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1.Problem-based learning into the future: Imagining an agile PBL ecology for learning

Author:Kek,Megan Yih Chyn A.;Huijser,Henk

Source:Problem-Based Learning into the Future: Imagining an Agile PBL Ecology for Learning,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2017. In this book we respond to a higher education environment that is on the verge of profound changes by imagining an evolving and agile problem-based learning ecology for learning. The goal of doing so is to humanise university education by pursuing innovative approaches to student learning, teaching, curricula, assessment, and professional learning, and to employ interdisciplinary methods that go far beyond institutional walls and include student development and support, curriculum sustainability, research and the scholarship of teaching and learning, as well as administration and leadership. An agile problem-based learning (PBL) ecology for learning deliberately blurs the boundaries between disciplines, between students and teachers, between students and employers, between employers and teachers, between academics and professional staff, between formal and informal learning, and between teaching and research. It is based on the recognition that all of these elements are interconnected and constantly evolving, rather than being discrete and static. Throughout this book, our central argument is that there is no single person who is responsible for educating students. Rather, it is everyone’s responsibility - teachers, students, employers, administrators, and wider social networks, inside and outside of the university. Agile PBL is about making connections, rather than erecting barriers. In summary, this book is not about maintaining comfort zones, but rather about becoming comfortable with discomfort. The actual implementation is beyond the scope of this book and we envisage that changing perceptions towards this vision will itself be a mammoth task. However, we believe that the alternative of leaving things as they are would ultimately prove untenable, and more distressingly, would leave a generation of students afraid to think, feel, and act for themselves, let alone being able to face the challenges of the 21st century.

2.AC/E Accion Cultural Espanola; Q Fundacion Arquia

Author:Sofia Quiroga

Source:,2019,Vol.

3.Suzhou's modernity within space and spatial relations

Author:Han,Jiawen

Source:Suzhou in Transition,2020,Vol.

4.Emerging research on swarm intelligence and algorithm optimization

Author:Shi, Yuhui

Source:Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Throughout time, scientists have looked to nature in order to understand and model solutions for complex real-world problems. In particular, the study of self-organizing entities, such as social insect populations, presents a new opportunity within the field of artificial intelligence. Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization discusses current research analyzing how the collective behavior of decentralized systems in the natural world can be applied to intelligent system design. Discussing the application of swarm principles, optimization techniques, and key algorithms being used in the field, this publication serves as an essential reference for academicians, upper-level students, IT developers, and IT theorists. © 2015 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

5.Building infrastructure and making boundaries in Southwest China

Author:Wu,Keping

Source:It Happens among People: Resonances and Extensions of the Work of Fredrik Barth,2019,Vol.

6.Emerging Issues

Author:Phiri,Michael;Chen,Bing

Source:SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology,2014,Vol.

Abstract:This brief started by looking at the changing context for national and international healthcare systems, before reviewing the healthcare premises information, guidance and tools that underlie the approach in which sustainability is to be seen as integrated with evidence-based design rather than as divorced and separate themes. However, to understand the role these aspects play, it is also essential to consider both the historical context and, in particular, the organisational structures of the different healthcare systems whether these are national or international. This chapter discusses emerging issues from the approach that adopts design for sustainability integrated with evidence-based design. The aim is to help decision-making within the area of healthcare premises, planning and design whether this is nationally or globally. The crucial emerging issues start with the problem of definitions of ‘Evidence’ and ‘Sustainability’ but include the debates surrounding several themes: Centralisation versus Decentralisation, the nature of Public versus Private Sector Involvement, National versus International Standards to Prescription versus Performance Standards. Addressing these issues has an important bearing on the development of design for sustainability and evidence-based design as science.

7.E-commerce systems for software agents: Challenges and opportunities

Author:Tadjouddine,Emmanuel M.

Source:E-Business Issues, Challenges and Opportunities for SMEs: Driving Competitiveness,2010,Vol.

Abstract:It is hoped agent mediated e-commerce will be carried out as open systems of agents interoperating between different institutions, where different auction protocols may be in use. The authors argue that in order to put such a scenario to work, agents will need a method to automatically verify the properties of a previously unseen auction protocol. This, in turn poses the problem of automatically verifying desirable properties in order to trust a given auction mechanism. This challenge needs be addressed so that the business scenario of agent mediated e-commerce becomes a reality. In this chapter, the authors discuss salient opportunities for SMEs in addressing the issues of enabling software agents (e.g., PDAs, mobile phones) to connect to auction houses and verify desirable properties that need to hold before engaging any transactions. © 2011, IGI Global.

8.An Introduction to Design Cybernetics

Author:Fischer,Thomas;Herr,Christiane M.

Source:Design Research Foundations,2019,Vol.

Abstract:Since it ascended in the mid-twentieth century on the basis of technical and scientific advances made during World War II, cybernetics has influenced design theory and research. It was appreciated by its originators primarily as a theoretical framework and as a common language to bridge disciplinary boundaries, but soon found more prominent applications in goal-oriented control engineering. Since around 1970, it developed a reflective, more philosophical, and less control-focused perspective referred to as second-order cybernetics. This perspective recognises circular causality, non-determinism, the subjective observer and other concepts avoided by natural science. In this way, it offers an approach to self-organising systems that negotiate their own goals in open-ended processes – in other words: design. As an introduction to design cybernetics, this chapter outlines the development of cybernetics from a technical engineering discipline to a design-philosophical perspective.

9.Fast graph-based semi-supervised learning and its applications

Author:Zhang,Yan Ming;Huang,Kaizhu;Geng,Guang Gang;Liu,Cheng Lin

Source:Semi-Supervised Learning: Background, Applications and Future Directions,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Despite the great success of graph-based transductive learning methods, most of them have serious problems in scalability and robustness. In this chapter, we propose an efficient and robust graph-based transductive classification method, called minimum tree cut (MTC), which is suitable for large scale data. Motivated from the sparse representation of graph, we approximate a graph by a spanning tree. Exploiting the simple structure, we develop a linear-time algorithm to label the tree such that the cut size of the tree is minimized. This significantly improves graph-based methods, which typically have a polynomial time complexity. Moreover, we theoretically and empirically show that the performance of MTC is robust to the graph construction, overcoming another big problem of traditional graph-based methods. Extensive experiments on public data sets and applications on text extraction fromimages demonstrate our method’s advantages in aspect of accuracy, speed, and robustness.

10.A creative "nanotown": Framing sustainable development scenarios with local people in Calabria

Author:Verdini,Giulio;Bina,Olivia;Chiles,Prue;Guerrieri,Pilar Maria;Mace,Alan;Nolf,Christian;Occhialini,Etra Connie;Pola,Anna Paola;Raffa,Paola

Source:Enabling the City: Interdisciplinary and Transdisciplinary Encounters in Research and Practice,2021,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter intends to be both scientifically sound and narratively engaging, given the richness of the work done in Gagliato as experienced by the authors. As a matter of fact, besides the research done remotely, the authors gathered in Gagliato in July 2017 for a one-week participatory design workshop, getting to know the local context, talking with local people, materialising the focus groups implemented on site in future visions of sustainable development. Gagliato is a hilly town located in the province of Catanzaro in Calabria, overlooking the Ionian Sea. The chapter introduces a theoretical section regarding current debates on transdisciplinary research and the reason why Gagliato has been considered a suitable case to test it. The enabling conditions and potential barriers to achieve meaningful transdisciplinary outcomes and consequently tangible positive urban transformation of the experience of Gagliato will be discussed in relationship to the various phases of the project.

11.The neo-liberal turn: ‘Culture’-led urban regeneration in Shanghai

Author:Zhong,Sheng

Source:The Routledge Companion to Urban Regeneration,2013,Vol.

Abstract:The chapter problematizes the nature of ‘culture’-led urban regeneration practices in Shanghai by differentiating between the intentions of regenerative efforts and the real outcomes of policy initiatives. Based on the case study of Shanghai Sculpture Space, the chapter reveals that Shanghai’s so-called ‘culture’- led urban regeneration program implemented through public-private partnership was actually propertyled. The biggest beneficiaries of the process were landed interests. The heavy involvement of the local state and government-linked institutions, however, did not result in the honoring of community sociocultural needs that a genuine culture-led urban regeneration project would require.

12.Bio-Inspired Computation and Optimization: An Overview

Author:Yang,Xin She;Chien,Su Fong;Ting,Tiew On

Source:Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications,2015,Vol.

Abstract:All design problems in telecommunications can be formulated as optimization problems, and thus may be tackled by some optimization techniques. However, these problems can be extremely challenging due to the stringent time requirements, complex constraints, and a high number of design parameters. Solution methods tend to use conventional methods such as Lagrangian duality and fractional programming in combination with numerical solvers, while new trends tend to use evolutionary algorithms and swarm intelligence. This chapter provides a summary review of the bio-inspired optimization algorithms and their applications in telecommunications. We also discuss key issues in optimization and some active topics for further research.

13.Corporate marginal tax rate estimation: Evidence based on China’s listed companies

Author:Nong,Jin;Chen,Yang

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter aims at using an innovative method developed by Blouin et al. (Improved estimates of marginal tax rates: why they are needed, approach, and implications. Memo, 2008) to simulate 1041 China’s listed companies’ corporate marginal tax rate, and comparing the changes in marginal tax rate in the context of 2007 tax reform in China. After simulation and comparison, we find that the annual corporate marginal tax rate has greatly decreased after the new tax policy goes into effect. Besides, the tax effects on marginal tax rates vary with industry and across ownership.

14.A pedagogical approach to designing the future of China’s urban fringe

Author:Kiddle,Rebecca;Kim,Joon Sik;Chen,Bing

Source:Urban China's Rural Fringe: Actors, Dimensions and Management Challenges,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2016 Giulio Verdini, Yiwen Wang, Xiaonan Zhang and the contributors. To safeguard the overall quality of the development of urban and rural areas, as increasingly addressed in China’s strategic policy documents, there is an urgent need to provide a new vision for planning education, nurturing an interdisciplinary learning environment that can promote critical thinking as a basis for action or intervention. The urban and rural nexus highlights an area of particular tension as it works to house existing villagers alongside the rising middle classes keen for a more suburban/rural aspect (see Sturzacker and Law in this volume). This challenges planners to think beyond the scope of statutory systems and consider planning as an activity that professionals facilitate, rather than own or monopolize. The planning education system should, therefore, equip prospective planners with not only professional knowledge, but the capability to involve a range of stakeholders in more genuinely collaborative ways. On the urban fringe where very diverse social groups and needs meet, this ability to involve the range of stakeholders in decision-making processes is all the more important.

