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1.Computer-supported collaboration in language learning

Author:Zou, Bin

Source:Monitoring and Assessment in Online Collaborative Environments Emergent Computational Technologies for E-Learning Support,2009,Vol.

Abstract:Studies suggest that the computer can support collaborative learning between learners. This chapter discusses collaboration between language learners while using computer-based tasks. The researcher aims to look at in what ways students collaborate when completing tasks using computers during language learning, particularly in developing their listening and speaking skills. This chapter also explores the possibilities of monitoring and assessment for this collaborative language learning. The analysis is based on interview, observation and questionnaire data from both teachers and students at two UK university language centers. The findings indicate that collaboration in computer-based environments organized by teachers is useful for students to develop their language skills. Computer-supported collaboration increases students' confidence and encourages them to maintain active learning, thus reduces the passive reliance on teachers' feedback. © 2010, IGI Global.

2.Enhancing the performance of local binary patterns for face recognition by spectral regression

Author:Zhang, Bailing ; Zhang, Yanchun

Source:Advanced Topics in Biometrics,2011,Vol.

3.Writer identification with hybrid edge directional features and nonlinear dimension reduction

Author:Zhang, Bailing ; Zhang, Yanchun

Source:Advanced Topics in Biometrics,2011,Vol.

4.Supporting design thinking with evocative digital diagrams

Author:Herr, Christiane M.

Source:Computational Design Methods and Technologies Applications in CAD, CAM and CAE Education,2012,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter presents a digitally supported approach to creative thinking through diagrammatic visuals. Diagrammatic visuals can support designing by evoking thoughts and by raising open questions in conversational exchanges with designers. It focuses on the educational context of the architectural design studio, and introduces a software tool, named Algogram, which allows designers to employ diagrams in challenging conventional assumptions and for generating new ideas. Results from testing the tool and the way of approaching conceptual designing encouraged by it within an undergraduate design studio suggest a potential for refocusing of attention in digital design support development towards diagrams. In addition to the conventional emphasis on the variety of tool features and the ability of the tool to assist representational modeling of form, this chapter shows how a diagram-based approach can acknowledge and harness the creative potential of designers' constructive seeing. © 2012, IGI Global.

5.Recursive learning of genetic algorithms with task decomposition and varied rule set

Author:Fang, Lei ; Guan, Sheng-Uei ; Zhang, Haofan

Source:Modeling Applications and Theoretical Innovations in Interdisciplinary Evolutionary Computation,2013,Vol.

Abstract:Rule-based Genetic Algorithms (GAs) have been used in the application of pattern classification (Corcoran & Sen, 1994), but conventional GAs have weaknesses. First, the time spent on learning is long. Moreover, the classification accuracy achieved by a GA is not satisfactory. These drawbacks are due to existing undesirable features embedded in conventional GAs. The number of rules within the chromosome of a GA classifier is usually set and fixed before training and is not problem-dependent. Secondly, conventional approaches train the data in batch without considering whether decomposition solves the problem. Thirdly, when facing large-scale real-world problems, GAs cannot utilise resources efficiently, leading to premature convergence. Based on these observations, this paper develops a novel algorithmic framework that features automatic domain and task decomposition and problem-dependent chromosome length (rule number) selection to resolve these undesirable features. The proposed Recursive Learning of Genetic Algorithm with Task Decomposition and Varied Rule Set (RLGA) method is recursive and trains and evolves a team of learners using the concept of local fitness to decompose the original problem into sub-problems. RLGA performs better than GAs and other related solutions regarding training duration and generalization accuracy according to the experimental results. © 2013 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

6.Computer-assisted foreign language teaching and learning Technological advances

Author:Zou, Bin ; Xing, Minjie ; Xiang, Catherine H. ; Wang, Yuping ; Sun, Mingyu

Source:Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning Technological Advances,2013,Vol.

Abstract:Educational technologies continue to advance the ways in which we teach and learn. As these technologies continue to improve our communication with one another, computer-assisted foreign language learning has provided a more efficient way of communication between different languages. Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning Technological Advances highlights new research and an original framework that brings together foreign language teaching, experiments and testing practices that utilize the most recent and widely used e-learning resources. This comprehensive collection of research will offer linguistic scholars, language teachers, students, and policymakers a better understanding of the importance and influence of e-learning in second language acquisition. © 2013 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

7.Using a virtual learning environment to promote autonomous language learning for Chinese students

