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1.Representing Environmental Issues in Post-1990s Chinese Science Fiction: Technological Imaginary and Ecological Concerns

Author:Yue Zhou, Xi Liu


Abstract:Post-1990s Chinese eco-themed science fiction works have made a special literary contribution to current ecological discourses by imagining different ways of dealing with serious environmental issues. Chinese sci-fi writers have adopted opposing attitudes toward technology but collectively offered critiques to ecologically unsustainable mindsets and practices. While authors like Liu Cixin are optimistic about technological mediation, other writers represented by Chen Qiufan, He Xi, and Chi Hui reflect on technological triumph over environmental and ecological problems by creating dystopian sci-fi worlds. Both humanist and post-humanist discourses are articulated in these works through textual construction of diverse human/nonhuman images and identities. These works play critical roles in rethinking and reimagining the future of humanity and its relationship with the world.

2.Securitizing New Energy Amidst the Global Pandemic: The Chinese State and the Politics of Climate Change

Author:Geoffrey C. Chen


Abstract:This chapter argues that the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has aggravated the process fulfilling the promise of the neoliberal idea to mitigate the effects of climate change. The neoconservative advocates that created the fictional myths of a minimalist government seem to have demonstrated their insufficient capacity to alleviate the spread of public crises. Nevertheless, the uncertainty of the energy transition caused by turbulent oil prices have compelled the national policy elites to adjust the development strategy of alternative energy with the aim of adapting to climate change. This chapter will focus on the development of China’s new energy and analyse its possible implications of human security amidst the global epidemic, investigating the diversified governance patterns in this emerging field through the central and local states’ altered industrial policies. In this chapter, the main body of the analysis includes the institutional continuity and changes and governance structures of three strategic emerging sectors, being non-hydro renew energy, nuclear energy, and electric vehicles. The study unfolds Chinese governments’ and enterprises’ actions and relations in the trajectory of sectoral development. The study illustrates a transitional bureaucratic restructuring trend towards the central government. However, this trend has formed a potentially new institution that is aimed for regulating the energy markets while striving for maintain a sustained connection between national security and human security in the Chinese context.

3.A creative "nanotown": Framing sustainable development scenarios with local people in Calabria

Author:Verdini,Giulio;Bina,Olivia;Chiles,Prue;Guerrieri,Pilar Maria;Mace,Alan;Nolf,Christian;Occhialini,Etra Connie;Pola,Anna Paola;Raffa,Paola

Source:Enabling the City: Interdisciplinary and Transdisciplinary Encounters in Research and Practice,2021,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter intends to be both scientifically sound and narratively engaging, given the richness of the work done in Gagliato as experienced by the authors. As a matter of fact, besides the research done remotely, the authors gathered in Gagliato in July 2017 for a one-week participatory design workshop, getting to know the local context, talking with local people, materialising the focus groups implemented on site in future visions of sustainable development. Gagliato is a hilly town located in the province of Catanzaro in Calabria, overlooking the Ionian Sea. The chapter introduces a theoretical section regarding current debates on transdisciplinary research and the reason why Gagliato has been considered a suitable case to test it. The enabling conditions and potential barriers to achieve meaningful transdisciplinary outcomes and consequently tangible positive urban transformation of the experience of Gagliato will be discussed in relationship to the various phases of the project.

4.How COVID-19 Has Stimulated Innovation in the Chinese Education Sector

Author:Poshan Yu, Samuel Kwok and Zhongyue Jiang


Abstract:This chapter aims to investigate the impacts of COVID-19 in China's education sector. It will capture the dynamics of the interlinked changing relationships between the availability and use of education technology (EdTech) and the demand for online learning among various stakeholders in the Chinese education market. In addition, this chapter examines whether and how these relationships enhance operational efficiency via transforming the current business models in the sector, in particular due to the COVID-19 pandemic. By analyzing the current practices of the sector, this chapter will critically discuss the challenges and opportunities for technology in education and how these changes in turn drive stakeholders (including students, educators, and regulators) to respond and engage with each other, and how these stakeholder engagements impact the sustainable development of delivery modes, such as digital education and remote learning by using EdTech strategies in the sector.

5.Towards Ethical Hacking—The Performance of Hacking a Router

Author:Golightly,Lewis;Chang,Victor;Xu,Qianwen Ariel

Source:Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications,2021,Vol.