15.Recursive learning of genetic algorithms with task decomposition and varied rule set

Author:Fang, Lei ; Guan, Sheng-Uei ; Zhang, Haofan

Source:Modeling Applications and Theoretical Innovations in Interdisciplinary Evolutionary Computation,2013,Vol.

Abstract:Rule-based Genetic Algorithms (GAs) have been used in the application of pattern classification (Corcoran & Sen, 1994), but conventional GAs have weaknesses. First, the time spent on learning is long. Moreover, the classification accuracy achieved by a GA is not satisfactory. These drawbacks are due to existing undesirable features embedded in conventional GAs. The number of rules within the chromosome of a GA classifier is usually set and fixed before training and is not problem-dependent. Secondly, conventional approaches train the data in batch without considering whether decomposition solves the problem. Thirdly, when facing large-scale real-world problems, GAs cannot utilise resources efficiently, leading to premature convergence. Based on these observations, this paper develops a novel algorithmic framework that features automatic domain and task decomposition and problem-dependent chromosome length (rule number) selection to resolve these undesirable features. The proposed Recursive Learning of Genetic Algorithm with Task Decomposition and Varied Rule Set (RLGA) method is recursive and trains and evolves a team of learners using the concept of local fitness to decompose the original problem into sub-problems. RLGA performs better than GAs and other related solutions regarding training duration and generalization accuracy according to the experimental results. © 2013 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

16.Population diversity of particle swarm optimizer solving single-and multi-objective problems

Author:Cheng, Shi ; Shi, Yuhui ; Qin, Quande

Source:Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Premature convergence occurs in swarm intelligence algorithms searching for optima. A swarm intelligence algorithm has two kinds of abilities exploration of new possibilities and exploitation of old certainties. The exploration ability means that an algorithm can explore more search places to increase the possibility that the algorithm can find good enough solutions. In contrast, the exploitation ability means that an algorithm focuses on the refinement of found promising areas. An algorithm should have a balance between exploration and exploitation, that is, the allocation of computational resources should be optimized to ensure that an algorithm can find good enough solutions effectively. The diversity measures the distribution of individuals' information. From the observation of the distribution and diversity change, the degree of exploration and exploitation can be obtained. Another issue in multiobjective is the solution metric. Pareto domination is utilized to compare two solutions; however, solutions are almost Pareto non-dominated for multiobjective problems with more than ten objectives. In this chapter, the authors analyze the population diversity of a particle swarm optimizer for solving both single objective and multiobjective problems. The population diversity of solutions is used to measure the goodness of a set of solutions. This metric may guide the search in problems with numerous objectives. Adaptive optimization algorithms can be designed through controlling the balance between exploration and exploitation. © 2015 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

17.The epistemology of Yin-Yang balancing as the root of Chinese cultural traditions: The indigenous features and geocentric implications

Author:Li,Peter Ping

Source:The Psychological and Cultural Foundations of East Asian Cognition: Contradiction, Change, and Holism,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Most Eastern traditional philosophies, such as Taoism, from China, share a set of core themes that constitute a philosophy of wisdom (science-art integration), in contrast to Western philosophies with a focus on knowledge (science-art separation). This chapter argues that the epistemological system of yin-yang balancing is the root of Eastern culture traditions. Building on this theme, the chapter elaborates on the unique features of yin-yang balancing, in contrast to Aristotle's formal logic and Hegel's dialectics in the West. It is posited that yin-yang balancing is more sophisticated (rather than naïve) than all dialectical logic for paradox management, since it is the only system that can truly accommodate and appreciate paradox and has the potential to absorb all Western systems into a geocentric (East-meets-West) meta-system. The chapter concludes with an application of yin-yang balancing to the geocentric integration of the Eastern philosophy of wisdom with the Western philosophy of knowledge, toward a new geocentric meta-paradigm.

18.Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications

Author:Yang,Xin She;Chien,Su Fong;Ting,Tiew On

Source:Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications,2015,Vol.

Abstract:Bio-inspired computation, especially those based on swarm intelligence, has become increasingly popular in the last decade. Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications reviews the latest developments in bio-inspired computation from both theory and application as they relate to telecommunications and image processing, providing a complete resource that analyzes and discusses the latest and future trends in research directions. Written by recognized experts, this is a must-have guide for researchers, telecommunication engineers, computer scientists and PhD students.

19.The unstable triangular relationship between China, EU, and the USA

Author:Harris,Geoffrey

Source:China and the EU in the Era of Regional and Interregional Cooperation,2020,Vol.

20.A Poetics of Designing

Author:Westermann, Claudia

Source:Design Research Foundations,2019,Vol.

Abstract:The chapter considers second-order cybernetics as a framework that is accurately described as a poetics. An overview is provided on what it means to be in a world that is uncertain, e.g., how under conditions of limited understanding any activity is an activity that designs and constructs, and how designing objects, spaces, and situations relates to the (designed) meta-world of second-order cybernetics. If it cannot be determined whether the world is complex or not, to assume that the world is complex is a matter of choice linked to an attitude of generosity. The chapter highlights that it is this attitude, which makes designing an ethical challenge. Designers require a framework that is open, but one that supplies ethical guidance when ‘constructing’ something new. Relating second-order design thinking to insights in philosophy and aesthetics, the chapter argues that second-order cybernetics provides a response to this ethical challenge and essentially it entails a poetics of designing.

21.Semi-supervised learning: Background, applications and future directions

Author:Zhong,Guoqiang;Huang,Kaizhu

Source:Semi-Supervised Learning: Background, Applications and Future Directions,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Semi-supervised learning is an important area of machine learning. It deals with problems that involve a lot of unlabeled data and very scarce labeled data. The book focuses on state-of-the-art research on semi-supervised learning. In the first chapter, Weng, Dornaika and Jin introduce a graph construction algorithm named the constrained data self-representative graph construction (CSRGC). In the second chapter, to reduce the graph construction complexity, Zhang et al. use anchors that were a special subset chosen from the original data to construct the full graph, while randomness was injected into graphs to improve the classification accuracy and deal with the high dimensionality issue. In the third chapter, Dornaika et al. introduce a kernel version of the Flexible Manifold Embedding (KFME) algorithm. In the fourth chapter, Zhang et al. present an efficient and robust graph-based transductive classification method known as the minimum tree cut (MTC), for large scale applications. In the fifth chapter, Salazar, Safont and Vergara investigated the performance of semi-supervised learning methods in two-class classification problems with a scarce population of one of the classes. In the sixth chapter, by breaking the sample identically and independently distributed (i.i.d.) assumption, one novel framework called the field support vector machine (F-SVM) with both classification (F-SVC) and regression (F-SVR) purposes is introduced. In the seventh chapter, Gong employs the curriculum learning methodology by investigating the difficulty of classifying every unlabeled example. As a result, an optimized classification sequence was generated during the iterative propagations, and the unlabeled examples are logically classified from simple to difficult. In the eighth chapter, Tang combines semi-supervised learning with geo-tagged photo streams and concept detection to explore situation recognition. This book is suitable for university students (undergraduate or graduate) in computer science, statistics, electrical engineering, and anyone else who would potentially use machine learning algorithms; professors, who research artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, machine learning, data mining and related fields; and engineers, who apply machine learning models into their products.

22.Income inequality in China and the role of fiscal policies: An empirical study of Chinese provincial data

Author:Zhang,Fan;Hung,Juann H.

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter conducts panel regressions using provincial data from 2005 to 2010 to investigate whether China’s fiscal system is effective in mitigating the rise in income inequality in those years. On the revenue side, we find that only operation tax has a significant negative effect on income inequality. Value-added tax (VAT), individual and enterprise income tax all have an insignificant impact on income inequality. We suspect the insignificant effect of progressive individual income tax on income inequality reflects tax evasion by the rich. On the spending side, the results indicate that all government expenditures have no significant impacts on reducing income inequality. This suggests that, among other possibilities, government spending lacks efficiency or pays insufficient attention to the needy.

23.How COVID-19 Has Stimulated Innovation in the Chinese Education Sector

Author:Poshan Yu, Samuel Kwok and Zhongyue Jiang

Source:,2021,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter aims to investigate the impacts of COVID-19 in China's education sector. It will capture the dynamics of the interlinked changing relationships between the availability and use of education technology (EdTech) and the demand for online learning among various stakeholders in the Chinese education market. In addition, this chapter examines whether and how these relationships enhance operational efficiency via transforming the current business models in the sector, in particular due to the COVID-19 pandemic. By analyzing the current practices of the sector, this chapter will critically discuss the challenges and opportunities for technology in education and how these changes in turn drive stakeholders (including students, educators, and regulators) to respond and engage with each other, and how these stakeholder engagements impact the sustainable development of delivery modes, such as digital education and remote learning by using EdTech strategies in the sector.

24.Rural regeneration in the Yangtze River Delta: The challenge and potential for rural heritage tourism development

Author:Wang,Yiwen

Source:Urban China's Rural Fringe: Actors, Dimensions and Management Challenges,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2016 Giulio Verdini, Yiwen Wang, Xiaonan Zhang and the contributors. The diversification of the functional uses of agricultural land has grown in importance since the concept of sustainable development became a matter of global concern before the turn of the new century. Multi-functionality of agricultural land often refers to the production of other goods, services or values in addition to crop and livestock, such as food security, leisure activities, recreational opportunities and cultural tourism (Daugstad et al. 2006). Arguably, rural tourism has been one of the most effective tools for diversifying economic activities and generating additional income for the rural community. It has played an important role in regenerating the declining economy of the countryside as a result of intensive global food trading (Sharpley and Vass 2006). While the term ‘rural tourism’ has been perceived and interpreted in various ways, ranging from general leisure activities to hands-on farming practice, it is the role of ‘cultural heritage’ in the current trend of rural tourism development that this research was set to explore.

