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21.The empirical link between innovation, learning and performance in Chinese international joint ventures

Author:Julian,Craig C.;Xu,Junqian

Source:Research Handbook on the Globalization of Chinese Firms,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Although the literature on international joint ventures (IJVs) is already sizeable and steadily growing, there is a paucity of studies on at least one critical issue relating to the growth of IJVs in Asian economies, namely, the salient factors influencing IJV marketing performance. In the international business literature there are many studies that identify important determinants of IJV performance in general (Johnson et al., 2001; Lee and Beamish, 1995; Makino and Beamish, 1998). However, the literature does not adequately cover the issues relating to IJV marketing performance. In the international business literature, studies on marketing performance are largely confined to those firms involved in direct or indirect exporting (Cavusgil and Zou, 1994; Julian, 2003) with very little empirical evidence on IJV marketing performance. Given that successful marketing performance is critical to overall successful business performance (Crocombe, 1991), and the deficiency in the level of empirical evidence on IJV marketing performance, we decided to focus on marketing performance in order to enhance the already significant body of IJV literature. IJV marketing performance is defined as the degree to which the IJV’s marketing objectives, both economic and strategic, with respect to a product/service are achieved in a foreign market (that foreign market being China) through the planning and implementation of a specific marketing plan.

22.An optimization algorithm based on brainstorming process

Author:Shi, Yuhui

Source:Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization,2014,Vol.

Abstract:In this chapter, the human brainstorming process is modeled, based on which two versions of a Brain Storm Optimization (BSO) algorithm are introduced. Simulation results show that both BSO algorithms perform reasonably well on ten benchmark functions, which validates the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed BSO algorithms. Simulation results also show that one of the BSO algorithms, BSO-II, performs better than the other BSO algorithm, BSO-I, in general. Furthermore, average inter-cluster distance Dc and inter-cluster diversity De are defined, which can be used to measure and monitor the distribution of cluster centroids and information entropy of the population over iterations. Simulation results illustrate that further improvement could be achieved by taking advantage of information revealed by Dc, which points at one direction for future research on BSO algorithms. © 2015 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

23.Case Studies: Design Practice and Application of Healthcare Technical Guidance and Tools

Author:Phiri,Michael;Chen,Bing

Source:SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Through a number of carefully selected purpose-built Case Studies from the UK, EU, USA, China and Australasia, this section indicates how strategies that integrate sustainability and evidence-based design have been implemented in healthcare design practice. The aim is to document the key drivers for these case study projects and the consequences of applying these design approaches. In doing so, the brief seeks to increase our understanding of the relationship between theory and practice, thus uncovering mechanisms to embed sustainability and evidence-based design in working practices. Ultimately, this will improve efficiency and effectiveness in the delivery of positive healthcare outcomes.

24.A review of healthcare technical guidance/standards, norms and tools

Author:Phiri, Michael ; Chen, Bing

Source:SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology,2014,Vol.

Abstract:The development and update of healthcare premises planning information, technical guidance and tools in health care are controversial and have tended to engender a lot of debate. This is because many interrelated issues are involved, for example, stewardship (whether public or private), regulation (extent of compliance and associated penalties for non-compliance), rationale (whether prescription or performance based), quality, responsibilities and costs of development and updates to keep this information relevant and responsive to changing healthcare practice and technology. In recent years, there have also been many concerns over the ever-increasing amount of advice on best practice standards in the planning and design of healthcare facilities due to burgeoning safety legislation, raising expectations for quality and safety improvements and demands for effectiveness and to achieve value for money. The introduction of new procurement routes such as private finance initiative, public-private partnerships over and above the traditional one has added complexity. A summative rather than a comprehensive review of the healthcare planning information, healthcare facility briefing systems and tools provides an appropriate basis to evaluate some of the issues identified above. The review also answers the question of need for technical guidance and tools in healthcare over and above the planning regulation and building control applied to other types of the built environment. Traditional focus of building control has, in recent times, seen expanded state interventions in health and safety, including prevention of fire risk in buildings to application of rules, regulations and standards relating to the form and performance of buildings and the built environment. This has been necessary not only in order for building design to respond to increased threats to health and safety posed by terrorism and climate change but also to address sociopsychological and cultural issues related to place-making and sustainable urban living. As a result, there has been a proliferation of state-centred legal forms of regulation, formations and a plethora of rules, standards and governance practices as well as requirements by insurance companies to identify, prevent and contain risk (Imrie and Street 2011). © The Author(s) 2014.