Abstract:The increase and advancements of network technology play a significant role in the lives of us. This is through homes, businesses and people in a professional and social capacity. The way we use technology in everyday life aids the friendships, achievements and entertainment parts of our day to day life. This makes the fundamental device in the network important to every one of us for conducting our day to day life–that device is the router. Much like a fridge or cooker would have in the 1950 s, the router is considered as a critical device in the home and business setting. This paper aims to demonstrate a penetration test documentation of a standard home or small business Router–TP-Link WR940N by using the operating system Kali Linux 2019/2020. The main aim of the paper is to show the extent of what someone can do and the lengths someone can go from essentially sitting outside your house in a car with a raspberry pi, a Wi-Fi adapter, a seven-inch screen, and a travel battery for power.

6.Nuclear power in stagnation: A cultural approach to failed expansion

Author:Toke,David;Chen,Geoffrey Chun Fung;Froggatt,Antony;Connolly,Richard

Source:Nuclear Power in Stagnation: A Cultural Approach to Failed Expansion,2021,Vol.

Abstract:This book studies the extent to which nuclear safety issues have contributed towards the stagnation of nuclear power development around the world, and accounts for differences in safety regulations in different countries. In order to understand why nuclear development has not met widespread expectations, this book focusses on six key countries with active nuclear power programmes: the USA, China, France, South Korea, the UK, and Russia. The authors integrate cultural theory and theory of regulation, and examine the links between pressures of cultural bias on regulatory outcomes and political pressures which have led to increased safety requirements and subsequent economic costs. They discover that although nuclear safety is an important upward driver of costs in the nuclear power industry, this is influenced by the inherent need to control potentially dangerous reactions rather than stricter nuclear safety standards. The findings reveal that differences in the strictness of nuclear safety regulations between different countries can be understood by understanding differences in cultural contexts and the changes in this over time. This book will be of great interest to students, scholars, and policymakers working on energy policy and regulation, environmental politics and policy, and environment and sustainability more generally.

7.Embracing the middle class: Wealth, power, and social status

Author:Goodman,David S.G.

Source:The Routledge Handbook of Chinese Studies,2021,Vol.

8.The Ordinary Women: Qualitative Research on Workers' New Villages in Shanghai

Author:Penn Tsz Ting Ip, Yu Zhang, Xi Liu



9.WHISTLE: A Functionally Annotated High-Accuracy Map of Human m6A Epitranscriptome


Source:Methods in Molecular Biology,2021,Vol.2284

Abstract:N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent posttranscriptional modification in eukaryotes and plays a pivotal role in various biological processes, such as splicing, RNA degradation, and RNA–protein interaction. Accurately identification of the location of m6A is essential for related downstream studies. In this chapter, we introduce a prediction framework WHISTLE, which enables us to acquire so far the most accurate map of the transcriptome-wide human m6A RNA-methylation sites (with an average AUC: 0.948 and 0.880 under the full transcript or mature messenger RNA models, respectively, when tested on independent datasets). Besides, each individual m6A site was also functionally annotated according to the “guilt-by-association” principle by integrating RNA methylation data, gene expression data and protein–protein interaction data. A web server was constructed for conveniently querying the predicted RNA methylation sites and their putative biological functions. The website supports the query by genes, by GO function, table view, and the download of all the functionally annotated map of predicted map of human m6A epitranscriptome. The WHISTLE web server is freely available at: and

10.MeT-DB V2.0: Elucidating Context-Specific Functions of N6-Methyl-Adenosine Methyltranscriptome


Source:Methods in Molecular Biology,2021,Vol.2284

Abstract:N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent posttranscriptional modification in eukaryotes and plays a pivotal role in various biological processes. A knowledge base with the systematic collection and curation of context specific transcriptome-wide methylations is critical for elucidating their biological functions as well as for developing bioinformatics tools. In this chapter, we present a comprehensive platform MeT-DB V2.0 for elucidating context-specific functions of N6-methyl-adenosine methyltranscriptome. Met-DB V2.0 database contains context specific m6A peaks and single-base sites predicted from 185 samples for 7 species from 26 independent studies. Moreover, it is also integrated with a new database for targets of m6A readers, erasers and writers and expanded with more collections of functional data. The Met-DB V2.0 web interface and genome browser provide more friendly, powerful, and informative ways to query and visualize the data. More importantly, MeT-DB V2.0 offers for the first time a series of tools specifically designed for understanding m6A functions. The MeT-DB V2.0 web server is freely available at: and

11.Microfluidic devices for immobilization and micromanipulation of single cells and small organisms


Source:Microfluidic Devices for Biomedical Applications,2021,Vol.