25.Understanding “sustainability” and attitudes of students to the concept of “sustainable development” in China and the UK

Author:Williams,Austin

Source:Green Energy and Technology,2017,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter is an investigation into the way(s) that words and phrases such as, “sustainability” and “the environment” are used within China and the UK. It is a comparative analysis of responses from 18 to 21 year old students of Architecture in both countries – carried out by questionnaire sampling of students from both regions – and provides an initial assessment of the extent and possible meaning of any key differences in understanding of these terms. The discourse on sustainability is well-established in the UK but is not regularly taught as mainstream in Chinese universities, and yet many tutors, lecturers and practitioners educated outside China who are employed or guest lecture in our particular joint China-British university (and evidence shows that this also happens in other Chinese universities) are bringing a Western educational language of sustainability to Chinese students. In my experience, this has led to some discussion among students and this paper – concerning itself with issues related to sustainability – is the start of a wider assessment of social, cultural, practical and political differences in the classroom: in the West and in China. Drawing on a comparison of student responses from one Chinese university and three academically comparable universities in the UK – including questionnaire responses from 115 students studying in UK and 321 students studying in China (436 respondents in total), I examine their understanding of sustainability that might facilitate the use of these concepts more meaningfully. My findings indicate that there are clear disparities between students in China and UK reflecting a different understanding of expectations, settings and context.

26.Manufacturing and logistics networks of korean firms in china: A case study of suzhou industrial park

Author:Liu,Zheng;Kim,Hyung Min;Zhang,Kaifeng

Source:Operations and Service Management: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications,2017,Vol.

Abstract:© 2018 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. The aim of this chapter is to develop a better understanding of interactions of Korean firms in Suzhou in terms of supply chain, manufacturing networks and logistics. By reviewing the key literature in industry clusters, international strategy, manufacturing systems and logistics management, a conceptual framework is designed to capture the key roles of Korean MNE, SMEs, and local SIP service organizations. Case studies and interviews with practitioners provide in-depth knowledge about firms' operation in Suzhou. An industry review of SIP is also conducted from the perspectives of history, policy, infrastructure and local culture. Discussions are made to address the critical issues followed by a summary of the chapter.

27.The book as site: Alternative modes of representing and documenting architecture

Author:Macken,Marian

Source:The Routledge Companion to Design Research,2014,Vol.

28.Gothic forms of time: Architecture, Romanticism, Medievalism

Author:Duggett,Tom

Source:Romantic Gothic: An Edinburgh Companion,2015,Vol.

29.Cultural institutional reform and the changing society in China

Author:Zhong,Sheng

Source:Governing Society In Contemporary China,2016,Vol.

Abstract:Wholly regarded as social welfare and propaganda before the economic reform, cultural production is increasingly linked to profit-making and economic competitiveness in contemporary China. The reform of public cultural institutions and the promotion of cultural industries are reflective of this new understanding. This chapter indicates that the changing society is an important force driving the cultural reform. However, the rush towards market also causes concern to the Party-state and this leads to the redress of the issue in recent years. In light of the multiple roles of culture, this chapter suggests that the energetic vibe from the society would be advantageous in making China a great power of culture….

30.Creativity in the animation industry

Author:Liu,Zheng;Ma,Lei

Source:Exploring the Benefits of Creativity in Education, Media, and the Arts,2016,Vol.

Abstract:In the past 20 years, animation industry has developed rapidly due to the popularity of technology and a market demand on creativity. Large firms such as Disney and Pixar are continuously seeking strategies to expand, improve, and innovate, whereas most Chinese companies, as late comers are upgrading their capability through original design, technology development and policy support. This chapter focuses on the creativity in the animation industry, with an analysis on brand/character development, technology innovation, and policy influence. It starts with an introduction of the creativity in animation industry from both practice and literature perspectives. Then, there are five cases studies into companies with a highlight on their details of creative activities. Discussion is to address the critical issues of creativity in the animation industry, followed by a conclusion and recommendations for future research areas.

31.The role of the exchange rate in China’s outward foreign direct investment

Author:Ding,Xinyun;Salike,Nimesh

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This research estimates the impact of exchange rate and exchange rate volatility on Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) utilizing panel data in 21 countries from 2004 to 2013. A basic gravity model and fixed effect model are applied to find that both market-seeking motivation and economic openness are positive determinants for Chinese OFDI. A depreciated host country currency is more favorable for Chinese OFDI. On the contrary, exchange rate volatility has adverse effects, meaning Chinese OFDI declines with exchange rate volatility. There is no obvious evidence to support that China has a preference to choose developed or developing countries as its OFDI host countries.

32.The rise in China’s gender income inequality

Author:Sun,Qi;Hung,Juann H.

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This research aims to shed light on the causes of the rising gender income gap in China. We first apply the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method (Oaxaca, Int Eco Rev 14: 693-709, 1973; Blinder, J Hum Res 8: 436-455, 1973) to our survey data to estimate the extent to which that gap can be explained by the difference in human capital characteristics (such as years of education and years of experience). We find that a rising discrimination against females (either due to tradition or otherwise) is not the main cause of the rising gender income gap in China. Instead, we present evidence to propose that two of the three main drivers of China’s economic growth-namely, privatization and urbanization-very likely have contributed to the rise in China’s gender income gap.

33.Collaborative approaches for planning the rural areas of Chinese cities

Author:Zhong,Sheng;Guo,Yu

Source:Urban China's Rural Fringe: Actors, Dimensions and Management Challenges,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2016 Giulio Verdini, Yiwen Wang, Xiaonan Zhang and the contributors. The rapid urbanization process in China has posed significant threats to land resources not only in quantity but also in quality. In the peri-urban areas of Chinese cities, the pressures from urban sprawl have resulted in scattered construction lands mixed with cultivated lands. This highly inefficient use of rural construction, especially in peri-urban areas, has been identified as a major problem and, consequently, rural land consolidation has been increasingly considered as a priority for reaching more sustainable rural planning outcomes. Based on the existing experiences of land ticket reform, this chapter argues that market-based land ticket represents a promising approach to China’s rural land consolidation practises and should be allowed to be used in a wider scope. However, reform of the existing land ticket and rural land consolidation processes is also needed to ensure better results. A perspective from participative and collaborative planning will shed light on how to achieve this outcome.

34.Media Coverage and Stock Returns: Evidence from Chinese Cross-Listed Firms

Author:Wang,Chen;Ding,Rong;Hou,Wenxuan;Lee,Edward

Source:Experiences and Challenges in the Development of the Chinese Capital Market,2015,Vol.

35.Historic landscape and water heritage of Suzhou beyond the tourist gaze

Author:Wang,Yi Wen;Nolf,Christian

Source:Suzhou in Transition,2020,Vol.

36.Corporate social responsibility (CSR) in China: A contextual exploration

Author:Kirk Davidson,D.;Yin,Juelin

Source:Comparative Perspectives on Global Corporate Social Responsibility,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2017 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. Despite a growing recognition of national contexts in predicting the dynamics of corporate social responsibility (CSR), the limited prior research has failed to disaggregate national institutions to specify the mechanisms between aspects of national institutional contexts and elements of CSR practices. In this paper we offer a framework for analyzing the nature and status of CSR, which is made up of eight elements: history, religions/ideologies, social norms, geography, political structures, the level of economic development, civil society institutions, and the country's "safety net" provisions. We apply the framework to explain how and why China's understanding of CSR differs from that in Western countries.

37.Developmental swarm intelligence Developmental learning perspective of swarm intelligence algorithms

Author:Shi, Yuhui

Source:Nature-Inspired Computing Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications,2016,Vol.1-3

Abstract:In this article, the necessity of having developmental learning embedded in a swarm intelligence algorithm is confirmed by briefly considering brain evolution, brain development, brainstorming process, etc. Several swarm intelligence algorithms are looked at from developmental learning perspective. Finally, a framework of a developmental swarm intelligence algorithm is given to help understand developmental swarm intelligence algorithms, and to guide to design and/or implement any new developmental swarm intelligence algorithm and/or any developmental evolutionary algorithm. © 2017 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

38.The algorithms-aided design (AAD)

Author:Tedeschi,Arturo;Lombardi,Davide

Source:Informed Architecture: Computational Strategies in Architectural Design,2017,Vol.

39.China's way to the US market: China's outward direct investment in the United States

Author:Liang,Bo;Yan,Li;Quinlivan,Gary;Cline,Thomas W.

Source:Handbook on China and Globalization,2019,Vol.

40.Psychological Contracts: Past, Present, and Future

Author:Coyle-Shapiro, JAM;Costa, SP;Doden, W;Chang, CC

Source:ANNUAL REVIEW OF ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR, VOL 6,2019,Vol.6

Abstract:We provide a review of psychological contract research, beginning with past conceptualizations and empirical evidence. We tailor this retrospective look by reviewing the antecedents and outcomes associated with psychological contract breach and discussing the dominant theoretical explanations for the breach-outcome relationship. This synthesis of past evidence provides the foundation for reviewing the present emerging and developing themes in psychological contract research. This discussion is organized around the expansion of resources exchanged and the antecedents of contract breach and outcomes, moving beyond reciprocity as an underpinning explanation. We highlight the practical implications of research to date on psychological contracts and end with directions for future research to include the need for greater attention given to ideological currency, employee health, polycontextual approaches, the role of psychological needs, and post-breach/violation.

41.Bridal fashion and Suzhou: The development of the Tiger Hill wedding market

Author:Sterling,Sara

Source:Suzhou in Transition,2020,Vol.

42.3D food printing Perspectives    

Author:Sun, Jie ; Zhou, Weibiao ; Huang, Dejian ; Yan, Liangkun

Source:Polymers for Food Applications,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Due to consumers’ growing attention to personal health, food products that focus on personal care, healthy concepts and functional claims are emerging as a new trend. This motivates a growing market for personalized healthy food, which aims to tailor and fabricate diet specifically based on an individual’s health condition. Traditional food preparation processes even with advanced processing technologies cannot meet such demands. Three-dimensional (3D) food printing, also known as Food Layered Manufacture, can be one of the potential ways to bridge this gap. This is a digitally controlled, robotic construction process, which can build up complex 3D food products layer by layer. It aims to revolutionize food manufacturing with customized shape, color, flavor, texture, and even nutrition. Hence, food products can be designed and fabricated to meet individual needs through controlling the amount of printing material and nutrition content. Foods created by 3D printing have already entered the market. A range of 3D printing methods, platforms, materials and recipes have been utilized. This chapter reviews the common approaches and techniques used in food printing. The market challenges, technical difficulties and possible strategies along the pathway of commercialization are also discussed. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018.