Author:Jordan, Eoin ; Coyle, Mark

Source:Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning Technological Advances,2013,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter examines a semester-long Moodle-based programme of monitored quizzes designed to encourage first-year Chinese students at an English medium university in China to engage in English language self-study and autonomous learning. Usage statistics and questionnaire data were collected and analysed in order to investigate overall quiz participation rates, usage patterns across the semester, and the extent to which the programme affected students' attitudes towards self-study. The results indicated that participation rates in the quizzes were high, although activity on the programme pages did decline as the semester progressed. Students also reported via the questionnaire that the programme had helped them learn how to organise their own self-study. However, statistics from Moodle revealed that many participants were not taking the quizzes on a regular, weekly basis, as had been intended, suggesting that the programme may have only been partially successful in fostering autonomous study skills. © 2013 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

8.A wiki platform for language and intercultural communication

Author:Xing, Minjie ; Zou, Bin ; Wang, Dongshuo

Source:Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning Technological Advances,2013,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter studies a wiki project that electronically links English students learning Business Chinese in the UK and Chinese students learning Business English in China. The focus is placed upon enhancing English/Chinese language skills and intercultural communication competence. Students' messages on the wiki illustrate that cultural values and cultural competence are important parts of business communication. The results of a questionnaire survey and a focus group interview indicate that the interaction between language learners and native speakers not only helped students improve each other's language, but also allowed them to understand the business norms and behaviours in another culture. The chapter concludes with a proposal that wikis can be a platform for enhancing language output and intercultural communication competence, if well designed and monitored. © 2013 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

9.Emerging research on swarm intelligence and algorithm optimization

Author:Shi, Yuhui

Source:Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Throughout time, scientists have looked to nature in order to understand and model solutions for complex real-world problems. In particular, the study of self-organizing entities, such as social insect populations, presents a new opportunity within the field of artificial intelligence. Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization discusses current research analyzing how the collective behavior of decentralized systems in the natural world can be applied to intelligent system design. Discussing the application of swarm principles, optimization techniques, and key algorithms being used in the field, this publication serves as an essential reference for academicians, upper-level students, IT developers, and IT theorists. © 2015 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

10.Population diversity of particle swarm optimizer solving single-and multi-objective problems

Author:Cheng, Shi ; Shi, Yuhui ; Qin, Quande

Source:Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Premature convergence occurs in swarm intelligence algorithms searching for optima. A swarm intelligence algorithm has two kinds of abilities exploration of new possibilities and exploitation of old certainties. The exploration ability means that an algorithm can explore more search places to increase the possibility that the algorithm can find good enough solutions. In contrast, the exploitation ability means that an algorithm focuses on the refinement of found promising areas. An algorithm should have a balance between exploration and exploitation, that is, the allocation of computational resources should be optimized to ensure that an algorithm can find good enough solutions effectively. The diversity measures the distribution of individuals' information. From the observation of the distribution and diversity change, the degree of exploration and exploitation can be obtained. Another issue in multiobjective is the solution metric. Pareto domination is utilized to compare two solutions; however, solutions are almost Pareto non-dominated for multiobjective problems with more than ten objectives. In this chapter, the authors analyze the population diversity of a particle swarm optimizer for solving both single objective and multiobjective problems. The population diversity of solutions is used to measure the goodness of a set of solutions. This metric may guide the search in problems with numerous objectives. Adaptive optimization algorithms can be designed through controlling the balance between exploration and exploitation. © 2015 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

11.Experimental study on boundary constraints handling in particle swarm optimization from a population diversity perspective

Author:Cheng, Shi ; Shi, Yuhui ; Qin, Quande

Source:Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Premature convergence happens in Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for solving both multimodal problems and unimodal problems. With an improper boundary constraints handling method, particles may get "stuck in" the boundary. Premature convergence means that an algorithm has lost its ability of exploration. Population diversity is an effective way to monitor an algorithm's ability of exploration and exploitation. Through the population diversity measurement, useful search information can be obtained. PSO with a different topology structure and a different boundary constraints handling strategy will have a different impact on particles' exploration and exploitation ability. In this chapter, the phenomenon of particles getting "stuck in" the boundary in PSO is experimentally studied and reported. The authors observe the position diversity time-changing curves of PSOs with different topologies and different boundary constraints handling techniques, and analyze the impact of these settings on the algorithm's abilities of exploration and exploitation. From these experimental studies, an algorithm's abilities of exploration and exploitation can be observed and the search information obtained; therefore, more effective algorithms can be designed to solve problems. © 2015 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

12.A review of healthcare technical guidance/standards, norms and tools

Author:Phiri, Michael ; Chen, Bing

Source:SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology,2014,Vol.

