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81.Transportation costs as a barrier to globalization for nine Asian countries including China

Author:Xu,Junqian;Julian,Craig C.

Source:Research Handbook on the Globalization of Chinese Firms,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Asia Nine, as one of the most crowded places in the world, is composed of both advanced economies - Hong Kong, Japan, Korea and Singapore - and developing countries - China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand. Bilateral trade between Asia Nine has increased dramatically since these countries joined the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) agreement in 1989. Actually all these countries have links with the ancient Chinese cultural sphere and their languages are often derived from Classical Chinese; trade between these countries may date back a thousand years. The cultural and linguistic similarities may have facilitated transport and trade, but bilateral trade between these countries is very historically dependent and most East Asian countries have a colonial relationship with Japan, which as a historical factor would more or less affect bilateral trade. A comparison of transportation costs as a percentage of total trade in both developed countries and developing countries is presented in Table 2.1. G7 countries are included to enable a comparison to be made with Asia Nine. Over the last two decades, generally speaking, transportation costs as a percentage of total trade in the developed countries have declined less than those in the developing countries. As is evident from Table 2.1, however, transport costs as a percentage of total trade are decreasing in both developed and developing countries.

82.An evolutionary game-based mechanism for unwanted traffic control

Author:Liu,Jia;Li,Mingchu;Feng,Zitong;Guo,Cheng;Yuan,Lifeng;Alam,Muhammad

Source:EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing,2019,Vol.

Abstract:With the development of Internet technology and the pervasive use of internet service providers (ISPs), internet users have reached an unprecedented volume. However, the existence of some malicious users seriously undermine the environment of the network by distributing a large amount of unwanted traffic, such as spam, pop-up, and malwares, which can be identified with the cooperation of individual users by installing anti-virus toolkits. In our paper, we propose an evolutionary game theoretic incentive mechanism to promote the cooperation of individual users to curb the expansion of unwanted traffic. Considering the hierarchical nature of real-world management, we model our framework as hierarchical incentive mechanism and combine reward with punishment mechanism to further incentivize cooperative behavior. Meanwhile, the acceptance condition of our framework is analyzed and we carry out a number of simulations to analyze the acceptance conditions of our framework.

83.Introduction

Author:Phiri,Michael;Chen,Bing

Source:SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology,2014,Vol.

Abstract:© 2014, The Author(s). Worldwide, healthcare organisations are facing challenges and demands to improve design quality and safety of their estate, while addressing burgeoning safety legislation and austere funding arrangements due to the 2007–2010 financial crisis and economic downturn. This has created an imperative for all providers, commissioners and regulators to address how the healthcare environment may need to change. Although widely acknowledged that healthcare guidance/standards and tools are essential to enhance quality and safety in health care, no studies have been published, nor indeed been carried out, with regard to their usefulness. By their very nature, studying guidance and tools is rarely an attractive subject for practitioners and academics alike. However, notable publications include sustainable healthcare architecture aimed at covering the twin big and complex subjects of sustainability and healthcare architecture (Guenther and Vittori: Sustainable healthcare architecture, 2007); a step-by-step guide of how to implement an evidence-based design (EBD) process and those seeking to learn the methodology for EBD of healthcare facilities (Cama: Evidence-based healthcare design, 2009); and a description of evidence-based healthcare facility design that is meant to support quality care and reduce costs (McCullough: Evidence-based healthcare design, 2009). Crucially, the lack of studies and consequently dearth of publications that focus on the role of technical guidance and tools is manifested by the absence of policies and appropriate strategies, as well as a rationale, not only for aiding decision-making in healthcare organisations, but also for acknowledging that, fundamentally, technologies, policies and services are subject to shorter life cycles than the relatively inflexible built assets that support them. This Springer Brief aims to increase our understanding of the role played by technical guidance/standards and tools in design, construction and operation of healthcare facilities as well as ultimately establishing the impact of the physical environment on staff and patient outcomes. Consequently, the aim is for the development of guidance and tools that will aid the creation of architectural environments of quality and safety, which will lead to positive patients’ health outcomes and improved staff productivity.

84.Towards Ethical Hacking—The Performance of Hacking a Router

Author:Golightly,Lewis;Chang,Victor;Xu,Qianwen Ariel

Source:Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications,2021,Vol.