43.Wujiang in transition: Urban development and changing grassroots governance mechanisms

Author:Tang,Beibei

Source:Suzhou in Transition,2020,Vol.

44.Suzhou in transition: An introduction

Author:Tang,Beibei;Cheung,Paul

Source:Suzhou in Transition,2020,Vol.

46.Suzhou in transition

Author:Tang,Beibei;Cheung,Paul

Source:Suzhou in Transition,2020,Vol.

Abstract:© 2021 selection and editorial matter, Beibei Tang and Paul Cheung. All rights reserved. Through the lens of the city of Suzhou, this edited volume presents views on the complex interaction between the central state, market agents, local governments and individuals who have shaped the development of Chinese cities and urban life. Featuring a range of disciplinary perspectives, contributors to this volume have all undertaken research in one municipality - Suzhou - to consider how history and culture have evolved during the modernisation of Chinese cities and the transformation of urban space, as well as shifting rural-urban relations and urban life during the reform era. The volume is underscored by a complex dynamic system consisting of three interlocked mechanisms through which the central and local state interact: history and culture, social and economic life, and administration and governance. As such, chapters analyse responses both from the state and society as driving forces of local development, with an interplay between tradition and heritage on the one hand and China's economic and social development on the other. Suzhou in Transition will appeal to students and scholars of Chinese and urban studies, as well as urban sociology and geography.

47.A Review of Design Approaches + Strategies

Author:Phiri,Michael;Chen,Bing

Source:SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Identification and analysis of design strategies is essential for this brief to increase our knowledge and understanding in order to provide a rationale basis and underpin the joint approach to property and asset or infrastructure design and management. These are advocated as a way to address in the healthcare sector fragmentation, duplication, redundancy, unsustainable transportation and non-standardisation due to the creation of varying levels of accommodation standards. Design strategies are important because they can aid organisations determine what to produce and do (products or outcomes), how and when to do it (process) and how consistently innovative the products are and over time perform responding to changing contexts (performance) while delivering on return on investment. They can therefore play a vital integrating role in connecting design endeavours to organisation’s business strategy, in identifying the core business and focus of an organisation, in adopting the latest technologies, translating insights into actions and their prioritisation. A brief review of a selection of the main design approaches and strategies from the many that have been advocated for architectural healthcare design in recent times is conducted to provide a suitable basis for the development of technical guidance and tools. These include interrelated design for sustainability, evidence-based design, lean health care and lean-led design, six sigma, simulation modelling, learning from completed construction projects [post-project evaluations (PPE) and post-occupancy evaluations (POE)] and varying combinations of these. Identifying approaches towards measuring and monitoring the environmental impact of new buildings and refurbishment of existing buildings is essential to respond to how best projects in future minimise direct environmental effect. The underlying premise includes the use of different materials, how to manage resources optimally and lessons learnt from the most innovative methods which have been undertaken or applied to address these issues.

48.Supporting design thinking with evocative digital diagrams

Author:Herr, Christiane M.

Source:Computational Design Methods and Technologies Applications in CAD, CAM and CAE Education,2012,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter presents a digitally supported approach to creative thinking through diagrammatic visuals. Diagrammatic visuals can support designing by evoking thoughts and by raising open questions in conversational exchanges with designers. It focuses on the educational context of the architectural design studio, and introduces a software tool, named Algogram, which allows designers to employ diagrams in challenging conventional assumptions and for generating new ideas. Results from testing the tool and the way of approaching conceptual designing encouraged by it within an undergraduate design studio suggest a potential for refocusing of attention in digital design support development towards diagrams. In addition to the conventional emphasis on the variety of tool features and the ability of the tool to assist representational modeling of form, this chapter shows how a diagram-based approach can acknowledge and harness the creative potential of designers' constructive seeing. © 2012, IGI Global.

49.Feasibility and acceptability of in-depth annotated parallel corpus-aided translation teaching

Author:Wang,Hui

Source:Handbook of Research on Teaching Methods in Language Translation and Interpretation,2014,Vol.

Abstract:© 2015 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. This chapter probes into the feasibility and acceptability of integrating an in-depth annotated parallel corpus into the translation classroom. It proceeds from outlining the conceptual and structural features of English/Chinese Online Translation Teaching Platform, an in-depth annotated parallel corpus designed for teaching and (self-) learning of translation. With a 90-minute lecture as a demo, it illustrates how the combined unity of course teaching materials and the platform, as well as the teaching method and the annotation mode of the corpus, can be effectively achieved. It then discusses users' perceptions of the use of the platform in classroom teaching as shown in a recent survey and points out the possibilities of future development.

50.CPE 207: Software engineering

Author:Stankovic,Nenad;Lambacher,Stephen G.

Source:Handbook of Curriculum Development,2010,Vol.

Abstract:This paper describes a new second-year undergraduate project course in software engineering. The course aims to broaden students' experience, knowledge, and skills. The students worked on six one semester projects. We motivate and assess this pedagogy by our pre- and post-findings, and explain the rationale behind it. The outcome revealed that the students had the capability and motivation to engage in solving many complex managerial, organizational, and technical problems with little guidance and supervision. This suggests that they maintained their focus on the system rather than on individual tasks, which facilitated their understanding of the course material and software lifecycle. © 2010 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

51.The state of China’s state capitalism: Evidence of its successes and pitfalls

Author:Hung,Juann H.;Chen,Yang

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This book comprises a collection of well-researched essays on selected contemporary economic and finance issues in China, making a timely contribution to the intellectual intercourse regarding the implications of China’s rise. These essays analyze issues related to the state of China’s ecology, real estate market, inbound and outbound FDI, income inequality, etc., and offer analysis on the policy and institutional causes of those issues. Readers will be able to infer their implications for business opportunities in China and the tradeoff / tension between economic growth and social welfare. Moreover, this book introduces an array of data and data sources useful to scholars and practitioners interested in studying the Chinese model of economic growth. This book will be a valuable resource to journalists and scholars trying to gain insight into China’s extraordinary pace of growth in the past three decades.

52.Factor prices and geographical economics

Author:Brakman,Steven;Van Marrewijk,Charles

Source:Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Economic Geography,2015,Vol.

Abstract:A key result in neoclassical trade theory, or the Heckscher–Ohlin model, is the so-called factor price equalization theorem (FPE; see Leamer, 2012 for a survey). It states that countries engaged in free trade that produce the same set of commodities, using similar techniques, have identical factor prices. This is a surprising result if one considers that in this stylized neoclassical world, countries that differ with respect to factor supplies still have the same factor prices. This result implies that, for example, (il)legal immigrants do not affect local wages. The differences in factor supplies are absorbed by differences in the commodity bundle that a country produces. In equilibrium, a labor-abundant country produces more of the labor-intensive commodity, and the capital-abundant country more of the capital-intensive commodity. So an inflow of migrants does not lower wages because this inflow increases production of the labor-intensive commodity and thereby raises demand for labor. Consumers are not affected either because international trade corrects for the differences in local supply and demand (the excess supply of the labor-intensive commodity is traded in order to restore equilibrium). In a closed economy this outcome is not possible because an increase in labor supply and the resulting increase of the production of the labor-intensive commodity would lower its price and also wages. If this seems too good to be true, this opinion is correct. FPE is a mathematical result that has produced an enormous (empirical) literature, but, as observed by Leamer and Levinsohn (1995, p. 1357), ‘the real question isn’t whether FPE is true or not. Trust us, it isn’t true. The real question is what causes the violations we observe.’ In addition there is also no unambiguous evidence of global convergence of factor prices (Milanovic, 2005).

53.Editorial: Finance and risk management for international logistics and the supply chain

Author:Gong,Stephen;Cullinane,Kevin

Source:Finance and Risk Management for International Logistics and the Supply Chain,2018,Vol.

54.When Wanda Plaza comes to the Yangtze River Delta: Will the land prices increase?

Author:Zhang,Ziwei;Chen,Yang

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Wanda-one of the Chinese real estate sector leading companies claims that the Wanda Plaza is the “heart” of a city. In this chapter, we use the panel dataset of land transactions during the period of 2008-2016 in 109 counties in Yangtze River Delta to test whether the entry of a new Wanda Plaza increases the county-level average land prices. Using the difference-in-difference (DID) strategy, our estimates suggest that a new Wanda Plaza opening increases the price of the industrial land by about 0.1-0.15%% and increases the price of the residential land by about 0.22-0.25%%.

55.Simulation reproducibility with python and pweave

Author:Kim,Kyeong Soo

Source:EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing,2019,Vol.

Abstract:As the amount and complexity of model source code, configuration files, and resulting data for simulative experiments are ever increasing, it becomes a real challenge to reliably and efficiently reproduce simulation data and their analysis results published in a scientific paper not only by its readers but also by the authors themselves, which makes the claims and contributions made in the paper questionable. The idea of reproducible research comes as a solution to this problem and suggests that any scientific claims should be published together with relevant experimental data and software code for their analysis so that readers may verify the findings and build upon them; in case of computer simulation, the details of simulation implementation and its configurations should be provided as well. In this chapter, we illustrate the practice of reproducible research for OMNeT++ simulation based on Pweave and Python. We show how to embed simulation configuration files and Python analysis code, import simulation data with automatic updating of simulation results, and analyze data and present the results in a file.

56.Being middle class in China: Identity, attitudes and behaviour

Author:Miao,Ying

Source:Being Middle Class in China: Identity, Attitudes and Behaviour,2016,Vol.