Abstract:Micromanipulation and immobilization of single cells and small organisms (e.g., Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila larva) are important experimental techniques in biological and biomedical research. Because of the micrometer sizes and highly fragile structures of cells and small organisms, conventional manipulation and immobilization techniques are not accurate and/or efficient enough to meet certain demanding needs in cellular and organismal studies. To this end, different types of microfluidic device have been developed to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and consistency of cell/organism immobilization and manipulation, which enables high-throughput single cell/organism analysis. In this chapter, we will discuss three microfluidic devices we previously developed for immobilization and robotic micromanipulation of single cells and small organisms. In closing, a conclusion and outlook into future trends is also provided.

12.Educational symbiosis: Designing english language learning courses to support syntegrative education

Author:Morris,Gareth Richard;Sheridan,Simon Matthew;Xu,Jiaxin;Liang,Wenjuan;Lv,Fenfen;Foster,Rick;Di,Shengjia;Zhang,Chenyan;Perrin,Stuart

Source:Trends and Developments for the Future of Language Education in Higher Education,2021,Vol.

13.Catch-up and Radical Innovation in Chinese State-Owned Enterprises: Exploring Large Infrastructure Projects


Source:Catch-Up and Radical Innovation in Chinese State-Owned Enterprises: Exploring Large Infrastructure Projects,2021,Vol.

Abstract:This original book is a unique and original study on how, in the past decade, Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs) have achieved technological innovation in the large infrastructure sector. It reveals a ʼnew world’ of Chinese innovations, showing that SOEs are willing to innovate and more than capable of doing so. Based on findings from first-hand data and years of in-depth observations, this book shows how the innovation ecosystem perspective incentivizes and facilitates Chinese SOEs’ innovation and highlights entrepreneurial role of the government.

14.Suzhou's modernity within space and spatial relations


Source:Suzhou in Transition,2020,Vol.

15.The unstable triangular relationship between China, EU, and the USA


Source:China and the EU in the Era of Regional and Interregional Cooperation,2020,Vol.

16.Historic landscape and water heritage of Suzhou beyond the tourist gaze

Author:Wang,Yi Wen;Nolf,Christian

Source:Suzhou in Transition,2020,Vol.

17.Bridal fashion and Suzhou: The development of the Tiger Hill wedding market


Source:Suzhou in Transition,2020,Vol.

18.Wujiang in transition: Urban development and changing grassroots governance mechanisms


Source:Suzhou in Transition,2020,Vol.

19.Suzhou in transition: An introduction


Source:Suzhou in Transition,2020,Vol.

20.Suzhou in transition


Source:Suzhou in Transition,2020,Vol.

Abstract:© 2021 selection and editorial matter, Beibei Tang and Paul Cheung. All rights reserved. Through the lens of the city of Suzhou, this edited volume presents views on the complex interaction between the central state, market agents, local governments and individuals who have shaped the development of Chinese cities and urban life. Featuring a range of disciplinary perspectives, contributors to this volume have all undertaken research in one municipality - Suzhou - to consider how history and culture have evolved during the modernisation of Chinese cities and the transformation of urban space, as well as shifting rural-urban relations and urban life during the reform era. The volume is underscored by a complex dynamic system consisting of three interlocked mechanisms through which the central and local state interact: history and culture, social and economic life, and administration and governance. As such, chapters analyse responses both from the state and society as driving forces of local development, with an interplay between tradition and heritage on the one hand and China's economic and social development on the other. Suzhou in Transition will appeal to students and scholars of Chinese and urban studies, as well as urban sociology and geography.

21.Contemporary Fabrication of Pasts and the Creation of New Identities? Open-Air Museums and Historical Theme Parks in the UK and China

Author:Ludwig, C.; Wang, Y.


Abstract:This chapter examines the selective usage of history, relics and practice to reconstruct specific versions of the past. The open air Beamish Museum in Durham, UK and the historical theme parks in Hangzhou and Kaifeng, China are used as comparative case studies to unpack first, how ‘heritage’ is conceptualised in each context, and second, how particular versions of the past are selected, (re)invented, disseminated and consumed for contemporary purposes. Set within a theoretical framework of ‘living heritage’ and an analytical framework of the over-lapping themes of authenticity, identity and national pride, tourism and education, the chapter examines the different ways in which the appropriation of cultural heritage takes place at each site. In doing so, we draw attention to the disparate interpretations of conservation practice and the idea of ‘living heritage’ in the UK and China and debate their continued relevance in the contemporary heritage discourse.

