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1.Fast graph-based semi-supervised learning and its applications

Author:Zhang,Yan Ming;Huang,Kaizhu;Geng,Guang Gang;Liu,Cheng Lin

Source:Semi-Supervised Learning: Background, Applications and Future Directions,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Despite the great success of graph-based transductive learning methods, most of them have serious problems in scalability and robustness. In this chapter, we propose an efficient and robust graph-based transductive classification method, called minimum tree cut (MTC), which is suitable for large scale data. Motivated from the sparse representation of graph, we approximate a graph by a spanning tree. Exploiting the simple structure, we develop a linear-time algorithm to label the tree such that the cut size of the tree is minimized. This significantly improves graph-based methods, which typically have a polynomial time complexity. Moreover, we theoretically and empirically show that the performance of MTC is robust to the graph construction, overcoming another big problem of traditional graph-based methods. Extensive experiments on public data sets and applications on text extraction fromimages demonstrate our method’s advantages in aspect of accuracy, speed, and robustness.

2.Corporate marginal tax rate estimation: Evidence based on China’s listed companies

Author:Nong,Jin;Chen,Yang

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter aims at using an innovative method developed by Blouin et al. (Improved estimates of marginal tax rates: why they are needed, approach, and implications. Memo, 2008) to simulate 1041 China’s listed companies’ corporate marginal tax rate, and comparing the changes in marginal tax rate in the context of 2007 tax reform in China. After simulation and comparison, we find that the annual corporate marginal tax rate has greatly decreased after the new tax policy goes into effect. Besides, the tax effects on marginal tax rates vary with industry and across ownership.

3.The epistemology of Yin-Yang balancing as the root of Chinese cultural traditions: The indigenous features and geocentric implications

Author:Li,Peter Ping

Source:The Psychological and Cultural Foundations of East Asian Cognition: Contradiction, Change, and Holism,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Most Eastern traditional philosophies, such as Taoism, from China, share a set of core themes that constitute a philosophy of wisdom (science-art integration), in contrast to Western philosophies with a focus on knowledge (science-art separation). This chapter argues that the epistemological system of yin-yang balancing is the root of Eastern culture traditions. Building on this theme, the chapter elaborates on the unique features of yin-yang balancing, in contrast to Aristotle's formal logic and Hegel's dialectics in the West. It is posited that yin-yang balancing is more sophisticated (rather than naïve) than all dialectical logic for paradox management, since it is the only system that can truly accommodate and appreciate paradox and has the potential to absorb all Western systems into a geocentric (East-meets-West) meta-system. The chapter concludes with an application of yin-yang balancing to the geocentric integration of the Eastern philosophy of wisdom with the Western philosophy of knowledge, toward a new geocentric meta-paradigm.

4.Semi-supervised learning: Background, applications and future directions

Author:Zhong,Guoqiang;Huang,Kaizhu

Source:Semi-Supervised Learning: Background, Applications and Future Directions,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Semi-supervised learning is an important area of machine learning. It deals with problems that involve a lot of unlabeled data and very scarce labeled data. The book focuses on state-of-the-art research on semi-supervised learning. In the first chapter, Weng, Dornaika and Jin introduce a graph construction algorithm named the constrained data self-representative graph construction (CSRGC). In the second chapter, to reduce the graph construction complexity, Zhang et al. use anchors that were a special subset chosen from the original data to construct the full graph, while randomness was injected into graphs to improve the classification accuracy and deal with the high dimensionality issue. In the third chapter, Dornaika et al. introduce a kernel version of the Flexible Manifold Embedding (KFME) algorithm. In the fourth chapter, Zhang et al. present an efficient and robust graph-based transductive classification method known as the minimum tree cut (MTC), for large scale applications. In the fifth chapter, Salazar, Safont and Vergara investigated the performance of semi-supervised learning methods in two-class classification problems with a scarce population of one of the classes. In the sixth chapter, by breaking the sample identically and independently distributed (i.i.d.) assumption, one novel framework called the field support vector machine (F-SVM) with both classification (F-SVC) and regression (F-SVR) purposes is introduced. In the seventh chapter, Gong employs the curriculum learning methodology by investigating the difficulty of classifying every unlabeled example. As a result, an optimized classification sequence was generated during the iterative propagations, and the unlabeled examples are logically classified from simple to difficult. In the eighth chapter, Tang combines semi-supervised learning with geo-tagged photo streams and concept detection to explore situation recognition. This book is suitable for university students (undergraduate or graduate) in computer science, statistics, electrical engineering, and anyone else who would potentially use machine learning algorithms; professors, who research artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, machine learning, data mining and related fields; and engineers, who apply machine learning models into their products.

5.Income inequality in China and the role of fiscal policies: An empirical study of Chinese provincial data

Author:Zhang,Fan;Hung,Juann H.