Abstract:Many studies of the Chinese middle class focus on defining it and viewing its significance for economic development and its potential for sociopolitical modernisation. This book goes beyond such objective approaches and considers middle class people's subjective understanding and diverse experiences of class. Based on extensive original research including social surveys and detailed interviews, the book explores who the middle class think they are, what they think about a wide range of socioeconomic and sociopolitical issues, and why they think as they do. It examines attitudes towards the welfare state, social inequality, nationalism, relations with foreign countries and opinions on many social controversies, thereby portraying middle class people as more than simply luxury consumers and potential agents of democracy. The book concludes that a clear class identity and political consciousness have yet to emerge, but that middle class attitudes are best characterised as searching for a balance between old and new, the traditional and the foreign, the principled and the pragmatic.

57.Building trust relationship in cross-cultural collaboration: Case studies on two Chinese animation companies

Author:Liu,Zheng;Ma,Lei

Source:Transcontinental Strategies for Industrial Development and Economic Growth,2017,Vol.

Abstract:Internationalization and inter-firm collaboration is a business trend today. Meanwhile, cultural values and managerial practices vary from country to country which makes cross-border management more challenging than the traditional in-house business model. A trusting relationship is essential to business success, yet details of how to build-up and maintain trust are unclear. This paper investigates trust development in cross-border collaboration. The literature review has covered key trust theories and its linkage with culture. To further understand the critical issues in of trust, two in-depth case studies are conducted from the Chinese animation game industry. It is found that in order to achieve long-term business collaboration, companies need to be continuously responsive and adapt their trust models. Based on the case analysis, a general model and a practical model are developed for further testing. Other research topics to further link trust with sustainability are also proposed at the end of the chapter.

58.Contemporary Fabrication of Pasts and the Creation of New Identities? Open-Air Museums and Historical Theme Parks in the UK and China

Author:Ludwig, C.; Wang, Y.

Source:,2020,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter examines the selective usage of history, relics and practice to reconstruct specific versions of the past. The open air Beamish Museum in Durham, UK and the historical theme parks in Hangzhou and Kaifeng, China are used as comparative case studies to unpack first, how ‘heritage’ is conceptualised in each context, and second, how particular versions of the past are selected, (re)invented, disseminated and consumed for contemporary purposes. Set within a theoretical framework of ‘living heritage’ and an analytical framework of the over-lapping themes of authenticity, identity and national pride, tourism and education, the chapter examines the different ways in which the appropriation of cultural heritage takes place at each site. In doing so, we draw attention to the disparate interpretations of conservation practice and the idea of ‘living heritage’ in the UK and China and debate their continued relevance in the contemporary heritage discourse.

59.China’s architecture in a globalizing world: Between socialism and the market

Author:Han,Jiawen

Source:China's Architecture in a Globalizing World: Between Socialism and the Market,2017,Vol.

Abstract:China is currently in the midst of an unprecedented building boom and, indeed, interest in Chinese contemporary architecture has been fuelled by this huge expansion. Through a cutting-edge theoretical discussion of Chinese architecture in relation to Chinese modernity, this book examines this phenomenon in detail. In particular, it highlights how changes in the social-political system, the residual influence of Mao and the demands of the market have each shaped and determined style and form in recent years. Using key case studies of Liu Jiakun, Cui Kai, and URBANUS, it analyses the intricate details of historical pressures and practical strategies affecting Chinese architecture. In doing so, it demonstrates that Chinese architects contribute in specific ways to the international architectural discourse, since they are actively engaging with the complex societal transition of contemporary China and managing the dynamics and conflicts arising during the process. China’s Architecture in a Globalizing World: Between Socialism and the Market offers a lens into the innovation and uniqueness of architectural design in China. As such, this book will be useful for students and scholars of architecture, Chinese culture and society and urban studies.

60.Social learning in creative Shanghai

Author:Zhong,Sheng

Source:Insurgencies and Revolutions: Reflections on John Friedmann's Contributions to Planning Theory and Practice,2016,Vol.

61.Public housing in Shanghai: A tool with multiple purposes

Author:Chang,Ying;Chen,Jie

Source:The Future of Public Housing: Ongoing Trends in the East and the West,2013,Vol.

Abstract:Direct state provision of housing remains an important element of housing regime in many countries. This chapter traces recent experience of public housing development in Shanghai. It focuses the roles of two major public housing programmes, namely Relocation Housing and the new PRH (public rental housing) programme, in Shanghai's recent socio-spatial dynamics. It is shown that the public housing programme in Shanghai is mainly a result of deliberate urban development policy in line with other strategies such as city marketing, and gentrification. Thus we suggest that the Shanghai municipality government appropriates the new public housing regime as institutions to buttress local economic competitiveness. Our analysis is augmented with data from a questionnaire survey of PRH tenants in Shanghai. Finally, we identify challenges for the future development of public housing sector in China.

62.Public participation in contested spatial planning: Learning from a failed urban development project

Author:Zhang,Xiaonan;Sun,Lei

Source:Urban China's Rural Fringe: Actors, Dimensions and Management Challenges,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2016 Giulio Verdini, Yiwen Wang, Xiaonan Zhang and the contributors. Recent work on metropolitan growth in developing countries (see Shaw and Satish 2007; Zhang 2000, 2002) has suggested that changes in governance have a significant influence on urban spatial changes and suburban development. China is taking a decentralization process so the local governments have more power to control public policies, resource allocation and delivery of public goods and services (Zhang 2002). The decentralization of power opens up broad space to multi-scale forms of governance with multi-stakeholder arrangements (Rakodi 2003; Zhao et al. 2009). In the multi-stakeholder arrangement system, conflicting interests should be allowed and negotiation between the government and other sectors replaces mere command control from government. As a result, spatial planning is facing much more challenges stemming from the uncertainties of current local developments (Zhao et al. 2009).

63.Empirical studies in geographical economics

Author:Chang,Han Hsin;Van Marrewijk,Charles;Schramm,Marc

Source:Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Economic Geography,2015,Vol.

Abstract:Since the seminal work of Krugman (1991) led the way, many researchers have further analyzed and explained the intricate connections between international trade flows, factor mobility, agglomeration and production; see Brakman et al. (2009) for an overview of the literature. As explained in Brakman and Van Marrewijk (Chapter 3 of this volume), there are now three ‘core’ models of new economic geography, or ‘geographical economics’, as we prefer to label it: (i) Krugman’s model based on labor mobility; (ii) the solvable human capital model based on Forslid and Ottaviano (2003); and (iii) the intermediate goods model based on Krugman and Venables (1995). All these models give rise to similar dynamics and core–periphery patterns with path-dependency and multiple long-run equilibria. This chapter focuses on empirical studies that stay relatively close to the core models in geographical economics. Our contribution is limited to providing an update of the contributions regarding four key features of geographical economics as identified by Head and Mayer (2004a, p. 2616): A large market potential raises local factor prices. ● A large market will increase demand for local factors of production and this raises factor rewards. Regions surrounded by or close to regions with high real income (indicating strong spatial demand linkages) will have relatively higher wages. ● A large market potential induces factor inflows. Footloose factors of production will be attracted to those markets where firms pay relatively high factor rewards. In the Krugman core model footloose workers move to the region with highest real wage and similarly firms prefer locations with good market access. ● Reduction in trade costs induces agglomeration, at least beyond a critical level of transport or trade costs. For a large range of transport costs a change in these costs may not lead to a change in the equilibrium degree of agglomeration, but if a shock moves the economy beyond its break or sustain point the economy goes from spreading to agglomeration, or vice versa, respectively. This also implies that more economic integration (interpreted as a lowering of transport costs) should at some point lead to (more) agglomeration of the footloose activities and factors of production. ● Shock sensitivity. Changes in the economic environment can (but need not!) trigger a change in the equilibrium spatial distribution of economic activity. This hypothesis goes to the heart of the idea that geographical economics models are characterized by multiple equilibria.

64.Fiscal decentralization, yardstick competition in determining Chinese local governments’ land conveyance behavior

Author:Yang,Wenyin;Chen,Yang

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter investigates the institutional and political motivation behind Chinese local governments’ land conveyance behavior. The principal-agent model is adopted to illustrate the mechanisms of how yardstick competition and fiscal decentralization encourage land sale. We find that although yardstick competition promotes short-term economic growth, the presence of land finance impairs the “selection effect” of yardstick competition. Using a panel data of 31 Chinese provinces from 2003 to 2011 in a spatial autoregressive model, we show that yardstick competition exerts a large positive impact on the intensity of land sale and leasing, while the influence of fiscal decentralization has a moderate impact and the influence of foreign direct investment (FDI) appears to be insignificant.

65.Structuring and managing supply network: A review of current literature and conceptual framework

Author:Liu,Zheng

Source:Handbook of Research on Global Supply Chain Management,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2016 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. The concept of supply network has extended supply chain across national borders towards globalization. The aim of this chapter is to provide researchers, business practitioners and university students a picture of the architecture of supply networks. By analyzing two main trends of studies in the field of supply network management, components of supply network are classified into structural and infrastructural factors. Also a comparison is made to identify the difference between supply network and traditionally factory-based manufacturing system. Based on the literature review, a conceptual framework is further proposed which describes the supply network from four essential perspectives: Role/function, Relationship/ alliance, Configuration/reconfiguration, and Risk and crisis management. After presenting detailed models and decision making areas of each perspective, suggestions are given on some emerging topics.

66.An empirical study strategically assessing the role of the state government in corporate governance, ownership and performance of SOEs

Author:Pak,Donald Henry Ah;Ding,Xiaoming

Source:China and the Global Economy in the 21st Century,2012,Vol.

67.Neighbourhood determinants for life satisfaction of older people in Beijing

Author:Yan,Bingqiu;Gao,Xiaolu;Breitung,Werner

Source:Mobility, Sociability and Well-Being of Urban Living,2015,Vol.

Abstract:Demographic change and ageing societies are an increasingly critical issue for researchers and policymakers across the world and in particular in China, where the government’s population control strategies have since the late 1970s substantially changed social and demographic structures. At the same time, the traditional role of families in caring for elderly people is diminishing. In this situation, the neighbourhood as a living environment and as a platform for service provision is growing in importance for the elderly. Building on the authors’ previous proposition that age-friendly urban planning needs to take differences between neighbourhood types into account, the objective of this study is to identify which neighbourhood factors concretely contribute to the life satisfaction of seniors in different Beijing neighbourhoods. For this purpose, we used structural equation modelling (SEM) and found social support to be the primary neighbourhood factor affecting life satisfaction amongst the urban elderly in Beijing. We then differentiated between aged neighbourhoods with a high number of older people and others with less elderly residents, and found dwelling conditions and community-provided senior services to be additional critical indicators of satisfaction in the former and accessibility to services in the latter. Accordingly, we suggest tailoring government interventions that aim at age-friendly environments differently in different neighbourhoods.