22.Mobility and the chinese dream

Author:Rhys Williams,Austin

Source:Handbook on Transport and Urban Transformation in China,2020,Vol.

Abstract:China's transport infrastructure is a classic example of the country's rapid growth and consequent social transformation. Its railway expansion alone has been unprecedented, home to the second biggest rail network in the world and by far the biggest high-speed rail network (with 3,500 km opening in 2018 alone, equivalent to 15 times the entire US HSR network). This has provided opportunities for mobility and social mobility as 3 billion passenger trips are taken for pleasure and business every year. The same is true of the exponential rise in the number of cars, public transport and airlines. But alongside such infrastructural investments in the mechanisms for mobility exist socially restrictive policies that often curtail mobility. The fascinating dilemma for China is how does the political need to police travel in order to – as it sees it – maintain a sense of control and the maintenance of stability rub up against the personal desire and social ambition unleashed in these material opportunities for change.

23.The Heritage Turn in China: The Reinvention, Dissemination and Consumption of Heritage



Abstract:This edited volume focuses on heritage discourse and practice in China today as it has evolved from the 'heritage turn' that can be dated to the 1990s. Using a variety of disciplinary approaches to regionally and topically diverse case studies, the contributors to this volume show how particular versions of the past are selected, (re)invented, disseminated and consumed for contemporary purposes. These studies explore how the Chinese state utilises heritage not only for tourism, entertainment, educational and commercial purposes, but also as part of broader political strategies on both the national and international stage. Together, they argue that the Chinese state employs modes of heritage governance to construct new modernities while strengthening collective national identity in support of both its political legitimacy and its claim to status as an international superpower. The authors also consider ways in which state management of heritage is contested by some stakeholders whose embrace of heritage has a different purpose and meaning.

24.Urban-rural relations in the context of new urbanization: The case of Suzhou


Source:Suzhou in Transition,2020,Vol.

25.ASEAN as a method: Re-centering processes and institutions in contemporary Southeast Asian regionalism


Source:ASEAN as a Method: Re-centering Processes and Institutions in Contemporary Southeast Asian Regionalism,2020,Vol.

Abstract:This edited volume proposes that an understanding of ASEAN - its development and institutionalization - is invaluable to our conception of international relations theory in the Asian context. Southeast Asia and ASEAN host peoples, ideas, institutions, and relations that contribute to a critical reassessment of theories in social sciences. In the field of IR, studies on transnational networks, diasporas, small states, middle powers, the role of history, and identity learn from Southeast Asian practices. ASEAN has long been established as an authoritative example of alternative ways of regional institutionalization. Besides empirical analysis, these fields can also benefit from their interactions with regional scholarly communities. This edited book offers an opportunity for a dialogue among scholarly communities on a variety of issues of which Southeast Asia and ASEAN provide ample opportunities for a critical analysis. This book will be of great interest to scholars of ASEAN, the broader Asian region, and for scholars of regionalism in general.

26.Second Kind Chebyshev Wavelets for Solving the Variable-Order Space-Time Fractional Telegraph Equation

Author:Mohammad Hossein Heydari, Ali Shakiba, Zakieh Avazzadeh, Carlo Cattani


Abstract:The second kind of the Chebyshev wavelets (SKCWs) are a kind of orthonormal wavelets which have the properties of the second kind Chebyshev polynomials, which are orthogonally and spectrally accurate, as well as useful properties of wavelets. In this chapter, a generalization of the variable-order space-time fractional telegraph equation (V-S-FTE) is proposed by the concept of the variable-order fractional derivative and replacing the fractional derivative terms in the space-time fractional telegraph equation with variable-order fractional derivatives. The proposed method is based on the SKCWs in conjunction with their operational matrix of variable-order fractional derivative, which are described in the Caputo sense. However, since the SKCWs maintain the properties of the second kind Chebyshev polynomials as well as the properties of the wavelets, the people believe that these basis functions are appropriate to approximate solutions for various variable-order fractional functional equations, especially the V-S-FTE.

27.Chinese Landscape Aesthetics: the exchange and nurturing of emotions

Author:Claudia Westermann


Abstract:"Chinese Landscape Aesthetics: the exchange and nurturing of emotions" is a short essay published in a book on new Chinese landscape architecture. The essay presents traditional Chinese concepts that are typically translated into English as 'landscape.' Following the etymology of the Chinese terms and recognizing that their conceptual focus is on the exchange and nurturing of emotions, which is not captured by the English term, we can gain a new understanding also of contemporary works of Chinese landscape architecture.