Abstract:The increase and advancements of network technology play a significant role in the lives of us. This is through homes, businesses and people in a professional and social capacity. The way we use technology in everyday life aids the friendships, achievements and entertainment parts of our day to day life. This makes the fundamental device in the network important to every one of us for conducting our day to day life–that device is the router. Much like a fridge or cooker would have in the 1950 s, the router is considered as a critical device in the home and business setting. This paper aims to demonstrate a penetration test documentation of a standard home or small business Router–TP-Link WR940N by using the operating system Kali Linux 2019/2020. The main aim of the paper is to show the extent of what someone can do and the lengths someone can go from essentially sitting outside your house in a car with a raspberry pi, a Wi-Fi adapter, a seven-inch screen, and a travel battery for power.

85.Mobility and the chinese dream

Author:Rhys Williams,Austin

Source:Handbook on Transport and Urban Transformation in China,2020,Vol.

Abstract:China's transport infrastructure is a classic example of the country's rapid growth and consequent social transformation. Its railway expansion alone has been unprecedented, home to the second biggest rail network in the world and by far the biggest high-speed rail network (with 3,500 km opening in 2018 alone, equivalent to 15 times the entire US HSR network). This has provided opportunities for mobility and social mobility as 3 billion passenger trips are taken for pleasure and business every year. The same is true of the exponential rise in the number of cars, public transport and airlines. But alongside such infrastructural investments in the mechanisms for mobility exist socially restrictive policies that often curtail mobility. The fascinating dilemma for China is how does the political need to police travel in order to – as it sees it – maintain a sense of control and the maintenance of stability rub up against the personal desire and social ambition unleashed in these material opportunities for change.

86.Nuclear power in stagnation: A cultural approach to failed expansion

Author:Toke,David;Chen,Geoffrey Chun Fung;Froggatt,Antony;Connolly,Richard

Source:Nuclear Power in Stagnation: A Cultural Approach to Failed Expansion,2021,Vol.

Abstract:This book studies the extent to which nuclear safety issues have contributed towards the stagnation of nuclear power development around the world, and accounts for differences in safety regulations in different countries. In order to understand why nuclear development has not met widespread expectations, this book focusses on six key countries with active nuclear power programmes: the USA, China, France, South Korea, the UK, and Russia. The authors integrate cultural theory and theory of regulation, and examine the links between pressures of cultural bias on regulatory outcomes and political pressures which have led to increased safety requirements and subsequent economic costs. They discover that although nuclear safety is an important upward driver of costs in the nuclear power industry, this is influenced by the inherent need to control potentially dangerous reactions rather than stricter nuclear safety standards. The findings reveal that differences in the strictness of nuclear safety regulations between different countries can be understood by understanding differences in cultural contexts and the changes in this over time. This book will be of great interest to students, scholars, and policymakers working on energy policy and regulation, environmental politics and policy, and environment and sustainability more generally.

87.Hybrid metaheuristic algorithms: Past, present, and future

Author:Ting,T. O.;Yang,Xin She;Cheng,Shi;Huang,Kaizhu

Source:Studies in Computational Intelligence,2015,Vol.585

Abstract:Hybrid algorithms play a prominent role in improving the search capability of algorithms. Hybridization aims to combine the advantages of each algorithm to form a hybrid algorithm, while simultaneously trying to minimize any substantial disadvantage. In general, the outcome of hybridization can usually make some improvements in terms of either computational speed or accuracy. This chapter surveys recent advances in the area of hybridizing different algorithms. Based on this survey, some crucial recommendations are suggested for further development of hybrid algorithms.

88.Optimization of drilling process via weightless swarm algorithm

Author:Ting,T. O.

Source:Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization,2014,Vol.

Abstract:In this chapter, the main objective of maximizing the Material Reduction Rate (MRR) in the drilling process is carried out. The model describing the drilling process is adopted from the authors' previous work. With the model in hand, a novel algorithm known as Weightless Swarm Algorithm is employed to solve the maximization of MRR due to some constraints. Results show that WSA can find solutions effectively. Constraints are handled effectively, and no violations occur; results obtained are feasible and valid. Results are then compared to previous results by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. From this comparison, it is quite impossible to conclude which algorithm has a better performance. However, in general, WSA is more stable compared to PSO, from lower standard deviations in most of the cases tested. In addition, the simplicity of WSA offers abundant advantages as the presence of a sole parameter enables easy parameter tuning and thereby enables this algorithm to perform to its fullest.