68.A Simple Step-Stress Model for Coherent Systems and Associated Inference Based on System Signatures

Author:Zhu,Xiaojun;Mitra,Debanjan;Balakrishnan,Narayanaswamy

Source:Studies in Systems, Decision and Control,2018,Vol.142

Abstract:Coherent systems are important structures in reliability. In this paper, we discuss the maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of model parameters of an system with known signature having an exponential component distribution based on a simple step-stress model. We also develop confidence intervals (CIs) for the model parameters. A detailed Monte Carlo study is carried out to examine the performance of the point and estimates. Finally, a data analysis is performed for illustrating all the inferential methods developed here.

69.Torus orbifolds with two fixed points

Author:Darby,Alastair;Kuroki,Shintaro;Song,Jongbaek

Source:Trends in Mathematics,2019,Vol.

Abstract:The main objects of this paper are torus orbifolds that have exactly two fixed points. We study the equivariant topological type of these orbifolds and consider when we can use the results of (Darby et al., Equivariant cohomology of torus orbifolds, arXiv:1809.03678 [8]) to compute its integral equivariant cohomology, in terms of generators and relations, coming from the corresponding orbifold torus graph.

70.Experimental study on boundary constraints handling in particle swarm optimization from a population diversity perspective

Author:Cheng, Shi ; Shi, Yuhui ; Qin, Quande

Source:Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Premature convergence happens in Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for solving both multimodal problems and unimodal problems. With an improper boundary constraints handling method, particles may get "stuck in" the boundary. Premature convergence means that an algorithm has lost its ability of exploration. Population diversity is an effective way to monitor an algorithm's ability of exploration and exploitation. Through the population diversity measurement, useful search information can be obtained. PSO with a different topology structure and a different boundary constraints handling strategy will have a different impact on particles' exploration and exploitation ability. In this chapter, the phenomenon of particles getting "stuck in" the boundary in PSO is experimentally studied and reported. The authors observe the position diversity time-changing curves of PSOs with different topologies and different boundary constraints handling techniques, and analyze the impact of these settings on the algorithm's abilities of exploration and exploitation. From these experimental studies, an algorithm's abilities of exploration and exploitation can be observed and the search information obtained; therefore, more effective algorithms can be designed to solve problems. © 2015 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

71.Small-Scale public transportable and pre-fabricated buildings Evaluating their functional performance

Author:Xi, Junjie

Source:Small-Scale Public Transportable and Pre-Fabricated Buildings Evaluating their Functional Performance,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This book investigates the design, operation and use of contemporary transportable buildings, and explores how functional performance can be assessed in small-scale examples for public use alongside their relationship to other design elements. The research focuses on three case studies, Chengdu Hualin Elementary School, Exxopolis and Kreod, that do not require a high-technology building environment or complex construction skills. Transportable buildings are defined as those that are transported in a number of parts for assembly on site. Contemporary transportable buildings respond to ecological issues, social impacts, technological innovation and economic demands. They can be used to measure a society’s development in environmental sustainability, innovation and economic growth through various forms. Small-scale transportable buildings fulfil many temporary habitation needs in diverse roles, such as non-emergency transitional housing, ephemeral exhibition buildings and seasonal entertainment facilities. Small-Scale Public Transportable and Pre-Fabricated Buildings will be a useful research text for academics and students in architecture, design and sustainable building performance. © 2018 Junjie Xi.

72.Determinants of the urban investment bonds in China

Author:Li,Daike;Chen,Yang

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter investigates the determinants of the issuance of urban investment bonds (UIBs) across 31 provinces in China during the period of 2005-2013 using a spatial autoregressive model. We find that the provincial governments tend to compete with or imitate their neighboring provinces in bond issuance. The neighborhood can be defined in terms of either geographical proximity or economic performance. We also find that the fiscal gap, governments’ investments in housing and public welfare, and bond level in the previous year have positive association with the issuance of UIBs in China.

73.Statistical discriminability estimation for pattern classification based on neural incremental attribute learning

Author:Wang,Ting;Puthusserypady,Sadasivan;Guan,Sheng Uei;Wong,Prudence W.H.

Source:Artificial Intelligence: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications,2016,Vol.3

Abstract:Feature ordering is a significant data preprocessing method in Incremental Attribute Learning (IAL), a novel machine learning approach which gradually trains features according to a given order. Previous research has shown that, similar to feature selection, feature ordering is also important based on each feature's discrimination ability, and should be sorted in a descending order of their discrimination ability. However, such an ordering is crucial for the performance of IAL. As the number of feature dimensions in IAL is increasing, feature discrimination ability also should be calculated in the corresponding incremental way. Based on Single Discriminability (SD), where only the feature discrimination ability is computed, a new filter statistical feature discrimination ability predictive metric, called the Accumulative Discriminability (AD), is designed for the dynamical feature discrimination ability estimation. Moreover, a criterion that summarizes all the produced values of AD is employed with a GA (Genetic Algorithm)- based approach to obtain the optimum feature ordering for classification problems based on neural networks by means of IAL. Compared with the feature ordering obtained by other approaches, the method proposed in this paper exhibits better performance in the final classification results. Such a phenomenon indicates that, (i) the feature discrimination ability should be incrementally estimated in IAL, and (ii) the feature ordering derived by AD and its corresponding approaches are applicable with IAL.

74.Analytics on fireworks algorithm solving problems with shifts in the decision space and objective space

Author:Cheng, Shi ; Chen, Junfeng ; Qin, Quande ; Shi, Yuhui ; Zhang, Qingyu

Source:Nature-Inspired Computing Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications,2016,Vol.2-3

Abstract:Fireworks algorithms for solving problems with the optima shift in decision space and/or objective space are analyzed in this paper. The standard benchmark problems have several weaknesses in the research of swarm intelligence algorithms for solving single objective problems. The optimum is in the center of search range, and is the same at each dimension of the search space. The optimum shift in decision space and/or objective space could increase the difficulty of problem solving. A mapping strategy, modular arithmetic mapping, is utilized in the original fireworks algorithm to handle solutions out of search range. The solutions are implicitly guided to the center of search range for problems with symmetrical search range via this strategy. The optimization performance of fireworks algorithm on shift functions may be affected by this strategy. Four kinds of mapping strategies, which include mapping by modular arithmetic, mapping to the boundary, mapping to stochastic region, and mapping to limited stochastic region, are compared on problems with different dimensions and different optimum shift range. From experimental results, the fireworks algorithms with mapping to the boundary, or mapping to limited stochastic region obtain good performance on problems with the optimum shift. This is probably because the search tendency is kept in these two strategies. The definition of population diversity measurement is also proposed in this paper, from observation on population diversity changes, the useful information of fireworks algorithm solving different kinds of problems could be obtained. © 2017 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

75.Advertising in the aging society: Understanding representations, practitioners, and consumers in Japan

Author:Prieler,Michael;Kohlbacher,Florian

Source:Advertising in the Aging Society: Understanding Representations, Practitioners, and Consumers in Japan,2016,Vol.

Abstract:Population aging is a powerful megatrend affecting many countries around the world. This demographic shift has vast effects on societies, economies and businesses, and thus also for the advertising industry. Advertising in the Aging Society presents an insight into advertising practitioners and consumers in Japan.

76.Young criminal lives: Life courses and life chances from 1850

Author:Godfrey,Barry;Cox,Pamela;Shore,Heather;Alker,Zoe

Source:Young Criminal Lives: Life Courses and Life Chances from 1850,2017,Vol.

Abstract:Young Criminal Lives is the first cradle-to-grave study of the experiences of some of the thousands of delinquent, ‘difficult’, and destitute children passing through the early English juvenile industrial school and reformatory system. Applying biographical research methodologies to digital data, we have reconstructed the lives, families, and neighbourhoods of 500 children who were sent to reformatory and industrial schools in the north-west of England from courts around the UK over a fifty-year period from the 1860s onwards. For the first time, we have been able to follow these children on their journey in and out of institutional care, and then though to their adulthood and old age. We centre on institutions celebrated in this period for their pioneering approaches to child welfare and others that were investigated for cruelty and scandal. Both were typical of the new kind of state-certified provision offered, from the 1850s onwards, to children who had committed criminal acts, or who were considered ‘vulnerable’ to predation, poverty, and the ‘inheritance’ of criminal dispositions.

77.Self-training field pattern prediction based on kernel methods

Author:Jiang,Haochuan;Huang,Kaizhu;Zhang,Xu Yao;Zhang,Rui

Source:Semi-Supervised Learning: Background, Applications and Future Directions,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Conventional predictors often regard input samples as identically and independently distributed (i.i.d.). Such an assumption does not always hold in many real scenarios, especially when patterns occur as groups, where each group shares a homogeneous style. These tasks are named as the field prediction, which can be divided into the field classification and the field regression. Traditional i.i.d.-based machine learning models would always face degraded performance. By breaking the i.i.d. assump- tion, one novel framework called Field SupportVector Machine (F-SVM) with both classification (F-SVC) and regression (F-SVR) purposes is in- troduced in this chapter. To be specific, the proposed F-SVM predictor is investigated by learning simultaneously both the predictor and the Style Normalization Transformation (SNT) for each group of data (called field). Such joint learning is proved to be even feasible in the high-dimensional kernel space. An efficient alternative optimization algorithm is further designed with the final convergence guaranteed theoretically and experimentally. More importantly, a self-training based kernelized algorithm is also developed to incorporate the F-SVM model with the unknown field during the training phase by learning the transductive SNT to transfer the trained field information to this unknown style data. A series of experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the F-SVM model with both classification and regression tasks by promoting the classification accuracy and declining regression error. Empirical results demonstrate that the proposed F-SVM achieves in several benchmark datasets the best performance so far, significantly better than those state-of-the-art predictors.

78.China’s housing price: Where are the bubbles?