28.AC/E Accion Cultural Espanola; Q Fundacion Arquia

Author:Sofia Quiroga


29.Building infrastructure and making boundaries in Southwest China


Source:It Happens among People: Resonances and Extensions of the Work of Fredrik Barth,2019,Vol.

30.An Introduction to Design Cybernetics

Author:Fischer,Thomas;Herr,Christiane M.

Source:Design Research Foundations,2019,Vol.

Abstract:Since it ascended in the mid-twentieth century on the basis of technical and scientific advances made during World War II, cybernetics has influenced design theory and research. It was appreciated by its originators primarily as a theoretical framework and as a common language to bridge disciplinary boundaries, but soon found more prominent applications in goal-oriented control engineering. Since around 1970, it developed a reflective, more philosophical, and less control-focused perspective referred to as second-order cybernetics. This perspective recognises circular causality, non-determinism, the subjective observer and other concepts avoided by natural science. In this way, it offers an approach to self-organising systems that negotiate their own goals in open-ended processes – in other words: design. As an introduction to design cybernetics, this chapter outlines the development of cybernetics from a technical engineering discipline to a design-philosophical perspective.

31.A Poetics of Designing

Author:Westermann, Claudia

Source:Design Research Foundations,2019,Vol.

Abstract:The chapter considers second-order cybernetics as a framework that is accurately described as a poetics. An overview is provided on what it means to be in a world that is uncertain, e.g., how under conditions of limited understanding any activity is an activity that designs and constructs, and how designing objects, spaces, and situations relates to the (designed) meta-world of second-order cybernetics. If it cannot be determined whether the world is complex or not, to assume that the world is complex is a matter of choice linked to an attitude of generosity. The chapter highlights that it is this attitude, which makes designing an ethical challenge. Designers require a framework that is open, but one that supplies ethical guidance when ‘constructing’ something new. Relating second-order design thinking to insights in philosophy and aesthetics, the chapter argues that second-order cybernetics provides a response to this ethical challenge and essentially it entails a poetics of designing.

32.China's way to the US market: China's outward direct investment in the United States

Author:Liang,Bo;Yan,Li;Quinlivan,Gary;Cline,Thomas W.

Source:Handbook on China and Globalization,2019,Vol.

33.Psychological Contracts: Past, Present, and Future

Author:Coyle-Shapiro, JAM;Costa, SP;Doden, W;Chang, CC


Abstract:We provide a review of psychological contract research, beginning with past conceptualizations and empirical evidence. We tailor this retrospective look by reviewing the antecedents and outcomes associated with psychological contract breach and discussing the dominant theoretical explanations for the breach-outcome relationship. This synthesis of past evidence provides the foundation for reviewing the present emerging and developing themes in psychological contract research. This discussion is organized around the expansion of resources exchanged and the antecedents of contract breach and outcomes, moving beyond reciprocity as an underpinning explanation. We highlight the practical implications of research to date on psychological contracts and end with directions for future research to include the need for greater attention given to ideological currency, employee health, polycontextual approaches, the role of psychological needs, and post-breach/violation.

34.Simulation reproducibility with python and pweave

Author:Kim,Kyeong Soo

Source:EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing,2019,Vol.

Abstract:As the amount and complexity of model source code, configuration files, and resulting data for simulative experiments are ever increasing, it becomes a real challenge to reliably and efficiently reproduce simulation data and their analysis results published in a scientific paper not only by its readers but also by the authors themselves, which makes the claims and contributions made in the paper questionable. The idea of reproducible research comes as a solution to this problem and suggests that any scientific claims should be published together with relevant experimental data and software code for their analysis so that readers may verify the findings and build upon them; in case of computer simulation, the details of simulation implementation and its configurations should be provided as well. In this chapter, we illustrate the practice of reproducible research for OMNeT++ simulation based on Pweave and Python. We show how to embed simulation configuration files and Python analysis code, import simulation data with automatic updating of simulation results, and analyze data and present the results in a file.

35.Torus orbifolds with two fixed points


Source:Trends in Mathematics,2019,Vol.