89.It happens among people: Resonances and extensions of the work of Fredrik Barth

Author:Wu,Keping;Weller,Robert P.

Source:It Happens among People: Resonances and Extensions of the Work of Fredrik Barth,2019,Vol.

Abstract:Written by eleven leading anthropologists from around the world, this volume extends the insights of Fredrik Barth, one of the most important anthropologists of the twentieth century, to push even further at the frontiers of anthropology and honor his memory. As a collection, the chapters thus expand Barth’s pioneering work on values, further develop his insights on human agency and its potential creativity, as well as continuing to develop the relevance for his work as a way of thinking about and beyond the state. The work is grounded on his insistence that theory should grow only from observed life.

90.International trade and supply chains

Author:Salike,Nimesh;Thorbecke,Willem

Source:China in the Local and Global Economy: History, Geography, Politics and Sustainability,2018,Vol.

91.Computer-assisted foreign language teaching and learning Technological advances

Author:Zou, Bin ; Xing, Minjie ; Xiang, Catherine H. ; Wang, Yuping ; Sun, Mingyu

Source:Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning Technological Advances,2013,Vol.

Abstract:Educational technologies continue to advance the ways in which we teach and learn. As these technologies continue to improve our communication with one another, computer-assisted foreign language learning has provided a more efficient way of communication between different languages. Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning Technological Advances highlights new research and an original framework that brings together foreign language teaching, experiments and testing practices that utilize the most recent and widely used e-learning resources. This comprehensive collection of research will offer linguistic scholars, language teachers, students, and policymakers a better understanding of the importance and influence of e-learning in second language acquisition. © 2013 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

92.The Heritage Turn in China: The Reinvention, Dissemination and Consumption of Heritage

Author:

Source:,2020,Vol.

Abstract:This edited volume focuses on heritage discourse and practice in China today as it has evolved from the 'heritage turn' that can be dated to the 1990s. Using a variety of disciplinary approaches to regionally and topically diverse case studies, the contributors to this volume show how particular versions of the past are selected, (re)invented, disseminated and consumed for contemporary purposes. These studies explore how the Chinese state utilises heritage not only for tourism, entertainment, educational and commercial purposes, but also as part of broader political strategies on both the national and international stage. Together, they argue that the Chinese state employs modes of heritage governance to construct new modernities while strengthening collective national identity in support of both its political legitimacy and its claim to status as an international superpower. The authors also consider ways in which state management of heritage is contested by some stakeholders whose embrace of heritage has a different purpose and meaning.

93.College students’ perspectives on English-medium instruction and their English learning motivational intensity

Author:Wei,Rining;Feng,Jieyun;Ma,Qing

Source:English-Medium Instruction in Chinese Universities: Perspectives, Discourse and Evaluation,2017,Vol.

94.Chinese infrastructure

Author:He,Ming;Chen,Yang

Source:China in the Local and Global Economy: History, Geography, Politics and Sustainability,2018,Vol.

95.Entrepreneurship in an indigenous community: Sustainable tourism and economic development in a newly inscribed UNESCO World Heritage Site

Author:Chan,Jin Hooi;Zhang,Ying;McDonald,Tom;Qi,Xiaoguang

Source:Indigenous People and Economic Development: An International Perspective,2016,Vol.

Abstract:In June 2013, the Honghe Hani Rice Terraces in China were inscribed as a UNESCO World Cultural Landscape in recognition of their breathtaking beauty and the centuries-long sustainable relationship between the environment and indigenous communities stewarded by unique cultural and religious practices. Based on intensive fieldwork, this chapter discusses the environmental issues currently facing the rice terraces and communities, and the possible effects and implications following the UNESCO inscription. The chapter provides a comprehensive review of the intertwined social, cultural and environmental factors within the site, including out-migration, tourism development and the role of government, sustainability, governance, and entrepreneurship of the local indigenous community. The chapter argues that tourism development and the subsequent World Heritage Site inscription have overwhelmingly brought important effects for local communities, particularly while local communities display an enormous amount of ingenuity in addressing existing challenges and adapting to new opportunities. The benefits of development should be more widely distributed among the communities. This chapter thus highlights the critical role of providing the indigenous community with access to resources such as knowledge, skills and finance to enable greater involvement and participation, while making the case for acknowledgement of the different forms of participation and ownership.