Author:Zhang,Xiaocong;Hung,Juann H.

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter investigates evidence of housing bubbles in different locations of China by looking at data at the provincial and city levels from late 1990s to 2016, using the price-to-rent analysis and the generalized sup-Augumented Dickey-Fuller Test (GSADF) test. The price-to-rent ratio analysis indicates that housing bubbles began to develop in Shenzhen and Xiamen as early as 2007, while the bubble in Beijing, Hangzhou, Ningbo, Hefei, and Wenzhou started later in 2009. Those findings are largely consistent with results of the GSADF test. We also observe that the government intervention has been quite effective in maintaining a relatively stable upward trend in housing prices by timely interventions either to revive a depressed market or dampen an overheating market. Even though it has been propping up the upward trend in housing prices, even allowing it to rise in an explosive pace at times, it also does not hesitate to use policy intervention to cause moderate downward adjustments to avoid spectacular burst.

79.Local economic elites and charitable giving

Author:Carrillo,Beatriz

Source:Local Elites in Post-Mao China,2018,Vol.

Abstract:© 2018 Yingjie Guo. As China rebuilds its charity and philanthropy sectors, examining the rationale behind the current push by both the Party-state and a range of societal actors for promoting private and corporate charitable giving became an important task to help understand its potential impacts on inequality and redistribution. Even though the practice of charity is largely universal across countries and cultures, localised practices of charity and philanthropy have been grounded on specific moral and ideological traditions, as well as in particular historical socio-economic contexts. In its broader conception, charity has generally been viewed as a positive force for social change; however, it has also been subjected to strong criticisms. Marxists have presented the strongest critique against charity, which, they argue, cannot challenge the fundamental injustice of the structured inequality of power between the rich and the poor (Cohen 2000, p. 19). In part, it was this rationale that led the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) to abolish all charitable organisations after its ascension to power in 1949 (Yan et al. 2007).

80.A review of healthcare technical guidance/standards, norms and tools

Author:Phiri, Michael ; Chen, Bing

Source:SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology,2014,Vol.

Abstract:The development and update of healthcare premises planning information, technical guidance and tools in health care are controversial and have tended to engender a lot of debate. This is because many interrelated issues are involved, for example, stewardship (whether public or private), regulation (extent of compliance and associated penalties for non-compliance), rationale (whether prescription or performance based), quality, responsibilities and costs of development and updates to keep this information relevant and responsive to changing healthcare practice and technology. In recent years, there have also been many concerns over the ever-increasing amount of advice on best practice standards in the planning and design of healthcare facilities due to burgeoning safety legislation, raising expectations for quality and safety improvements and demands for effectiveness and to achieve value for money. The introduction of new procurement routes such as private finance initiative, public-private partnerships over and above the traditional one has added complexity. A summative rather than a comprehensive review of the healthcare planning information, healthcare facility briefing systems and tools provides an appropriate basis to evaluate some of the issues identified above. The review also answers the question of need for technical guidance and tools in healthcare over and above the planning regulation and building control applied to other types of the built environment. Traditional focus of building control has, in recent times, seen expanded state interventions in health and safety, including prevention of fire risk in buildings to application of rules, regulations and standards relating to the form and performance of buildings and the built environment. This has been necessary not only in order for building design to respond to increased threats to health and safety posed by terrorism and climate change but also to address sociopsychological and cultural issues related to place-making and sustainable urban living. As a result, there has been a proliferation of state-centred legal forms of regulation, formations and a plethora of rules, standards and governance practices as well as requirements by insurance companies to identify, prevent and contain risk (Imrie and Street 2011). © The Author(s) 2014.

81.Transportation costs as a barrier to globalization for nine Asian countries including China

Author:Xu,Junqian;Julian,Craig C.

Source:Research Handbook on the Globalization of Chinese Firms,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Asia Nine, as one of the most crowded places in the world, is composed of both advanced economies - Hong Kong, Japan, Korea and Singapore - and developing countries - China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand. Bilateral trade between Asia Nine has increased dramatically since these countries joined the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) agreement in 1989. Actually all these countries have links with the ancient Chinese cultural sphere and their languages are often derived from Classical Chinese; trade between these countries may date back a thousand years. The cultural and linguistic similarities may have facilitated transport and trade, but bilateral trade between these countries is very historically dependent and most East Asian countries have a colonial relationship with Japan, which as a historical factor would more or less affect bilateral trade. A comparison of transportation costs as a percentage of total trade in both developed countries and developing countries is presented in Table 2.1. G7 countries are included to enable a comparison to be made with Asia Nine. Over the last two decades, generally speaking, transportation costs as a percentage of total trade in the developed countries have declined less than those in the developing countries. As is evident from Table 2.1, however, transport costs as a percentage of total trade are decreasing in both developed and developing countries.

82.An evolutionary game-based mechanism for unwanted traffic control

Author:Liu,Jia;Li,Mingchu;Feng,Zitong;Guo,Cheng;Yuan,Lifeng;Alam,Muhammad

Source:EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing,2019,Vol.

Abstract:With the development of Internet technology and the pervasive use of internet service providers (ISPs), internet users have reached an unprecedented volume. However, the existence of some malicious users seriously undermine the environment of the network by distributing a large amount of unwanted traffic, such as spam, pop-up, and malwares, which can be identified with the cooperation of individual users by installing anti-virus toolkits. In our paper, we propose an evolutionary game theoretic incentive mechanism to promote the cooperation of individual users to curb the expansion of unwanted traffic. Considering the hierarchical nature of real-world management, we model our framework as hierarchical incentive mechanism and combine reward with punishment mechanism to further incentivize cooperative behavior. Meanwhile, the acceptance condition of our framework is analyzed and we carry out a number of simulations to analyze the acceptance conditions of our framework.

83.Introduction

Author:Phiri,Michael;Chen,Bing

Source:SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology,2014,Vol.

Abstract:© 2014, The Author(s). Worldwide, healthcare organisations are facing challenges and demands to improve design quality and safety of their estate, while addressing burgeoning safety legislation and austere funding arrangements due to the 2007–2010 financial crisis and economic downturn. This has created an imperative for all providers, commissioners and regulators to address how the healthcare environment may need to change. Although widely acknowledged that healthcare guidance/standards and tools are essential to enhance quality and safety in health care, no studies have been published, nor indeed been carried out, with regard to their usefulness. By their very nature, studying guidance and tools is rarely an attractive subject for practitioners and academics alike. However, notable publications include sustainable healthcare architecture aimed at covering the twin big and complex subjects of sustainability and healthcare architecture (Guenther and Vittori: Sustainable healthcare architecture, 2007); a step-by-step guide of how to implement an evidence-based design (EBD) process and those seeking to learn the methodology for EBD of healthcare facilities (Cama: Evidence-based healthcare design, 2009); and a description of evidence-based healthcare facility design that is meant to support quality care and reduce costs (McCullough: Evidence-based healthcare design, 2009). Crucially, the lack of studies and consequently dearth of publications that focus on the role of technical guidance and tools is manifested by the absence of policies and appropriate strategies, as well as a rationale, not only for aiding decision-making in healthcare organisations, but also for acknowledging that, fundamentally, technologies, policies and services are subject to shorter life cycles than the relatively inflexible built assets that support them. This Springer Brief aims to increase our understanding of the role played by technical guidance/standards and tools in design, construction and operation of healthcare facilities as well as ultimately establishing the impact of the physical environment on staff and patient outcomes. Consequently, the aim is for the development of guidance and tools that will aid the creation of architectural environments of quality and safety, which will lead to positive patients’ health outcomes and improved staff productivity.

84.Towards Ethical Hacking—The Performance of Hacking a Router

Author:Golightly,Lewis;Chang,Victor;Xu,Qianwen Ariel

Source:Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications,2021,Vol.

Abstract:The increase and advancements of network technology play a significant role in the lives of us. This is through homes, businesses and people in a professional and social capacity. The way we use technology in everyday life aids the friendships, achievements and entertainment parts of our day to day life. This makes the fundamental device in the network important to every one of us for conducting our day to day life–that device is the router. Much like a fridge or cooker would have in the 1950 s, the router is considered as a critical device in the home and business setting. This paper aims to demonstrate a penetration test documentation of a standard home or small business Router–TP-Link WR940N by using the operating system Kali Linux 2019/2020. The main aim of the paper is to show the extent of what someone can do and the lengths someone can go from essentially sitting outside your house in a car with a raspberry pi, a Wi-Fi adapter, a seven-inch screen, and a travel battery for power.

85.Mobility and the chinese dream

Author:Rhys Williams,Austin

Source:Handbook on Transport and Urban Transformation in China,2020,Vol.

Abstract:China's transport infrastructure is a classic example of the country's rapid growth and consequent social transformation. Its railway expansion alone has been unprecedented, home to the second biggest rail network in the world and by far the biggest high-speed rail network (with 3,500 km opening in 2018 alone, equivalent to 15 times the entire US HSR network). This has provided opportunities for mobility and social mobility as 3 billion passenger trips are taken for pleasure and business every year. The same is true of the exponential rise in the number of cars, public transport and airlines. But alongside such infrastructural investments in the mechanisms for mobility exist socially restrictive policies that often curtail mobility. The fascinating dilemma for China is how does the political need to police travel in order to – as it sees it – maintain a sense of control and the maintenance of stability rub up against the personal desire and social ambition unleashed in these material opportunities for change.

86.Nuclear power in stagnation: A cultural approach to failed expansion

Author:Toke,David;Chen,Geoffrey Chun Fung;Froggatt,Antony;Connolly,Richard

Source:Nuclear Power in Stagnation: A Cultural Approach to Failed Expansion,2021,Vol.

Abstract:This book studies the extent to which nuclear safety issues have contributed towards the stagnation of nuclear power development around the world, and accounts for differences in safety regulations in different countries. In order to understand why nuclear development has not met widespread expectations, this book focusses on six key countries with active nuclear power programmes: the USA, China, France, South Korea, the UK, and Russia. The authors integrate cultural theory and theory of regulation, and examine the links between pressures of cultural bias on regulatory outcomes and political pressures which have led to increased safety requirements and subsequent economic costs. They discover that although nuclear safety is an important upward driver of costs in the nuclear power industry, this is influenced by the inherent need to control potentially dangerous reactions rather than stricter nuclear safety standards. The findings reveal that differences in the strictness of nuclear safety regulations between different countries can be understood by understanding differences in cultural contexts and the changes in this over time. This book will be of great interest to students, scholars, and policymakers working on energy policy and regulation, environmental politics and policy, and environment and sustainability more generally.

