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61.Public housing in Shanghai: A tool with multiple purposes

Author:Chang,Ying;Chen,Jie

Source:The Future of Public Housing: Ongoing Trends in the East and the West,2013,Vol.

Abstract:Direct state provision of housing remains an important element of housing regime in many countries. This chapter traces recent experience of public housing development in Shanghai. It focuses the roles of two major public housing programmes, namely Relocation Housing and the new PRH (public rental housing) programme, in Shanghai's recent socio-spatial dynamics. It is shown that the public housing programme in Shanghai is mainly a result of deliberate urban development policy in line with other strategies such as city marketing, and gentrification. Thus we suggest that the Shanghai municipality government appropriates the new public housing regime as institutions to buttress local economic competitiveness. Our analysis is augmented with data from a questionnaire survey of PRH tenants in Shanghai. Finally, we identify challenges for the future development of public housing sector in China.

62.Public participation in contested spatial planning: Learning from a failed urban development project

Author:Zhang,Xiaonan;Sun,Lei

Source:Urban China's Rural Fringe: Actors, Dimensions and Management Challenges,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2016 Giulio Verdini, Yiwen Wang, Xiaonan Zhang and the contributors. Recent work on metropolitan growth in developing countries (see Shaw and Satish 2007; Zhang 2000, 2002) has suggested that changes in governance have a significant influence on urban spatial changes and suburban development. China is taking a decentralization process so the local governments have more power to control public policies, resource allocation and delivery of public goods and services (Zhang 2002). The decentralization of power opens up broad space to multi-scale forms of governance with multi-stakeholder arrangements (Rakodi 2003; Zhao et al. 2009). In the multi-stakeholder arrangement system, conflicting interests should be allowed and negotiation between the government and other sectors replaces mere command control from government. As a result, spatial planning is facing much more challenges stemming from the uncertainties of current local developments (Zhao et al. 2009).

63.Empirical studies in geographical economics

Author:Chang,Han Hsin;Van Marrewijk,Charles;Schramm,Marc

Source:Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Economic Geography,2015,Vol.

Abstract:Since the seminal work of Krugman (1991) led the way, many researchers have further analyzed and explained the intricate connections between international trade flows, factor mobility, agglomeration and production; see Brakman et al. (2009) for an overview of the literature. As explained in Brakman and Van Marrewijk (Chapter 3 of this volume), there are now three ‘core’ models of new economic geography, or ‘geographical economics’, as we prefer to label it: (i) Krugman’s model based on labor mobility; (ii) the solvable human capital model based on Forslid and Ottaviano (2003); and (iii) the intermediate goods model based on Krugman and Venables (1995). All these models give rise to similar dynamics and core–periphery patterns with path-dependency and multiple long-run equilibria. This chapter focuses on empirical studies that stay relatively close to the core models in geographical economics. Our contribution is limited to providing an update of the contributions regarding four key features of geographical economics as identified by Head and Mayer (2004a, p. 2616): A large market potential raises local factor prices. ● A large market will increase demand for local factors of production and this raises factor rewards. Regions surrounded by or close to regions with high real income (indicating strong spatial demand linkages) will have relatively higher wages. ● A large market potential induces factor inflows. Footloose factors of production will be attracted to those markets where firms pay relatively high factor rewards. In the Krugman core model footloose workers move to the region with highest real wage and similarly firms prefer locations with good market access. ● Reduction in trade costs induces agglomeration, at least beyond a critical level of transport or trade costs. For a large range of transport costs a change in these costs may not lead to a change in the equilibrium degree of agglomeration, but if a shock moves the economy beyond its break or sustain point the economy goes from spreading to agglomeration, or vice versa, respectively. This also implies that more economic integration (interpreted as a lowering of transport costs) should at some point lead to (more) agglomeration of the footloose activities and factors of production. ● Shock sensitivity. Changes in the economic environment can (but need not!) trigger a change in the equilibrium spatial distribution of economic activity. This hypothesis goes to the heart of the idea that geographical economics models are characterized by multiple equilibria.