Abstract:The development and update of healthcare premises planning information, technical guidance and tools in health care are controversial and have tended to engender a lot of debate. This is because many interrelated issues are involved, for example, stewardship (whether public or private), regulation (extent of compliance and associated penalties for non-compliance), rationale (whether prescription or performance based), quality, responsibilities and costs of development and updates to keep this information relevant and responsive to changing healthcare practice and technology. In recent years, there have also been many concerns over the ever-increasing amount of advice on best practice standards in the planning and design of healthcare facilities due to burgeoning safety legislation, raising expectations for quality and safety improvements and demands for effectiveness and to achieve value for money. The introduction of new procurement routes such as private finance initiative, public-private partnerships over and above the traditional one has added complexity. A summative rather than a comprehensive review of the healthcare planning information, healthcare facility briefing systems and tools provides an appropriate basis to evaluate some of the issues identified above. The review also answers the question of need for technical guidance and tools in healthcare over and above the planning regulation and building control applied to other types of the built environment. Traditional focus of building control has, in recent times, seen expanded state interventions in health and safety, including prevention of fire risk in buildings to application of rules, regulations and standards relating to the form and performance of buildings and the built environment. This has been necessary not only in order for building design to respond to increased threats to health and safety posed by terrorism and climate change but also to address sociopsychological and cultural issues related to place-making and sustainable urban living. As a result, there has been a proliferation of state-centred legal forms of regulation, formations and a plethora of rules, standards and governance practices as well as requirements by insurance companies to identify, prevent and contain risk (Imrie and Street 2011). © The Author(s) 2014.

13.Optimization of drilling process via weightless swarm algorithm

Author:Ting,T. O.

Source:Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization,2014,Vol.

Abstract:In this chapter, the main objective of maximizing the Material Reduction Rate (MRR) in the drilling process is carried out. The model describing the drilling process is adopted from the authors' previous work. With the model in hand, a novel algorithm known as Weightless Swarm Algorithm is employed to solve the maximization of MRR due to some constraints. Results show that WSA can find solutions effectively. Constraints are handled effectively, and no violations occur; results obtained are feasible and valid. Results are then compared to previous results by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. From this comparison, it is quite impossible to conclude which algorithm has a better performance. However, in general, WSA is more stable compared to PSO, from lower standard deviations in most of the cases tested. In addition, the simplicity of WSA offers abundant advantages as the presence of a sole parameter enables easy parameter tuning and thereby enables this algorithm to perform to its fullest.

14.An optimization algorithm based on brainstorming process

Author:Shi, Yuhui

Source:Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization,2014,Vol.

Abstract:In this chapter, the human brainstorming process is modeled, based on which two versions of a Brain Storm Optimization (BSO) algorithm are introduced. Simulation results show that both BSO algorithms perform reasonably well on ten benchmark functions, which validates the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed BSO algorithms. Simulation results also show that one of the BSO algorithms, BSO-II, performs better than the other BSO algorithm, BSO-I, in general. Furthermore, average inter-cluster distance Dc and inter-cluster diversity De are defined, which can be used to measure and monitor the distribution of cluster centroids and information entropy of the population over iterations. Simulation results illustrate that further improvement could be achieved by taking advantage of information revealed by Dc, which points at one direction for future research on BSO algorithms. © 2015 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

15.Bio-Inspired Computation and Optimization: An Overview

Author:Yang,Xin She;Chien,Su Fong;Ting,Tiew On

Source:Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications,2015,Vol.

Abstract:All design problems in telecommunications can be formulated as optimization problems, and thus may be tackled by some optimization techniques. However, these problems can be extremely challenging due to the stringent time requirements, complex constraints, and a high number of design parameters. Solution methods tend to use conventional methods such as Lagrangian duality and fractional programming in combination with numerical solvers, while new trends tend to use evolutionary algorithms and swarm intelligence. This chapter provides a summary review of the bio-inspired optimization algorithms and their applications in telecommunications. We also discuss key issues in optimization and some active topics for further research.

16.Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications

Author:Yang,Xin She;Chien,Su Fong;Ting,Tiew On

Source:Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications,2015,Vol.

Abstract:Bio-inspired computation, especially those based on swarm intelligence, has become increasingly popular in the last decade. Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications reviews the latest developments in bio-inspired computation from both theory and application as they relate to telecommunications and image processing, providing a complete resource that analyzes and discusses the latest and future trends in research directions. Written by recognized experts, this is a must-have guide for researchers, telecommunication engineers, computer scientists and PhD students.