Abstract:The main objects of this paper are torus orbifolds that have exactly two fixed points. We study the equivariant topological type of these orbifolds and consider when we can use the results of (Darby et al., Equivariant cohomology of torus orbifolds, arXiv:1809.03678 [8]) to compute its integral equivariant cohomology, in terms of generators and relations, coming from the corresponding orbifold torus graph.

36.An evolutionary game-based mechanism for unwanted traffic control


Source:EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing,2019,Vol.

Abstract:With the development of Internet technology and the pervasive use of internet service providers (ISPs), internet users have reached an unprecedented volume. However, the existence of some malicious users seriously undermine the environment of the network by distributing a large amount of unwanted traffic, such as spam, pop-up, and malwares, which can be identified with the cooperation of individual users by installing anti-virus toolkits. In our paper, we propose an evolutionary game theoretic incentive mechanism to promote the cooperation of individual users to curb the expansion of unwanted traffic. Considering the hierarchical nature of real-world management, we model our framework as hierarchical incentive mechanism and combine reward with punishment mechanism to further incentivize cooperative behavior. Meanwhile, the acceptance condition of our framework is analyzed and we carry out a number of simulations to analyze the acceptance conditions of our framework.

37.It happens among people: Resonances and extensions of the work of Fredrik Barth

Author:Wu,Keping;Weller,Robert P.

Source:It Happens among People: Resonances and Extensions of the Work of Fredrik Barth,2019,Vol.

Abstract:Written by eleven leading anthropologists from around the world, this volume extends the insights of Fredrik Barth, one of the most important anthropologists of the twentieth century, to push even further at the frontiers of anthropology and honor his memory. As a collection, the chapters thus expand Barth’s pioneering work on values, further develop his insights on human agency and its potential creativity, as well as continuing to develop the relevance for his work as a way of thinking about and beyond the state. The work is grounded on his insistence that theory should grow only from observed life.

38.Poverty eradication and political engagement: A case of sustainable entrepreneurship in China

Author:Xuanwei Cao, Xiao Wang


Abstract:It has been widely believed that to create a sustainable world the power of business is indispensable. Facing grand challenges when following the old path of “business as usual”, entrepreneurs are transforming their business practices for sustainable development in various ways. In this process of transformation, entrepreneurs also seek new paths to achieve sustained legitimacy and growth through simultaneously pursuing economic viability, social equity, and environmental stability. In spite of the rapid development of sustainable businesses in emerging economies, such as solar energy in China, there is still little understanding of what motivates entrepreneurs to pursue sustainable business in situations in which the relationship of private firms with the government is complex and paradoxical. This chapter addresses these issues and provides insights through an in-depth investigation into the case of the T Group, a company with unique dual businesses in aquatic feed and solar energy in China, which helps achieve several Sustainability Development Goals (SDGs), such as poverty alleviation (SDG #1), affordable and clean energy (SDG #7), and sustainable cities and communities (SDG #11). Hanyuan Liu, the founder and Chairman of the T Group, through his political engagement, demonstrated how entrepreneurs could positively transform their businesses towards sustainability while responding to and dealing with specific social problems.

39.Constructing Cybernetic Thinking, Design, and Education

Author:Herr,Christiane M.

Source:Design Research Foundations,2019,Vol.

Abstract:Radical constructivism can be described as the epistemological twin of second-order cybernetics. This chapter presents a close look at radical constructivism, at its implications for design, and at the interrelatedness of epistemology and design in their theoretical as well as in their applied manifestations. The chapter discusses connections between three aspects of design cybernetics: design as a domain of action, cybernetics as its theoretical complement and radical constructivism as an epistemological basis for both. It further outlines implications of radical constructivist thinking for design research and design education.

40.Distributed monitoring architecture for industrial safety based on gear fault diagnosis


Source:EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing,2019,Vol.

Abstract:Real-time monitoring of machines is vital for enhanced performance and safety in industries. Gears are common components that interconnect mechanical parts that allow each part in a mechanical system to be engaged. They are mainly used to transmit kinetic energy and transform rotational speed. Due to the importance of gears, the degradation or failure of its performance affects the function of the machine resulting in the unplanned breakdown of equipment, This inevitably leads to economic losses and personnel safety issues. Therefore, it is of great significance to recognize industrial safety with respect to equipment management. In this paper, we presented a distributed architecture for monitoring the gears and reporting its faults. The monitoring of gears and gearboxes can alleviate safety issues and improve maintenance plans.

41.Small intestine anatomy and physiology

Author:Ma,Zheng Feei;Lee,Yeong Yeh

Source:Clinical and Basic Neurogastroenterology and Motility,2019,Vol.