64.Fiscal decentralization, yardstick competition in determining Chinese local governments’ land conveyance behavior

Author:Yang,Wenyin;Chen,Yang

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter investigates the institutional and political motivation behind Chinese local governments’ land conveyance behavior. The principal-agent model is adopted to illustrate the mechanisms of how yardstick competition and fiscal decentralization encourage land sale. We find that although yardstick competition promotes short-term economic growth, the presence of land finance impairs the “selection effect” of yardstick competition. Using a panel data of 31 Chinese provinces from 2003 to 2011 in a spatial autoregressive model, we show that yardstick competition exerts a large positive impact on the intensity of land sale and leasing, while the influence of fiscal decentralization has a moderate impact and the influence of foreign direct investment (FDI) appears to be insignificant.

65.Structuring and managing supply network: A review of current literature and conceptual framework

Author:Liu,Zheng

Source:Handbook of Research on Global Supply Chain Management,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2016 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. The concept of supply network has extended supply chain across national borders towards globalization. The aim of this chapter is to provide researchers, business practitioners and university students a picture of the architecture of supply networks. By analyzing two main trends of studies in the field of supply network management, components of supply network are classified into structural and infrastructural factors. Also a comparison is made to identify the difference between supply network and traditionally factory-based manufacturing system. Based on the literature review, a conceptual framework is further proposed which describes the supply network from four essential perspectives: Role/function, Relationship/ alliance, Configuration/reconfiguration, and Risk and crisis management. After presenting detailed models and decision making areas of each perspective, suggestions are given on some emerging topics.

66.An empirical study strategically assessing the role of the state government in corporate governance, ownership and performance of SOEs

Author:Pak,Donald Henry Ah;Ding,Xiaoming

Source:China and the Global Economy in the 21st Century,2012,Vol.

67.Neighbourhood determinants for life satisfaction of older people in Beijing

Author:Yan,Bingqiu;Gao,Xiaolu;Breitung,Werner

Source:Mobility, Sociability and Well-Being of Urban Living,2015,Vol.

Abstract:Demographic change and ageing societies are an increasingly critical issue for researchers and policymakers across the world and in particular in China, where the government’s population control strategies have since the late 1970s substantially changed social and demographic structures. At the same time, the traditional role of families in caring for elderly people is diminishing. In this situation, the neighbourhood as a living environment and as a platform for service provision is growing in importance for the elderly. Building on the authors’ previous proposition that age-friendly urban planning needs to take differences between neighbourhood types into account, the objective of this study is to identify which neighbourhood factors concretely contribute to the life satisfaction of seniors in different Beijing neighbourhoods. For this purpose, we used structural equation modelling (SEM) and found social support to be the primary neighbourhood factor affecting life satisfaction amongst the urban elderly in Beijing. We then differentiated between aged neighbourhoods with a high number of older people and others with less elderly residents, and found dwelling conditions and community-provided senior services to be additional critical indicators of satisfaction in the former and accessibility to services in the latter. Accordingly, we suggest tailoring government interventions that aim at age-friendly environments differently in different neighbourhoods.

68.A Simple Step-Stress Model for Coherent Systems and Associated Inference Based on System Signatures

Author:Zhu,Xiaojun;Mitra,Debanjan;Balakrishnan,Narayanaswamy

Source:Studies in Systems, Decision and Control,2018,Vol.142

Abstract:Coherent systems are important structures in reliability. In this paper, we discuss the maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of model parameters of an system with known signature having an exponential component distribution based on a simple step-stress model. We also develop confidence intervals (CIs) for the model parameters. A detailed Monte Carlo study is carried out to examine the performance of the point and estimates. Finally, a data analysis is performed for illustrating all the inferential methods developed here.

69.Torus orbifolds with two fixed points

Author:Darby,Alastair;Kuroki,Shintaro;Song,Jongbaek

Source:Trends in Mathematics,2019,Vol.

Abstract:The main objects of this paper are torus orbifolds that have exactly two fixed points. We study the equivariant topological type of these orbifolds and consider when we can use the results of (Darby et al., Equivariant cohomology of torus orbifolds, arXiv:1809.03678 [8]) to compute its integral equivariant cohomology, in terms of generators and relations, coming from the corresponding orbifold torus graph.