25.Transportation costs as a barrier to globalization for nine Asian countries including China

Author:Xu,Junqian;Julian,Craig C.

Source:Research Handbook on the Globalization of Chinese Firms,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Asia Nine, as one of the most crowded places in the world, is composed of both advanced economies - Hong Kong, Japan, Korea and Singapore - and developing countries - China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand. Bilateral trade between Asia Nine has increased dramatically since these countries joined the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) agreement in 1989. Actually all these countries have links with the ancient Chinese cultural sphere and their languages are often derived from Classical Chinese; trade between these countries may date back a thousand years. The cultural and linguistic similarities may have facilitated transport and trade, but bilateral trade between these countries is very historically dependent and most East Asian countries have a colonial relationship with Japan, which as a historical factor would more or less affect bilateral trade. A comparison of transportation costs as a percentage of total trade in both developed countries and developing countries is presented in Table 2.1. G7 countries are included to enable a comparison to be made with Asia Nine. Over the last two decades, generally speaking, transportation costs as a percentage of total trade in the developed countries have declined less than those in the developing countries. As is evident from Table 2.1, however, transport costs as a percentage of total trade are decreasing in both developed and developing countries.

26.Introduction

Author:Phiri,Michael;Chen,Bing

Source:SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology,2014,Vol.

Abstract:© 2014, The Author(s). Worldwide, healthcare organisations are facing challenges and demands to improve design quality and safety of their estate, while addressing burgeoning safety legislation and austere funding arrangements due to the 2007–2010 financial crisis and economic downturn. This has created an imperative for all providers, commissioners and regulators to address how the healthcare environment may need to change. Although widely acknowledged that healthcare guidance/standards and tools are essential to enhance quality and safety in health care, no studies have been published, nor indeed been carried out, with regard to their usefulness. By their very nature, studying guidance and tools is rarely an attractive subject for practitioners and academics alike. However, notable publications include sustainable healthcare architecture aimed at covering the twin big and complex subjects of sustainability and healthcare architecture (Guenther and Vittori: Sustainable healthcare architecture, 2007); a step-by-step guide of how to implement an evidence-based design (EBD) process and those seeking to learn the methodology for EBD of healthcare facilities (Cama: Evidence-based healthcare design, 2009); and a description of evidence-based healthcare facility design that is meant to support quality care and reduce costs (McCullough: Evidence-based healthcare design, 2009). Crucially, the lack of studies and consequently dearth of publications that focus on the role of technical guidance and tools is manifested by the absence of policies and appropriate strategies, as well as a rationale, not only for aiding decision-making in healthcare organisations, but also for acknowledging that, fundamentally, technologies, policies and services are subject to shorter life cycles than the relatively inflexible built assets that support them. This Springer Brief aims to increase our understanding of the role played by technical guidance/standards and tools in design, construction and operation of healthcare facilities as well as ultimately establishing the impact of the physical environment on staff and patient outcomes. Consequently, the aim is for the development of guidance and tools that will aid the creation of architectural environments of quality and safety, which will lead to positive patients’ health outcomes and improved staff productivity.

27.Optimization of drilling process via weightless swarm algorithm

Author:Ting,T. O.

Source:Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization,2014,Vol.

Abstract:In this chapter, the main objective of maximizing the Material Reduction Rate (MRR) in the drilling process is carried out. The model describing the drilling process is adopted from the authors' previous work. With the model in hand, a novel algorithm known as Weightless Swarm Algorithm is employed to solve the maximization of MRR due to some constraints. Results show that WSA can find solutions effectively. Constraints are handled effectively, and no violations occur; results obtained are feasible and valid. Results are then compared to previous results by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. From this comparison, it is quite impossible to conclude which algorithm has a better performance. However, in general, WSA is more stable compared to PSO, from lower standard deviations in most of the cases tested. In addition, the simplicity of WSA offers abundant advantages as the presence of a sole parameter enables easy parameter tuning and thereby enables this algorithm to perform to its fullest.