87.Hybrid metaheuristic algorithms: Past, present, and future

Author:Ting,T. O.;Yang,Xin She;Cheng,Shi;Huang,Kaizhu

Source:Studies in Computational Intelligence,2015,Vol.585

Abstract:Hybrid algorithms play a prominent role in improving the search capability of algorithms. Hybridization aims to combine the advantages of each algorithm to form a hybrid algorithm, while simultaneously trying to minimize any substantial disadvantage. In general, the outcome of hybridization can usually make some improvements in terms of either computational speed or accuracy. This chapter surveys recent advances in the area of hybridizing different algorithms. Based on this survey, some crucial recommendations are suggested for further development of hybrid algorithms.

88.Optimization of drilling process via weightless swarm algorithm

Author:Ting,T. O.

Source:Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization,2014,Vol.

Abstract:In this chapter, the main objective of maximizing the Material Reduction Rate (MRR) in the drilling process is carried out. The model describing the drilling process is adopted from the authors' previous work. With the model in hand, a novel algorithm known as Weightless Swarm Algorithm is employed to solve the maximization of MRR due to some constraints. Results show that WSA can find solutions effectively. Constraints are handled effectively, and no violations occur; results obtained are feasible and valid. Results are then compared to previous results by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. From this comparison, it is quite impossible to conclude which algorithm has a better performance. However, in general, WSA is more stable compared to PSO, from lower standard deviations in most of the cases tested. In addition, the simplicity of WSA offers abundant advantages as the presence of a sole parameter enables easy parameter tuning and thereby enables this algorithm to perform to its fullest.

89.It happens among people: Resonances and extensions of the work of Fredrik Barth

Author:Wu,Keping;Weller,Robert P.

Source:It Happens among People: Resonances and Extensions of the Work of Fredrik Barth,2019,Vol.

Abstract:Written by eleven leading anthropologists from around the world, this volume extends the insights of Fredrik Barth, one of the most important anthropologists of the twentieth century, to push even further at the frontiers of anthropology and honor his memory. As a collection, the chapters thus expand Barth’s pioneering work on values, further develop his insights on human agency and its potential creativity, as well as continuing to develop the relevance for his work as a way of thinking about and beyond the state. The work is grounded on his insistence that theory should grow only from observed life.

90.International trade and supply chains

Author:Salike,Nimesh;Thorbecke,Willem

Source:China in the Local and Global Economy: History, Geography, Politics and Sustainability,2018,Vol.

91.Computer-assisted foreign language teaching and learning Technological advances

Author:Zou, Bin ; Xing, Minjie ; Xiang, Catherine H. ; Wang, Yuping ; Sun, Mingyu

Source:Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning Technological Advances,2013,Vol.

Abstract:Educational technologies continue to advance the ways in which we teach and learn. As these technologies continue to improve our communication with one another, computer-assisted foreign language learning has provided a more efficient way of communication between different languages. Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning Technological Advances highlights new research and an original framework that brings together foreign language teaching, experiments and testing practices that utilize the most recent and widely used e-learning resources. This comprehensive collection of research will offer linguistic scholars, language teachers, students, and policymakers a better understanding of the importance and influence of e-learning in second language acquisition. © 2013 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

92.The Heritage Turn in China: The Reinvention, Dissemination and Consumption of Heritage

Author:

Source:,2020,Vol.

Abstract:This edited volume focuses on heritage discourse and practice in China today as it has evolved from the 'heritage turn' that can be dated to the 1990s. Using a variety of disciplinary approaches to regionally and topically diverse case studies, the contributors to this volume show how particular versions of the past are selected, (re)invented, disseminated and consumed for contemporary purposes. These studies explore how the Chinese state utilises heritage not only for tourism, entertainment, educational and commercial purposes, but also as part of broader political strategies on both the national and international stage. Together, they argue that the Chinese state employs modes of heritage governance to construct new modernities while strengthening collective national identity in support of both its political legitimacy and its claim to status as an international superpower. The authors also consider ways in which state management of heritage is contested by some stakeholders whose embrace of heritage has a different purpose and meaning.

93.College students’ perspectives on English-medium instruction and their English learning motivational intensity

Author:Wei,Rining;Feng,Jieyun;Ma,Qing

Source:English-Medium Instruction in Chinese Universities: Perspectives, Discourse and Evaluation,2017,Vol.

94.Chinese infrastructure

Author:He,Ming;Chen,Yang

Source:China in the Local and Global Economy: History, Geography, Politics and Sustainability,2018,Vol.

95.Entrepreneurship in an indigenous community: Sustainable tourism and economic development in a newly inscribed UNESCO World Heritage Site

Author:Chan,Jin Hooi;Zhang,Ying;McDonald,Tom;Qi,Xiaoguang

Source:Indigenous People and Economic Development: An International Perspective,2016,Vol.

Abstract:In June 2013, the Honghe Hani Rice Terraces in China were inscribed as a UNESCO World Cultural Landscape in recognition of their breathtaking beauty and the centuries-long sustainable relationship between the environment and indigenous communities stewarded by unique cultural and religious practices. Based on intensive fieldwork, this chapter discusses the environmental issues currently facing the rice terraces and communities, and the possible effects and implications following the UNESCO inscription. The chapter provides a comprehensive review of the intertwined social, cultural and environmental factors within the site, including out-migration, tourism development and the role of government, sustainability, governance, and entrepreneurship of the local indigenous community. The chapter argues that tourism development and the subsequent World Heritage Site inscription have overwhelmingly brought important effects for local communities, particularly while local communities display an enormous amount of ingenuity in addressing existing challenges and adapting to new opportunities. The benefits of development should be more widely distributed among the communities. This chapter thus highlights the critical role of providing the indigenous community with access to resources such as knowledge, skills and finance to enable greater involvement and participation, while making the case for acknowledgement of the different forms of participation and ownership.

96.Macroeconomic policies in the People's Republic of China

Author:Chen,Yang;He,Ming;Rudkin,Simon

Source:China in the Local and Global Economy: History, Geography, Politics and Sustainability,2018,Vol.

97.Representing Environmental Issues in Post-1990s Chinese Science Fiction: Technological Imaginary and Ecological Concerns

Author:Yue Zhou, Xi Liu

Source:,2022,Vol.

Abstract:Post-1990s Chinese eco-themed science fiction works have made a special literary contribution to current ecological discourses by imagining different ways of dealing with serious environmental issues. Chinese sci-fi writers have adopted opposing attitudes toward technology but collectively offered critiques to ecologically unsustainable mindsets and practices. While authors like Liu Cixin are optimistic about technological mediation, other writers represented by Chen Qiufan, He Xi, and Chi Hui reflect on technological triumph over environmental and ecological problems by creating dystopian sci-fi worlds. Both humanist and post-humanist discourses are articulated in these works through textual construction of diverse human/nonhuman images and identities. These works play critical roles in rethinking and reimagining the future of humanity and its relationship with the world.

98.Poverty eradication and political engagement: A case of sustainable entrepreneurship in China

Author:Xuanwei Cao, Xiao Wang

Source:,2019,Vol.

Abstract:It has been widely believed that to create a sustainable world the power of business is indispensable. Facing grand challenges when following the old path of “business as usual”, entrepreneurs are transforming their business practices for sustainable development in various ways. In this process of transformation, entrepreneurs also seek new paths to achieve sustained legitimacy and growth through simultaneously pursuing economic viability, social equity, and environmental stability. In spite of the rapid development of sustainable businesses in emerging economies, such as solar energy in China, there is still little understanding of what motivates entrepreneurs to pursue sustainable business in situations in which the relationship of private firms with the government is complex and paradoxical. This chapter addresses these issues and provides insights through an in-depth investigation into the case of the T Group, a company with unique dual businesses in aquatic feed and solar energy in China, which helps achieve several Sustainability Development Goals (SDGs), such as poverty alleviation (SDG #1), affordable and clean energy (SDG #7), and sustainable cities and communities (SDG #11). Hanyuan Liu, the founder and Chairman of the T Group, through his political engagement, demonstrated how entrepreneurs could positively transform their businesses towards sustainability while responding to and dealing with specific social problems.

99.Big Data A Classification of Acquisition and Generation Methods

Author:Nanjappan, Vijayakumar ; Liang, Hai-Ning ; Wang, Wei ; Man, Ka L.

Source:Big Data Analytics for Sensor-Network Collected Intelligence,2017,Vol.

Abstract:Traditionally, data have been stored in securely protected databases for special purposes, such as satellite imagery data for earth science research or customer transaction data for business analytics. The usefulness of data lies in the fact that they can be examined and analyzed to unearth correlations among data items and to discover knowledge to gain deeper insightful trends. Data analytics has been the key research topic in data mining, knowledge discovery and machine learning for decades. In recent years, the term "data" has experienced a major rejuvenation in many aspects of our lives. The rapid development of the Internet and web technologies allows ordinary users to generate vast amounts of data about their daily lives. On the Internet of Things, the number of connected devices has grown exponentially; each of these produces real-time or near real-time streaming data about our physical world. The resulting data, which is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to be stored, processed, and analyzed with conventional computing methodologies and resources, is referred to as the "Big Data." In this chapter, we focus on a subset of big data digital data and analog data. These two major subsets are further divided as the environmental and personal source of data. We have also highlighted the data types and formats as well as different input mechanisms. These classifications are helpful to understand the active and passive way of data collection and production with explicit and without (i.e., implicit) human involvement. This chapter intends to provide enough information to support the reader to understand the role of digital and analog sources, and how data is acquired, transmitted, and preprocessed using today's growing variety of computing devices and sensors. © 2017 All rights reserved.

100.Urban-rural relations in the context of new urbanization: The case of Suzhou

Author:Zhong,Sheng;Xin,Shengxi

Source:Suzhou in Transition,2020,Vol.

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