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21.Semi-supervised learning: Background, applications and future directions

Author:Zhong,Guoqiang;Huang,Kaizhu

Source:Semi-Supervised Learning: Background, Applications and Future Directions,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Semi-supervised learning is an important area of machine learning. It deals with problems that involve a lot of unlabeled data and very scarce labeled data. The book focuses on state-of-the-art research on semi-supervised learning. In the first chapter, Weng, Dornaika and Jin introduce a graph construction algorithm named the constrained data self-representative graph construction (CSRGC). In the second chapter, to reduce the graph construction complexity, Zhang et al. use anchors that were a special subset chosen from the original data to construct the full graph, while randomness was injected into graphs to improve the classification accuracy and deal with the high dimensionality issue. In the third chapter, Dornaika et al. introduce a kernel version of the Flexible Manifold Embedding (KFME) algorithm. In the fourth chapter, Zhang et al. present an efficient and robust graph-based transductive classification method known as the minimum tree cut (MTC), for large scale applications. In the fifth chapter, Salazar, Safont and Vergara investigated the performance of semi-supervised learning methods in two-class classification problems with a scarce population of one of the classes. In the sixth chapter, by breaking the sample identically and independently distributed (i.i.d.) assumption, one novel framework called the field support vector machine (F-SVM) with both classification (F-SVC) and regression (F-SVR) purposes is introduced. In the seventh chapter, Gong employs the curriculum learning methodology by investigating the difficulty of classifying every unlabeled example. As a result, an optimized classification sequence was generated during the iterative propagations, and the unlabeled examples are logically classified from simple to difficult. In the eighth chapter, Tang combines semi-supervised learning with geo-tagged photo streams and concept detection to explore situation recognition. This book is suitable for university students (undergraduate or graduate) in computer science, statistics, electrical engineering, and anyone else who would potentially use machine learning algorithms; professors, who research artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, machine learning, data mining and related fields; and engineers, who apply machine learning models into their products.

22.Income inequality in China and the role of fiscal policies: An empirical study of Chinese provincial data

Author:Zhang,Fan;Hung,Juann H.

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter conducts panel regressions using provincial data from 2005 to 2010 to investigate whether China’s fiscal system is effective in mitigating the rise in income inequality in those years. On the revenue side, we find that only operation tax has a significant negative effect on income inequality. Value-added tax (VAT), individual and enterprise income tax all have an insignificant impact on income inequality. We suspect the insignificant effect of progressive individual income tax on income inequality reflects tax evasion by the rich. On the spending side, the results indicate that all government expenditures have no significant impacts on reducing income inequality. This suggests that, among other possibilities, government spending lacks efficiency or pays insufficient attention to the needy.

23.How COVID-19 Has Stimulated Innovation in the Chinese Education Sector

Author:Poshan Yu, Samuel Kwok and Zhongyue Jiang

Source:,2021,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter aims to investigate the impacts of COVID-19 in China's education sector. It will capture the dynamics of the interlinked changing relationships between the availability and use of education technology (EdTech) and the demand for online learning among various stakeholders in the Chinese education market. In addition, this chapter examines whether and how these relationships enhance operational efficiency via transforming the current business models in the sector, in particular due to the COVID-19 pandemic. By analyzing the current practices of the sector, this chapter will critically discuss the challenges and opportunities for technology in education and how these changes in turn drive stakeholders (including students, educators, and regulators) to respond and engage with each other, and how these stakeholder engagements impact the sustainable development of delivery modes, such as digital education and remote learning by using EdTech strategies in the sector.

24.Rural regeneration in the Yangtze River Delta: The challenge and potential for rural heritage tourism development

Author:Wang,Yiwen

Source:Urban China's Rural Fringe: Actors, Dimensions and Management Challenges,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2016 Giulio Verdini, Yiwen Wang, Xiaonan Zhang and the contributors. The diversification of the functional uses of agricultural land has grown in importance since the concept of sustainable development became a matter of global concern before the turn of the new century. Multi-functionality of agricultural land often refers to the production of other goods, services or values in addition to crop and livestock, such as food security, leisure activities, recreational opportunities and cultural tourism (Daugstad et al. 2006). Arguably, rural tourism has been one of the most effective tools for diversifying economic activities and generating additional income for the rural community. It has played an important role in regenerating the declining economy of the countryside as a result of intensive global food trading (Sharpley and Vass 2006). While the term ‘rural tourism’ has been perceived and interpreted in various ways, ranging from general leisure activities to hands-on farming practice, it is the role of ‘cultural heritage’ in the current trend of rural tourism development that this research was set to explore.