28.Experimental study on boundary constraints handling in particle swarm optimization from a population diversity perspective

Author:Cheng, Shi ; Shi, Yuhui ; Qin, Quande

Source:Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Premature convergence happens in Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for solving both multimodal problems and unimodal problems. With an improper boundary constraints handling method, particles may get "stuck in" the boundary. Premature convergence means that an algorithm has lost its ability of exploration. Population diversity is an effective way to monitor an algorithm's ability of exploration and exploitation. Through the population diversity measurement, useful search information can be obtained. PSO with a different topology structure and a different boundary constraints handling strategy will have a different impact on particles' exploration and exploitation ability. In this chapter, the phenomenon of particles getting "stuck in" the boundary in PSO is experimentally studied and reported. The authors observe the position diversity time-changing curves of PSOs with different topologies and different boundary constraints handling techniques, and analyze the impact of these settings on the algorithm's abilities of exploration and exploitation. From these experimental studies, an algorithm's abilities of exploration and exploitation can be observed and the search information obtained; therefore, more effective algorithms can be designed to solve problems. © 2015 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

29.A Review of Design Approaches + Strategies

Author:Phiri,Michael;Chen,Bing

Source:SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Identification and analysis of design strategies is essential for this brief to increase our knowledge and understanding in order to provide a rationale basis and underpin the joint approach to property and asset or infrastructure design and management. These are advocated as a way to address in the healthcare sector fragmentation, duplication, redundancy, unsustainable transportation and non-standardisation due to the creation of varying levels of accommodation standards. Design strategies are important because they can aid organisations determine what to produce and do (products or outcomes), how and when to do it (process) and how consistently innovative the products are and over time perform responding to changing contexts (performance) while delivering on return on investment. They can therefore play a vital integrating role in connecting design endeavours to organisation’s business strategy, in identifying the core business and focus of an organisation, in adopting the latest technologies, translating insights into actions and their prioritisation. A brief review of a selection of the main design approaches and strategies from the many that have been advocated for architectural healthcare design in recent times is conducted to provide a suitable basis for the development of technical guidance and tools. These include interrelated design for sustainability, evidence-based design, lean health care and lean-led design, six sigma, simulation modelling, learning from completed construction projects [post-project evaluations (PPE) and post-occupancy evaluations (POE)] and varying combinations of these. Identifying approaches towards measuring and monitoring the environmental impact of new buildings and refurbishment of existing buildings is essential to respond to how best projects in future minimise direct environmental effect. The underlying premise includes the use of different materials, how to manage resources optimally and lessons learnt from the most innovative methods which have been undertaken or applied to address these issues.

30.Feasibility and acceptability of in-depth annotated parallel corpus-aided translation teaching

Author:Wang,Hui

Source:Handbook of Research on Teaching Methods in Language Translation and Interpretation,2014,Vol.

Abstract:© 2015 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. This chapter probes into the feasibility and acceptability of integrating an in-depth annotated parallel corpus into the translation classroom. It proceeds from outlining the conceptual and structural features of English/Chinese Online Translation Teaching Platform, an in-depth annotated parallel corpus designed for teaching and (self-) learning of translation. With a 90-minute lecture as a demo, it illustrates how the combined unity of course teaching materials and the platform, as well as the teaching method and the annotation mode of the corpus, can be effectively achieved. It then discusses users' perceptions of the use of the platform in classroom teaching as shown in a recent survey and points out the possibilities of future development.