Abstract:With a large surface area, the small bowel acts as a major site for breakdown and absorption of electrolytes, nutrients and water. The act of mixing and transit of digested and non-digested contents is assisted by a complicated but efficient contraction waves and highly regulated gut hormones. In addition, intestinal motility assists the barrier and immune function of small bowel which is vital for homeostasis with the gut microbiota. This chapter deals with functional significance of small intestine anatomy and physiology in relation with motility, a region of the gut that has been largely ignored, until recently.

42.A Theory of (and for) Enquiry


Source:Design Research Foundations,2019,Vol.

Abstract:At the heart of much academic design research lies a paradox: An appreciation of designing requires, systemically speaking, an inside perspective, while scientific research requires robustness under scrutiny by outside criteria. This chapter develops a theory of (and for) enquiry from previously unrelated cybernetic models, showing how “comfortable marriages” of design and research may be achieved by concatenating and nesting multiple kinds of enquiry within the same body of work. The purpose of this theory is to describe such concatenations and nestings and to inform postgraduate and PhD-level design research and supervision, especially where they face scrutiny by scientific standards.

43.Fast graph-based semi-supervised learning and its applications

Author:Zhang,Yan Ming;Huang,Kaizhu;Geng,Guang Gang;Liu,Cheng Lin

Source:Semi-Supervised Learning: Background, Applications and Future Directions,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Despite the great success of graph-based transductive learning methods, most of them have serious problems in scalability and robustness. In this chapter, we propose an efficient and robust graph-based transductive classification method, called minimum tree cut (MTC), which is suitable for large scale data. Motivated from the sparse representation of graph, we approximate a graph by a spanning tree. Exploiting the simple structure, we develop a linear-time algorithm to label the tree such that the cut size of the tree is minimized. This significantly improves graph-based methods, which typically have a polynomial time complexity. Moreover, we theoretically and empirically show that the performance of MTC is robust to the graph construction, overcoming another big problem of traditional graph-based methods. Extensive experiments on public data sets and applications on text extraction fromimages demonstrate our method’s advantages in aspect of accuracy, speed, and robustness.

44.Corporate marginal tax rate estimation: Evidence based on China’s listed companies


Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter aims at using an innovative method developed by Blouin et al. (Improved estimates of marginal tax rates: why they are needed, approach, and implications. Memo, 2008) to simulate 1041 China’s listed companies’ corporate marginal tax rate, and comparing the changes in marginal tax rate in the context of 2007 tax reform in China. After simulation and comparison, we find that the annual corporate marginal tax rate has greatly decreased after the new tax policy goes into effect. Besides, the tax effects on marginal tax rates vary with industry and across ownership.

45.The epistemology of Yin-Yang balancing as the root of Chinese cultural traditions: The indigenous features and geocentric implications

Author:Li,Peter Ping

Source:The Psychological and Cultural Foundations of East Asian Cognition: Contradiction, Change, and Holism,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Most Eastern traditional philosophies, such as Taoism, from China, share a set of core themes that constitute a philosophy of wisdom (science-art integration), in contrast to Western philosophies with a focus on knowledge (science-art separation). This chapter argues that the epistemological system of yin-yang balancing is the root of Eastern culture traditions. Building on this theme, the chapter elaborates on the unique features of yin-yang balancing, in contrast to Aristotle's formal logic and Hegel's dialectics in the West. It is posited that yin-yang balancing is more sophisticated (rather than naïve) than all dialectical logic for paradox management, since it is the only system that can truly accommodate and appreciate paradox and has the potential to absorb all Western systems into a geocentric (East-meets-West) meta-system. The chapter concludes with an application of yin-yang balancing to the geocentric integration of the Eastern philosophy of wisdom with the Western philosophy of knowledge, toward a new geocentric meta-paradigm.