70.Experimental study on boundary constraints handling in particle swarm optimization from a population diversity perspective

Author:Cheng, Shi ; Shi, Yuhui ; Qin, Quande

Source:Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization,2014,Vol.

Abstract:Premature convergence happens in Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for solving both multimodal problems and unimodal problems. With an improper boundary constraints handling method, particles may get "stuck in" the boundary. Premature convergence means that an algorithm has lost its ability of exploration. Population diversity is an effective way to monitor an algorithm's ability of exploration and exploitation. Through the population diversity measurement, useful search information can be obtained. PSO with a different topology structure and a different boundary constraints handling strategy will have a different impact on particles' exploration and exploitation ability. In this chapter, the phenomenon of particles getting "stuck in" the boundary in PSO is experimentally studied and reported. The authors observe the position diversity time-changing curves of PSOs with different topologies and different boundary constraints handling techniques, and analyze the impact of these settings on the algorithm's abilities of exploration and exploitation. From these experimental studies, an algorithm's abilities of exploration and exploitation can be observed and the search information obtained; therefore, more effective algorithms can be designed to solve problems. © 2015 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

71.Small-Scale public transportable and pre-fabricated buildings Evaluating their functional performance

Author:Xi, Junjie

Source:Small-Scale Public Transportable and Pre-Fabricated Buildings Evaluating their Functional Performance,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This book investigates the design, operation and use of contemporary transportable buildings, and explores how functional performance can be assessed in small-scale examples for public use alongside their relationship to other design elements. The research focuses on three case studies, Chengdu Hualin Elementary School, Exxopolis and Kreod, that do not require a high-technology building environment or complex construction skills. Transportable buildings are defined as those that are transported in a number of parts for assembly on site. Contemporary transportable buildings respond to ecological issues, social impacts, technological innovation and economic demands. They can be used to measure a society’s development in environmental sustainability, innovation and economic growth through various forms. Small-scale transportable buildings fulfil many temporary habitation needs in diverse roles, such as non-emergency transitional housing, ephemeral exhibition buildings and seasonal entertainment facilities. Small-Scale Public Transportable and Pre-Fabricated Buildings will be a useful research text for academics and students in architecture, design and sustainable building performance. © 2018 Junjie Xi.

72.Determinants of the urban investment bonds in China

Author:Li,Daike;Chen,Yang

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter investigates the determinants of the issuance of urban investment bonds (UIBs) across 31 provinces in China during the period of 2005-2013 using a spatial autoregressive model. We find that the provincial governments tend to compete with or imitate their neighboring provinces in bond issuance. The neighborhood can be defined in terms of either geographical proximity or economic performance. We also find that the fiscal gap, governments’ investments in housing and public welfare, and bond level in the previous year have positive association with the issuance of UIBs in China.

73.Statistical discriminability estimation for pattern classification based on neural incremental attribute learning

Author:Wang,Ting;Puthusserypady,Sadasivan;Guan,Sheng Uei;Wong,Prudence W.H.

Source:Artificial Intelligence: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications,2016,Vol.3

Abstract:Feature ordering is a significant data preprocessing method in Incremental Attribute Learning (IAL), a novel machine learning approach which gradually trains features according to a given order. Previous research has shown that, similar to feature selection, feature ordering is also important based on each feature's discrimination ability, and should be sorted in a descending order of their discrimination ability. However, such an ordering is crucial for the performance of IAL. As the number of feature dimensions in IAL is increasing, feature discrimination ability also should be calculated in the corresponding incremental way. Based on Single Discriminability (SD), where only the feature discrimination ability is computed, a new filter statistical feature discrimination ability predictive metric, called the Accumulative Discriminability (AD), is designed for the dynamical feature discrimination ability estimation. Moreover, a criterion that summarizes all the produced values of AD is employed with a GA (Genetic Algorithm)- based approach to obtain the optimum feature ordering for classification problems based on neural networks by means of IAL. Compared with the feature ordering obtained by other approaches, the method proposed in this paper exhibits better performance in the final classification results. Such a phenomenon indicates that, (i) the feature discrimination ability should be incrementally estimated in IAL, and (ii) the feature ordering derived by AD and its corresponding approaches are applicable with IAL.

