities described either as “rural” or “urban” are more closely linked both across space and across sectors than is usually thought, and that distinctions are often arbitrary’ (Tacoli 1998). Thus peri-urban households may be ‘multispatial’, with some residents working in towns or others engaged in non-farm activities in the countryside. China, as other emerging countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa, featuring rapid urbanization, is no exception with similar ‘complexities of changing periurban production and livelihood systems’ (Simon 2008).

56.Being middle class in China: Identity, attitudes and behaviour

Author:Miao,Ying

Source:Being Middle Class in China: Identity, Attitudes and Behaviour,2016,Vol.

Abstract:Many studies of the Chinese middle class focus on defining it and viewing its significance for economic development and its potential for sociopolitical modernisation. This book goes beyond such objective approaches and considers middle class people's subjective understanding and diverse experiences of class. Based on extensive original research including social surveys and detailed interviews, the book explores who the middle class think they are, what they think about a wide range of socioeconomic and sociopolitical issues, and why they think as they do. It examines attitudes towards the welfare state, social inequality, nationalism, relations with foreign countries and opinions on many social controversies, thereby portraying middle class people as more than simply luxury consumers and potential agents of democracy. The book concludes that a clear class identity and political consciousness have yet to emerge, but that middle class attitudes are best characterised as searching for a balance between old and new, the traditional and the foreign, the principled and the pragmatic.

57.Social learning in creative Shanghai

Author:Zhong,Sheng

Source:Insurgencies and Revolutions: Reflections on John Friedmann's Contributions to Planning Theory and Practice,2016,Vol.

58.Public participation in contested spatial planning: Learning from a failed urban development project

Author:Zhang,Xiaonan;Sun,Lei

Source:Urban China's Rural Fringe: Actors, Dimensions and Management Challenges,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2016 Giulio Verdini, Yiwen Wang, Xiaonan Zhang and the contributors. Recent work on metropolitan growth in developing countries (see Shaw and Satish 2007; Zhang 2000, 2002) has suggested that changes in governance have a significant influence on urban spatial changes and suburban development. China is taking a decentralization process so the local governments have more power to control public policies, resource allocation and delivery of public goods and services (Zhang 2002). The decentralization of power opens up broad space to multi-scale forms of governance with multi-stakeholder arrangements (Rakodi 2003; Zhao et al. 2009). In the multi-stakeholder arrangement system, conflicting interests should be allowed and negotiation between the government and other sectors replaces mere command control from government. As a result, spatial planning is facing much more challenges stemming from the uncertainties of current local developments (Zhao et al. 2009).

59.Structuring and managing supply network: A review of current literature and conceptual framework

Author:Liu,Zheng

Source:Handbook of Research on Global Supply Chain Management,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2016 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. The concept of supply network has extended supply chain across national borders towards globalization. The aim of this chapter is to provide researchers, business practitioners and university students a picture of the architecture of supply networks. By analyzing two main trends of studies in the field of supply network management, components of supply network are classified into structural and infrastructural factors. Also a comparison is made to identify the difference between supply network and traditionally factory-based manufacturing system. Based on the literature review, a conceptual framework is further proposed which describes the supply network from four essential perspectives: Role/function, Relationship/ alliance, Configuration/reconfiguration, and Risk and crisis management. After presenting detailed models and decision making areas of each perspective, suggestions are given on some emerging topics.

60.Statistical discriminability estimation for pattern classification based on neural incremental attribute learning

Author:Wang,Ting;Puthusserypady,Sadasivan;Guan,Sheng Uei;Wong,Prudence W.H.

Source:Artificial Intelligence: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications,2016,Vol.3

Abstract:Feature ordering is a significant data preprocessing method in Incremental Attribute Learning (IAL), a novel machine learning approach which gradually trains features according to a given order. Previous research has shown that, similar to feature selection, feature ordering is also important based on each feature's discrimination ability, and should be sorted in a descending order of their discrimination ability. However, such an ordering is crucial for the performance of IAL. As the number of feature dimensions in IAL is increasing, feature discrimination ability also should be calculated in the corresponding incremental way. Based on Single Discriminability (SD), where only the feature discrimination ability is computed, a new filter statistical feature discrimination ability predictive metric, called the Accumulative Discriminability (AD), is designed for the dynamical feature discrimination ability estimation. Moreover, a criterion that summarizes all the produced values of AD is employed with a GA (Genetic Algorithm)- based approach to obtain the optimum feature ordering for classification problems based on neural networks by means of IAL. Compared with the feature ordering obtained by other approaches, the method proposed in this paper exhibits better performance in the final classification results. Such a phenomenon indicates that, (i) the feature discrimination ability should be incrementally estimated in IAL, and (ii) the feature ordering derived by AD and its corresponding approaches are applicable with IAL.
Total 167 results found
Copyright 2006-2020 © Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University 苏ICP备07016150号-1 京公网安备 11010102002019号