17.Bio-Inspired Approaches in Telecommunications

Author:Chien,Su Fong;Zarakovitis,C. C.;Ting,Tiew On;Yang,Xin She

Source:Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications,2015,Vol.

Abstract:Bio-inspired algorithms are modern optimization tools that are capable of solving complex design problems in many applications. Such algorithms aim to speed up the optimization process so as to tackle tougher optimization problems. Some of these algorithms, such as particle swarm optimization and cuckoo search, have been found to be much more feasible and practical in obtaining the optimal solution, compared to conventional mathematical methods. In this chapter, we will review design problems and their solution methods concerning resource and power allocations in orthogonal frequency division multiple access systems.

18.The role of foreign firms in China’s urban transformation A case study of Suzhou

Author:Kim, Hyung Min

Source:Population Mobility, Urban Planning and Management in China,2015,Vol.

Abstract:To a large extent the Chinese government has relied upon foreign direct investment (FDI) to stimulate economic growth. Inward FDI, which has expanded massively in China after the opening up policy, is significant to Chinese cities at least in the following three aspects. First, inward FDI contributes to economic vitality as it involves production in cities. Second, the establishment of foreign firms has facilitated rural-to-urban migration, and thus stimulated urban growth. As inward FDI is mostly labour-intensive manufacturing, an influx of foreign capital has been accompanied by an increase in the number of rural migrants. Third, foreign firms have brought foreign nationals to Chinese cities, thus creating demand for multicultural services and adding to the vibrancy of the city. This chapter examines these three outcomes at China’s national level using Suzhou as a case study. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

19.Structural diversity, surface composition, and redox behavior in the LA0.6SR0.4CoO3-PrO2-delta system

Author:Konysheva, Elena Yu. ; Bukaemskiy, Andrey A. ; Kuznetsov, Michail V. ; Ma, Tianzheng ; Ermolenko, Yurii E.

Source:Advances in Chemistry Research,2015,Vol.25

Abstract:Phase composition, crystal structure of components, surface composition, and redox behavior were explored in the (100-x) La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-xPrO2-δ (LSCPx) system under air. At high temperatures, a fraction of La0.6Sr0.4CoO3 perovskite phase interacts with praseodymium oxide, forming a new layered perovskite-like phase relating to the Ruddlesden-Popper family of An+1BnO3n+1 compounds with n=1. The Ruddlesden-Popper phase with K2NiF4-type structure (I4/mmm, no.139) exists in a wide compositional range. At room temperature the LSCPx (2 ≤ x ≤ 40) are two-phase compositions, comprising of the perovskite phase with rhombohedral distortion ( R3c, no. 167) and Ruddlesden-Popper phase. Evolution of lattice parameters for both perovskite and Ruddlesden-Popper phases with the raise in the Pr content was discussed. La0.93Sr0.62Pr0.45CoO4 compound with Ruddlesden-Popper structure was synthesized. Both single phase La0.93Sr0.62Pr0.45CoO4 and newly formed Ruddlesden-Popper phase in the two-phase LSCPx (2 ≤ x ≤ 40) exhibit similar behavior with the temperature variation (25-820oC) the expansion of the unit cell along the c-axis is noticeably stronger than within the a-b plain. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study indicates stronger accommodation of Sr cations within the Ruddlesden-Popper structure. Surface depletion in Co decreases in the two-phase LSCPx compositions with the raise in the fraction of the phase with the Ruddlesden-Popper structure, assuming that the presence of a second phase can facilitate the re-arrangement of cations between the volume and surface. The total oxygen exchange between the gas phase and the two-phase LSCPx (2 ≤ x ≤ 20) compositions decreases gradually with the increase in Pr content in the composites and it becomes almost negligible in the LSCPx (20 ≤ x ≤ 40). This result is unexpected and could be associated with the simultaneous involvement of Pr and Co cations in the redox process. © 2015 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

20.Developmental swarm intelligence Developmental learning perspective of swarm intelligence algorithms

Author:Shi, Yuhui

Source:Nature-Inspired Computing Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications,2016,Vol.1-3

Abstract:In this article, the necessity of having developmental learning embedded in a swarm intelligence algorithm is confirmed by briefly considering brain evolution, brain development, brainstorming process, etc. Several swarm intelligence algorithms are looked at from developmental learning perspective. Finally, a framework of a developmental swarm intelligence algorithm is given to help understand developmental swarm intelligence algorithms, and to guide to design and/or implement any new developmental swarm intelligence algorithm and/or any developmental evolutionary algorithm. © 2017 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.
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