25.Understanding “sustainability” and attitudes of students to the concept of “sustainable development” in China and the UK

Author:Williams,Austin

Source:Green Energy and Technology,2017,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter is an investigation into the way(s) that words and phrases such as, “sustainability” and “the environment” are used within China and the UK. It is a comparative analysis of responses from 18 to 21 year old students of Architecture in both countries – carried out by questionnaire sampling of students from both regions – and provides an initial assessment of the extent and possible meaning of any key differences in understanding of these terms. The discourse on sustainability is well-established in the UK but is not regularly taught as mainstream in Chinese universities, and yet many tutors, lecturers and practitioners educated outside China who are employed or guest lecture in our particular joint China-British university (and evidence shows that this also happens in other Chinese universities) are bringing a Western educational language of sustainability to Chinese students. In my experience, this has led to some discussion among students and this paper – concerning itself with issues related to sustainability – is the start of a wider assessment of social, cultural, practical and political differences in the classroom: in the West and in China. Drawing on a comparison of student responses from one Chinese university and three academically comparable universities in the UK – including questionnaire responses from 115 students studying in UK and 321 students studying in China (436 respondents in total), I examine their understanding of sustainability that might facilitate the use of these concepts more meaningfully. My findings indicate that there are clear disparities between students in China and UK reflecting a different understanding of expectations, settings and context.

26.Manufacturing and logistics networks of korean firms in china: A case study of suzhou industrial park

Author:Liu,Zheng;Kim,Hyung Min;Zhang,Kaifeng

Source:Operations and Service Management: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications,2017,Vol.

Abstract:© 2018 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. The aim of this chapter is to develop a better understanding of interactions of Korean firms in Suzhou in terms of supply chain, manufacturing networks and logistics. By reviewing the key literature in industry clusters, international strategy, manufacturing systems and logistics management, a conceptual framework is designed to capture the key roles of Korean MNE, SMEs, and local SIP service organizations. Case studies and interviews with practitioners provide in-depth knowledge about firms' operation in Suzhou. An industry review of SIP is also conducted from the perspectives of history, policy, infrastructure and local culture. Discussions are made to address the critical issues followed by a summary of the chapter.

27.The book as site: Alternative modes of representing and documenting architecture

Author:Macken,Marian

Source:The Routledge Companion to Design Research,2014,Vol.

28.Gothic forms of time: Architecture, Romanticism, Medievalism

Author:Duggett,Tom

Source:Romantic Gothic: An Edinburgh Companion,2015,Vol.

29.Cultural institutional reform and the changing society in China

Author:Zhong,Sheng

Source:Governing Society In Contemporary China,2016,Vol.

Abstract:Wholly regarded as social welfare and propaganda before the economic reform, cultural production is increasingly linked to profit-making and economic competitiveness in contemporary China. The reform of public cultural institutions and the promotion of cultural industries are reflective of this new understanding. This chapter indicates that the changing society is an important force driving the cultural reform. However, the rush towards market also causes concern to the Party-state and this leads to the redress of the issue in recent years. In light of the multiple roles of culture, this chapter suggests that the energetic vibe from the society would be advantageous in making China a great power of culture….

30.Creativity in the animation industry

Author:Liu,Zheng;Ma,Lei

Source:Exploring the Benefits of Creativity in Education, Media, and the Arts,2016,Vol.

Abstract:In the past 20 years, animation industry has developed rapidly due to the popularity of technology and a market demand on creativity. Large firms such as Disney and Pixar are continuously seeking strategies to expand, improve, and innovate, whereas most Chinese companies, as late comers are upgrading their capability through original design, technology development and policy support. This chapter focuses on the creativity in the animation industry, with an analysis on brand/character development, technology innovation, and policy influence. It starts with an introduction of the creativity in animation industry from both practice and literature perspectives. Then, there are five cases studies into companies with a highlight on their details of creative activities. Discussion is to address the critical issues of creativity in the animation industry, followed by a conclusion and recommendations for future research areas.

31.The role of the exchange rate in China’s outward foreign direct investment

Author:Ding,Xinyun;Salike,Nimesh

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This research estimates the impact of exchange rate and exchange rate volatility on Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) utilizing panel data in 21 countries from 2004 to 2013. A basic gravity model and fixed effect model are applied to find that both market-seeking motivation and economic openness are positive determinants for Chinese OFDI. A depreciated host country currency is more favorable for Chinese OFDI. On the contrary, exchange rate volatility has adverse effects, meaning Chinese OFDI declines with exchange rate volatility. There is no obvious evidence to support that China has a preference to choose developed or developing countries as its OFDI host countries.

32.The rise in China’s gender income inequality

Author:Sun,Qi;Hung,Juann H.