74.Analytics on fireworks algorithm solving problems with shifts in the decision space and objective space

Author:Cheng, Shi ; Chen, Junfeng ; Qin, Quande ; Shi, Yuhui ; Zhang, Qingyu

Source:Nature-Inspired Computing Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications,2016,Vol.2-3

Abstract:Fireworks algorithms for solving problems with the optima shift in decision space and/or objective space are analyzed in this paper. The standard benchmark problems have several weaknesses in the research of swarm intelligence algorithms for solving single objective problems. The optimum is in the center of search range, and is the same at each dimension of the search space. The optimum shift in decision space and/or objective space could increase the difficulty of problem solving. A mapping strategy, modular arithmetic mapping, is utilized in the original fireworks algorithm to handle solutions out of search range. The solutions are implicitly guided to the center of search range for problems with symmetrical search range via this strategy. The optimization performance of fireworks algorithm on shift functions may be affected by this strategy. Four kinds of mapping strategies, which include mapping by modular arithmetic, mapping to the boundary, mapping to stochastic region, and mapping to limited stochastic region, are compared on problems with different dimensions and different optimum shift range. From experimental results, the fireworks algorithms with mapping to the boundary, or mapping to limited stochastic region obtain good performance on problems with the optimum shift. This is probably because the search tendency is kept in these two strategies. The definition of population diversity measurement is also proposed in this paper, from observation on population diversity changes, the useful information of fireworks algorithm solving different kinds of problems could be obtained. © 2017 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

75.Advertising in the aging society: Understanding representations, practitioners, and consumers in Japan

Author:Prieler,Michael;Kohlbacher,Florian

Source:Advertising in the Aging Society: Understanding Representations, Practitioners, and Consumers in Japan,2016,Vol.

Abstract:Population aging is a powerful megatrend affecting many countries around the world. This demographic shift has vast effects on societies, economies and businesses, and thus also for the advertising industry. Advertising in the Aging Society presents an insight into advertising practitioners and consumers in Japan.

76.Young criminal lives: Life courses and life chances from 1850

Author:Godfrey,Barry;Cox,Pamela;Shore,Heather;Alker,Zoe

Source:Young Criminal Lives: Life Courses and Life Chances from 1850,2017,Vol.

Abstract:Young Criminal Lives is the first cradle-to-grave study of the experiences of some of the thousands of delinquent, ‘difficult’, and destitute children passing through the early English juvenile industrial school and reformatory system. Applying biographical research methodologies to digital data, we have reconstructed the lives, families, and neighbourhoods of 500 children who were sent to reformatory and industrial schools in the north-west of England from courts around the UK over a fifty-year period from the 1860s onwards. For the first time, we have been able to follow these children on their journey in and out of institutional care, and then though to their adulthood and old age. We centre on institutions celebrated in this period for their pioneering approaches to child welfare and others that were investigated for cruelty and scandal. Both were typical of the new kind of state-certified provision offered, from the 1850s onwards, to children who had committed criminal acts, or who were considered ‘vulnerable’ to predation, poverty, and the ‘inheritance’ of criminal dispositions.

77.Self-training field pattern prediction based on kernel methods

Author:Jiang,Haochuan;Huang,Kaizhu;Zhang,Xu Yao;Zhang,Rui

Source:Semi-Supervised Learning: Background, Applications and Future Directions,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Conventional predictors often regard input samples as identically and independently distributed (i.i.d.). Such an assumption does not always hold in many real scenarios, especially when patterns occur as groups, where each group shares a homogeneous style. These tasks are named as the field prediction, which can be divided into the field classification and the field regression. Traditional i.i.d.-based machine learning models would always face degraded performance. By breaking the i.i.d. assump- tion, one novel framework called Field SupportVector Machine (F-SVM) with both classification (F-SVC) and regression (F-SVR) purposes is in- troduced in this chapter. To be specific, the proposed F-SVM predictor is investigated by learning simultaneously both the predictor and the Style Normalization Transformation (SNT) for each group of data (called field). Such joint learning is proved to be even feasible in the high-dimensional kernel space. An efficient alternative optimization algorithm is further designed with the final convergence guaranteed theoretically and experimentally. More importantly, a self-training based kernelized algorithm is also developed to incorporate the F-SVM model with the unknown field during the training phase by learning the transductive SNT to transfer the trained field information to this unknown style data. A series of experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the F-SVM model with both classification and regression tasks by promoting the classification accuracy and declining regression error. Empirical results demonstrate that the proposed F-SVM achieves in several benchmark datasets the best performance so far, significantly better than those state-of-the-art predictors.