31.Population diversity of particle swarm optimizer solving single-and multi-objective problems

Author:Cheng, Shi ; Shi, Yuhui ; Qin, Quande

Source:Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Premature convergence occurs in swarm intelligence algorithms searching for optima. A swarm intelligence algorithm has two kinds of abilities exploration of new possibilities and exploitation of old certainties. The exploration ability means that an algorithm can explore more search places to increase the possibility that the algorithm can find good enough solutions. In contrast, the exploitation ability means that an algorithm focuses on the refinement of found promising areas. An algorithm should have a balance between exploration and exploitation, that is, the allocation of computational resources should be optimized to ensure that an algorithm can find good enough solutions effectively. The diversity measures the distribution of individuals' information. From the observation of the distribution and diversity change, the degree of exploration and exploitation can be obtained. Another issue in multiobjective is the solution metric. Pareto domination is utilized to compare two solutions; however, solutions are almost Pareto non-dominated for multiobjective problems with more than ten objectives. In this chapter, the authors analyze the population diversity of a particle swarm optimizer for solving both single objective and multiobjective problems. The population diversity of solutions is used to measure the goodness of a set of solutions. This metric may guide the search in problems with numerous objectives. Adaptive optimization algorithms can be designed through controlling the balance between exploration and exploitation. © 2015 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

32.The book as site: Alternative modes of representing and documenting architecture

Author:Macken,Marian

Source:The Routledge Companion to Design Research,2014,Vol.

33.Emerging research on swarm intelligence and algorithm optimization

Author:Shi, Yuhui

Source:Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Throughout time, scientists have looked to nature in order to understand and model solutions for complex real-world problems. In particular, the study of self-organizing entities, such as social insect populations, presents a new opportunity within the field of artificial intelligence. Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization discusses current research analyzing how the collective behavior of decentralized systems in the natural world can be applied to intelligent system design. Discussing the application of swarm principles, optimization techniques, and key algorithms being used in the field, this publication serves as an essential reference for academicians, upper-level students, IT developers, and IT theorists. © 2015 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

34.Emerging Issues

Author:Phiri,Michael;Chen,Bing

Source:SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology,2014,Vol.

Abstract:This brief started by looking at the changing context for national and international healthcare systems, before reviewing the healthcare premises information, guidance and tools that underlie the approach in which sustainability is to be seen as integrated with evidence-based design rather than as divorced and separate themes. However, to understand the role these aspects play, it is also essential to consider both the historical context and, in particular, the organisational structures of the different healthcare systems whether these are national or international. This chapter discusses emerging issues from the approach that adopts design for sustainability integrated with evidence-based design. The aim is to help decision-making within the area of healthcare premises, planning and design whether this is nationally or globally. The crucial emerging issues start with the problem of definitions of ‘Evidence’ and ‘Sustainability’ but include the debates surrounding several themes: Centralisation versus Decentralisation, the nature of Public versus Private Sector Involvement, National versus International Standards to Prescription versus Performance Standards. Addressing these issues has an important bearing on the development of design for sustainability and evidence-based design as science.

35.A framework for operational agility: How SMEs are evaluating their supply chain integration

Author:Reid,Iain;Ismail,Hossam;Sharifi,Hossein

Source:Managing in a VUCA World,2015,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter seeks to show how small medium enterprises (SMEs) have become more responsive to deal with the unexpected changes in the business environment. However, the impact on SME's is not always clear, as resources required to implement such strategic responsiveness are often fall beyond what is considered to be acceptable risk. In this chapter an integrated approach is proposed to facilitate the 'responsiveness' when faced with uncertainty and environmental turbulences in supply chain design thus contributing to the notion of Operational Agility and Supply Chain Integration (SCI). The framework is based on earlier work developed by the authors, which focused on the integration of operational agility tools and techniques through external intervention. An implementation model is presented in which the practical aspects of the framework stages are presented. The framework is validated through case study observations, a number of issues raised in the framework are discussed and validated.

36.Complexity, scientific creativity and clustering

Author:Andersson,Åke E.;Andersson,David Emanuel;Harsman,Björn;Daghbashyan,Zara

Source:The Rise of the City: Spatial Dynamics in the Urban Century,2015,Vol.

37.The role of foreign firms in China’s urban transformation A case study of Suzhou

Author:Kim, Hyung Min

Source:Population Mobility, Urban Planning and Management in China,2015,Vol.