96.Macroeconomic policies in the People's Republic of China

Author:Chen,Yang;He,Ming;Rudkin,Simon

Source:China in the Local and Global Economy: History, Geography, Politics and Sustainability,2018,Vol.

97.Representing Environmental Issues in Post-1990s Chinese Science Fiction: Technological Imaginary and Ecological Concerns

Author:Yue Zhou, Xi Liu

Source:,2022,Vol.

Abstract:Post-1990s Chinese eco-themed science fiction works have made a special literary contribution to current ecological discourses by imagining different ways of dealing with serious environmental issues. Chinese sci-fi writers have adopted opposing attitudes toward technology but collectively offered critiques to ecologically unsustainable mindsets and practices. While authors like Liu Cixin are optimistic about technological mediation, other writers represented by Chen Qiufan, He Xi, and Chi Hui reflect on technological triumph over environmental and ecological problems by creating dystopian sci-fi worlds. Both humanist and post-humanist discourses are articulated in these works through textual construction of diverse human/nonhuman images and identities. These works play critical roles in rethinking and reimagining the future of humanity and its relationship with the world.

98.Poverty eradication and political engagement: A case of sustainable entrepreneurship in China

Author:Xuanwei Cao, Xiao Wang

Source:,2019,Vol.

Abstract:It has been widely believed that to create a sustainable world the power of business is indispensable. Facing grand challenges when following the old path of “business as usual”, entrepreneurs are transforming their business practices for sustainable development in various ways. In this process of transformation, entrepreneurs also seek new paths to achieve sustained legitimacy and growth through simultaneously pursuing economic viability, social equity, and environmental stability. In spite of the rapid development of sustainable businesses in emerging economies, such as solar energy in China, there is still little understanding of what motivates entrepreneurs to pursue sustainable business in situations in which the relationship of private firms with the government is complex and paradoxical. This chapter addresses these issues and provides insights through an in-depth investigation into the case of the T Group, a company with unique dual businesses in aquatic feed and solar energy in China, which helps achieve several Sustainability Development Goals (SDGs), such as poverty alleviation (SDG #1), affordable and clean energy (SDG #7), and sustainable cities and communities (SDG #11). Hanyuan Liu, the founder and Chairman of the T Group, through his political engagement, demonstrated how entrepreneurs could positively transform their businesses towards sustainability while responding to and dealing with specific social problems.

99.Big Data A Classification of Acquisition and Generation Methods

Author:Nanjappan, Vijayakumar ; Liang, Hai-Ning ; Wang, Wei ; Man, Ka L.

Source:Big Data Analytics for Sensor-Network Collected Intelligence,2017,Vol.

Abstract:Traditionally, data have been stored in securely protected databases for special purposes, such as satellite imagery data for earth science research or customer transaction data for business analytics. The usefulness of data lies in the fact that they can be examined and analyzed to unearth correlations among data items and to discover knowledge to gain deeper insightful trends. Data analytics has been the key research topic in data mining, knowledge discovery and machine learning for decades. In recent years, the term "data" has experienced a major rejuvenation in many aspects of our lives. The rapid development of the Internet and web technologies allows ordinary users to generate vast amounts of data about their daily lives. On the Internet of Things, the number of connected devices has grown exponentially; each of these produces real-time or near real-time streaming data about our physical world. The resulting data, which is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to be stored, processed, and analyzed with conventional computing methodologies and resources, is referred to as the "Big Data." In this chapter, we focus on a subset of big data digital data and analog data. These two major subsets are further divided as the environmental and personal source of data. We have also highlighted the data types and formats as well as different input mechanisms. These classifications are helpful to understand the active and passive way of data collection and production with explicit and without (i.e., implicit) human involvement. This chapter intends to provide enough information to support the reader to understand the role of digital and analog sources, and how data is acquired, transmitted, and preprocessed using today's growing variety of computing devices and sensors. © 2017 All rights reserved.

100.Urban-rural relations in the context of new urbanization: The case of Suzhou

Author:Zhong,Sheng;Xin,Shengxi

Source:Suzhou in Transition,2020,Vol.

Total 165 results found
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