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This research aims to shed light on the causes of the rising gender income gap in China. We first apply the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method (Oaxaca, Int Eco Rev 14: 693-709, 1973; Blinder, J Hum Res 8: 436-455, 1973) to our survey data to estimate the extent to which that gap can be explained by the difference in human capital characteristics (such as years of education and years of experience). We find that a rising discrimination against females (either due to tradition or otherwise) is not the main cause of the rising gender income gap in China. Instead, we present evidence to propose that two of the three main drivers of China’s economic growth-namely, privatization and urbanization-very likely have contributed to the rise in China’s gender income gap.

33.Collaborative approaches for planning the rural areas of Chinese cities

Author:Zhong,Sheng;Guo,Yu

Source:Urban China's Rural Fringe: Actors, Dimensions and Management Challenges,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2016 Giulio Verdini, Yiwen Wang, Xiaonan Zhang and the contributors. The rapid urbanization process in China has posed significant threats to land resources not only in quantity but also in quality. In the peri-urban areas of Chinese cities, the pressures from urban sprawl have resulted in scattered construction lands mixed with cultivated lands. This highly inefficient use of rural construction, especially in peri-urban areas, has been identified as a major problem and, consequently, rural land consolidation has been increasingly considered as a priority for reaching more sustainable rural planning outcomes. Based on the existing experiences of land ticket reform, this chapter argues that market-based land ticket represents a promising approach to China’s rural land consolidation practises and should be allowed to be used in a wider scope. However, reform of the existing land ticket and rural land consolidation processes is also needed to ensure better results. A perspective from participative and collaborative planning will shed light on how to achieve this outcome.

34.Media Coverage and Stock Returns: Evidence from Chinese Cross-Listed Firms

Author:Wang,Chen;Ding,Rong;Hou,Wenxuan;Lee,Edward

Source:Experiences and Challenges in the Development of the Chinese Capital Market,2015,Vol.

35.Historic landscape and water heritage of Suzhou beyond the tourist gaze

Author:Wang,Yi Wen;Nolf,Christian

Source:Suzhou in Transition,2020,Vol.

36.Corporate social responsibility (CSR) in China: A contextual exploration

Author:Kirk Davidson,D.;Yin,Juelin

Source:Comparative Perspectives on Global Corporate Social Responsibility,2016,Vol.

Abstract:© 2017 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. Despite a growing recognition of national contexts in predicting the dynamics of corporate social responsibility (CSR), the limited prior research has failed to disaggregate national institutions to specify the mechanisms between aspects of national institutional contexts and elements of CSR practices. In this paper we offer a framework for analyzing the nature and status of CSR, which is made up of eight elements: history, religions/ideologies, social norms, geography, political structures, the level of economic development, civil society institutions, and the country's "safety net" provisions. We apply the framework to explain how and why China's understanding of CSR differs from that in Western countries.

37.Developmental swarm intelligence Developmental learning perspective of swarm intelligence algorithms

Author:Shi, Yuhui

Source:Nature-Inspired Computing Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications,2016,Vol.1-3

Abstract:In this article, the necessity of having developmental learning embedded in a swarm intelligence algorithm is confirmed by briefly considering brain evolution, brain development, brainstorming process, etc. Several swarm intelligence algorithms are looked at from developmental learning perspective. Finally, a framework of a developmental swarm intelligence algorithm is given to help understand developmental swarm intelligence algorithms, and to guide to design and/or implement any new developmental swarm intelligence algorithm and/or any developmental evolutionary algorithm. © 2017 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

38.The algorithms-aided design (AAD)

Author:Tedeschi,Arturo;Lombardi,Davide

Source:Informed Architecture: Computational Strategies in Architectural Design,2017,Vol.

39.China's way to the US market: China's outward direct investment in the United States

Author:Liang,Bo;Yan,Li;Quinlivan,Gary;Cline,Thomas W.

Source:Handbook on China and Globalization,2019,Vol.

40.Psychological Contracts: Past, Present, and Future

Author:Coyle-Shapiro, JAM;Costa, SP;Doden, W;Chang, CC

Source:ANNUAL REVIEW OF ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR, VOL 6,2019,Vol.6

Abstract:We provide a review of psychological contract research, beginning with past conceptualizations and empirical evidence. We tailor this retrospective look by reviewing the antecedents and outcomes associated with psychological contract breach and discussing the dominant theoretical explanations for the breach-outcome relationship. This synthesis of past evidence provides the foundation for reviewing the present emerging and developing themes in psychological contract research. This discussion is organized around the expansion of resources exchanged and the antecedents of contract breach and outcomes, moving beyond reciprocity as an underpinning explanation. We highlight the practical implications of research to date on psychological contracts and end with directions for future research to include the need for greater attention given to ideological currency, employee health, polycontextual approaches, the role of psychological needs, and post-breach/violation.
Total 165 results found
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