Abstract:To a large extent the Chinese government has relied upon foreign direct investment (FDI) to stimulate economic growth. Inward FDI, which has expanded massively in China after the opening up policy, is significant to Chinese cities at least in the following three aspects. First, inward FDI contributes to economic vitality as it involves production in cities. Second, the establishment of foreign firms has facilitated rural-to-urban migration, and thus stimulated urban growth. As inward FDI is mostly labour-intensive manufacturing, an influx of foreign capital has been accompanied by an increase in the number of rural migrants. Third, foreign firms have brought foreign nationals to Chinese cities, thus creating demand for multicultural services and adding to the vibrancy of the city. This chapter examines these three outcomes at China’s national level using Suzhou as a case study. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

38.Structural diversity, surface composition, and redox behavior in the LA0.6SR0.4CoO3-PrO2-delta system

Author:Konysheva, Elena Yu. ; Bukaemskiy, Andrey A. ; Kuznetsov, Michail V. ; Ma, Tianzheng ; Ermolenko, Yurii E.

Source:Advances in Chemistry Research,2015,Vol.25

Abstract:Phase composition, crystal structure of components, surface composition, and redox behavior were explored in the (100-x) La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-xPrO2-δ (LSCPx) system under air. At high temperatures, a fraction of La0.6Sr0.4CoO3 perovskite phase interacts with praseodymium oxide, forming a new layered perovskite-like phase relating to the Ruddlesden-Popper family of An+1BnO3n+1 compounds with n=1. The Ruddlesden-Popper phase with K2NiF4-type structure (I4/mmm, no.139) exists in a wide compositional range. At room temperature the LSCPx (2 ≤ x ≤ 40) are two-phase compositions, comprising of the perovskite phase with rhombohedral distortion ( R3c, no. 167) and Ruddlesden-Popper phase. Evolution of lattice parameters for both perovskite and Ruddlesden-Popper phases with the raise in the Pr content was discussed. La0.93Sr0.62Pr0.45CoO4 compound with Ruddlesden-Popper structure was synthesized. Both single phase La0.93Sr0.62Pr0.45CoO4 and newly formed Ruddlesden-Popper phase in the two-phase LSCPx (2 ≤ x ≤ 40) exhibit similar behavior with the temperature variation (25-820oC) the expansion of the unit cell along the c-axis is noticeably stronger than within the a-b plain. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study indicates stronger accommodation of Sr cations within the Ruddlesden-Popper structure. Surface depletion in Co decreases in the two-phase LSCPx compositions with the raise in the fraction of the phase with the Ruddlesden-Popper structure, assuming that the presence of a second phase can facilitate the re-arrangement of cations between the volume and surface. The total oxygen exchange between the gas phase and the two-phase LSCPx (2 ≤ x ≤ 20) compositions decreases gradually with the increase in Pr content in the composites and it becomes almost negligible in the LSCPx (20 ≤ x ≤ 40). This result is unexpected and could be associated with the simultaneous involvement of Pr and Co cations in the redox process. © 2015 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

39.Hybrid metaheuristic algorithms: Past, present, and future

Author:Ting,T. O.;Yang,Xin She;Cheng,Shi;Huang,Kaizhu

Source:Studies in Computational Intelligence,2015,Vol.585

Abstract:Hybrid algorithms play a prominent role in improving the search capability of algorithms. Hybridization aims to combine the advantages of each algorithm to form a hybrid algorithm, while simultaneously trying to minimize any substantial disadvantage. In general, the outcome of hybridization can usually make some improvements in terms of either computational speed or accuracy. This chapter surveys recent advances in the area of hybridizing different algorithms. Based on this survey, some crucial recommendations are suggested for further development of hybrid algorithms.

40.Bio-Inspired Approaches in Telecommunications

Author:Chien,Su Fong;Zarakovitis,C. C.;Ting,Tiew On;Yang,Xin She

Source:Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications,2015,Vol.

Abstract:Bio-inspired algorithms are modern optimization tools that are capable of solving complex design problems in many applications. Such algorithms aim to speed up the optimization process so as to tackle tougher optimization problems. Some of these algorithms, such as particle swarm optimization and cuckoo search, have been found to be much more feasible and practical in obtaining the optimal solution, compared to conventional mathematical methods. In this chapter, we will review design problems and their solution methods concerning resource and power allocations in orthogonal frequency division multiple access systems.
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