78.China’s housing price: Where are the bubbles?

Author:Zhang,Xiaocong;Hung,Juann H.

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter investigates evidence of housing bubbles in different locations of China by looking at data at the provincial and city levels from late 1990s to 2016, using the price-to-rent analysis and the generalized sup-Augumented Dickey-Fuller Test (GSADF) test. The price-to-rent ratio analysis indicates that housing bubbles began to develop in Shenzhen and Xiamen as early as 2007, while the bubble in Beijing, Hangzhou, Ningbo, Hefei, and Wenzhou started later in 2009. Those findings are largely consistent with results of the GSADF test. We also observe that the government intervention has been quite effective in maintaining a relatively stable upward trend in housing prices by timely interventions either to revive a depressed market or dampen an overheating market. Even though it has been propping up the upward trend in housing prices, even allowing it to rise in an explosive pace at times, it also does not hesitate to use policy intervention to cause moderate downward adjustments to avoid spectacular burst.

79.Local economic elites and charitable giving

Author:Carrillo,Beatriz

Source:Local Elites in Post-Mao China,2018,Vol.

Abstract:© 2018 Yingjie Guo. As China rebuilds its charity and philanthropy sectors, examining the rationale behind the current push by both the Party-state and a range of societal actors for promoting private and corporate charitable giving became an important task to help understand its potential impacts on inequality and redistribution. Even though the practice of charity is largely universal across countries and cultures, localised practices of charity and philanthropy have been grounded on specific moral and ideological traditions, as well as in particular historical socio-economic contexts. In its broader conception, charity has generally been viewed as a positive force for social change; however, it has also been subjected to strong criticisms. Marxists have presented the strongest critique against charity, which, they argue, cannot challenge the fundamental injustice of the structured inequality of power between the rich and the poor (Cohen 2000, p. 19). In part, it was this rationale that led the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) to abolish all charitable organisations after its ascension to power in 1949 (Yan et al. 2007).

80.A review of healthcare technical guidance/standards, norms and tools

Author:Phiri, Michael ; Chen, Bing

Source:SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology,2014,Vol.

Abstract:The development and update of healthcare premises planning information, technical guidance and tools in health care are controversial and have tended to engender a lot of debate. This is because many interrelated issues are involved, for example, stewardship (whether public or private), regulation (extent of compliance and associated penalties for non-compliance), rationale (whether prescription or performance based), quality, responsibilities and costs of development and updates to keep this information relevant and responsive to changing healthcare practice and technology. In recent years, there have also been many concerns over the ever-increasing amount of advice on best practice standards in the planning and design of healthcare facilities due to burgeoning safety legislation, raising expectations for quality and safety improvements and demands for effectiveness and to achieve value for money. The introduction of new procurement routes such as private finance initiative, public-private partnerships over and above the traditional one has added complexity. A summative rather than a comprehensive review of the healthcare planning information, healthcare facility briefing systems and tools provides an appropriate basis to evaluate some of the issues identified above. The review also answers the question of need for technical guidance and tools in healthcare over and above the planning regulation and building control applied to other types of the built environment. Traditional focus of building control has, in recent times, seen expanded state interventions in health and safety, including prevention of fire risk in buildings to application of rules, regulations and standards relating to the form and performance of buildings and the built environment. This has been necessary not only in order for building design to respond to increased threats to health and safety posed by terrorism and climate change but also to address sociopsychological and cultural issues related to place-making and sustainable urban living. As a result, there has been a proliferation of state-centred legal forms of regulation, formations and a plethora of rules, standards and governance practices as well as requirements by insurance companies to identify, prevent and contain risk (Imrie and Street 2011). © The Author(s) 2014.
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