46.Semi-supervised learning: Background, applications and future directions


Source:Semi-Supervised Learning: Background, Applications and Future Directions,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Semi-supervised learning is an important area of machine learning. It deals with problems that involve a lot of unlabeled data and very scarce labeled data. The book focuses on state-of-the-art research on semi-supervised learning. In the first chapter, Weng, Dornaika and Jin introduce a graph construction algorithm named the constrained data self-representative graph construction (CSRGC). In the second chapter, to reduce the graph construction complexity, Zhang et al. use anchors that were a special subset chosen from the original data to construct the full graph, while randomness was injected into graphs to improve the classification accuracy and deal with the high dimensionality issue. In the third chapter, Dornaika et al. introduce a kernel version of the Flexible Manifold Embedding (KFME) algorithm. In the fourth chapter, Zhang et al. present an efficient and robust graph-based transductive classification method known as the minimum tree cut (MTC), for large scale applications. In the fifth chapter, Salazar, Safont and Vergara investigated the performance of semi-supervised learning methods in two-class classification problems with a scarce population of one of the classes. In the sixth chapter, by breaking the sample identically and independently distributed (i.i.d.) assumption, one novel framework called the field support vector machine (F-SVM) with both classification (F-SVC) and regression (F-SVR) purposes is introduced. In the seventh chapter, Gong employs the curriculum learning methodology by investigating the difficulty of classifying every unlabeled example. As a result, an optimized classification sequence was generated during the iterative propagations, and the unlabeled examples are logically classified from simple to difficult. In the eighth chapter, Tang combines semi-supervised learning with geo-tagged photo streams and concept detection to explore situation recognition. This book is suitable for university students (undergraduate or graduate) in computer science, statistics, electrical engineering, and anyone else who would potentially use machine learning algorithms; professors, who research artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, machine learning, data mining and related fields; and engineers, who apply machine learning models into their products.

47.Income inequality in China and the role of fiscal policies: An empirical study of Chinese provincial data

Author:Zhang,Fan;Hung,Juann H.

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter conducts panel regressions using provincial data from 2005 to 2010 to investigate whether China’s fiscal system is effective in mitigating the rise in income inequality in those years. On the revenue side, we find that only operation tax has a significant negative effect on income inequality. Value-added tax (VAT), individual and enterprise income tax all have an insignificant impact on income inequality. We suspect the insignificant effect of progressive individual income tax on income inequality reflects tax evasion by the rich. On the spending side, the results indicate that all government expenditures have no significant impacts on reducing income inequality. This suggests that, among other possibilities, government spending lacks efficiency or pays insufficient attention to the needy.

48.The role of the exchange rate in China’s outward foreign direct investment


Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This research estimates the impact of exchange rate and exchange rate volatility on Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) utilizing panel data in 21 countries from 2004 to 2013. A basic gravity model and fixed effect model are applied to find that both market-seeking motivation and economic openness are positive determinants for Chinese OFDI. A depreciated host country currency is more favorable for Chinese OFDI. On the contrary, exchange rate volatility has adverse effects, meaning Chinese OFDI declines with exchange rate volatility. There is no obvious evidence to support that China has a preference to choose developed or developing countries as its OFDI host countries.

49.The rise in China’s gender income inequality

Author:Sun,Qi;Hung,Juann H.

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This research aims to shed light on the causes of the rising gender income gap in China. We first apply the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method (Oaxaca, Int Eco Rev 14: 693-709, 1973; Blinder, J Hum Res 8: 436-455, 1973) to our survey data to estimate the extent to which that gap can be explained by the difference in human capital characteristics (such as years of education and years of experience). We find that a rising discrimination against females (either due to tradition or otherwise) is not the main cause of the rising gender income gap in China. Instead, we present evidence to propose that two of the three main drivers of China’s economic growth-namely, privatization and urbanization-very likely have contributed to the rise in China’s gender income gap.

50.3D food printing Perspectives    

Author:Sun, Jie ; Zhou, Weibiao ; Huang, Dejian ; Yan, Liangkun

Source:Polymers for Food Applications,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Due to consumers’ growing attention to personal health, food products that focus on personal care, healthy concepts and functional claims are emerging as a new trend. This motivates a growing market for personalized healthy food, which aims to tailor and fabricate diet specifically based on an individual’s health condition. Traditional food preparation processes even with advanced processing technologies cannot meet such demands. Three-dimensional (3D) food printing, also known as Food Layered Manufacture, can be one of the potential ways to bridge this gap. This is a digitally controlled, robotic construction process, which can build up complex 3D food products layer by layer. It aims to revolutionize food manufacturing with customized shape, color, flavor, texture, and even nutrition. Hence, food products can be designed and fabricated to meet individual needs through controlling the amount of printing material and nutrition content. Foods created by 3D printing have already entered the market. A range of 3D printing methods, platforms, materials and recipes have been utilized. This chapter reviews the common approaches and techniques used in food printing. The market challenges, technical difficulties and possible strategies along the pathway of commercialization are also discussed. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018.
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