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter conducts panel regressions using provincial data from 2005 to 2010 to investigate whether China’s fiscal system is effective in mitigating the rise in income inequality in those years. On the revenue side, we find that only operation tax has a significant negative effect on income inequality. Value-added tax (VAT), individual and enterprise income tax all have an insignificant impact on income inequality. We suspect the insignificant effect of progressive individual income tax on income inequality reflects tax evasion by the rich. On the spending side, the results indicate that all government expenditures have no significant impacts on reducing income inequality. This suggests that, among other possibilities, government spending lacks efficiency or pays insufficient attention to the needy.

6.The role of the exchange rate in China’s outward foreign direct investment

Author:Ding,Xinyun;Salike,Nimesh

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This research estimates the impact of exchange rate and exchange rate volatility on Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) utilizing panel data in 21 countries from 2004 to 2013. A basic gravity model and fixed effect model are applied to find that both market-seeking motivation and economic openness are positive determinants for Chinese OFDI. A depreciated host country currency is more favorable for Chinese OFDI. On the contrary, exchange rate volatility has adverse effects, meaning Chinese OFDI declines with exchange rate volatility. There is no obvious evidence to support that China has a preference to choose developed or developing countries as its OFDI host countries.

7.The rise in China’s gender income inequality

Author:Sun,Qi;Hung,Juann H.

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This research aims to shed light on the causes of the rising gender income gap in China. We first apply the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method (Oaxaca, Int Eco Rev 14: 693-709, 1973; Blinder, J Hum Res 8: 436-455, 1973) to our survey data to estimate the extent to which that gap can be explained by the difference in human capital characteristics (such as years of education and years of experience). We find that a rising discrimination against females (either due to tradition or otherwise) is not the main cause of the rising gender income gap in China. Instead, we present evidence to propose that two of the three main drivers of China’s economic growth-namely, privatization and urbanization-very likely have contributed to the rise in China’s gender income gap.

8.3D food printing Perspectives    

Author:Sun, Jie ; Zhou, Weibiao ; Huang, Dejian ; Yan, Liangkun

Source:Polymers for Food Applications,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Due to consumers’ growing attention to personal health, food products that focus on personal care, healthy concepts and functional claims are emerging as a new trend. This motivates a growing market for personalized healthy food, which aims to tailor and fabricate diet specifically based on an individual’s health condition. Traditional food preparation processes even with advanced processing technologies cannot meet such demands. Three-dimensional (3D) food printing, also known as Food Layered Manufacture, can be one of the potential ways to bridge this gap. This is a digitally controlled, robotic construction process, which can build up complex 3D food products layer by layer. It aims to revolutionize food manufacturing with customized shape, color, flavor, texture, and even nutrition. Hence, food products can be designed and fabricated to meet individual needs through controlling the amount of printing material and nutrition content. Foods created by 3D printing have already entered the market. A range of 3D printing methods, platforms, materials and recipes have been utilized. This chapter reviews the common approaches and techniques used in food printing. The market challenges, technical difficulties and possible strategies along the pathway of commercialization are also discussed. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018.

10.The state of China’s state capitalism: Evidence of its successes and pitfalls

Author:Hung,Juann H.;Chen,Yang

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This book comprises a collection of well-researched essays on selected contemporary economic and finance issues in China, making a timely contribution to the intellectual intercourse regarding the implications of China’s rise. These essays analyze issues related to the state of China’s ecology, real estate market, inbound and outbound FDI, income inequality, etc., and offer analysis on the policy and institutional causes of those issues. Readers will be able to infer their implications for business opportunities in China and the tradeoff / tension between economic growth and social welfare. Moreover, this book introduces an array of data and data sources useful to scholars and practitioners interested in studying the Chinese model of economic growth. This book will be a valuable resource to journalists and scholars trying to gain insight into China’s extraordinary pace of growth in the past three decades.

11.Editorial: Finance and risk management for international logistics and the supply chain

Author:Gong,Stephen;Cullinane,Kevin

Source:Finance and Risk Management for International Logistics and the Supply Chain,2018,Vol.

12.When Wanda Plaza comes to the Yangtze River Delta: Will the land prices increase?

Author:Zhang,Ziwei;Chen,Yang

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Wanda-one of the Chinese real estate sector leading companies claims that the Wanda Plaza is the “heart” of a city. In this chapter, we use the panel dataset of land transactions during the period of 2008-2016 in 109 counties in Yangtze River Delta to test whether the entry of a new Wanda Plaza increases the county-level average land prices. Using the difference-in-difference (DID) strategy, our estimates suggest that a new Wanda Plaza opening increases the price of the industrial land by about 0.1-0.15%% and increases the price of the residential land by about 0.22-0.25%%.

13.Fiscal decentralization, yardstick competition in determining Chinese local governments’ land conveyance behavior

Author:Yang,Wenyin;Chen,Yang

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter investigates the institutional and political motivation behind Chinese local governments’ land conveyance behavior. The principal-agent model is adopted to illustrate the mechanisms of how yardstick competition and fiscal decentralization encourage land sale. We find that although yardstick competition promotes short-term economic growth, the presence of land finance impairs the “selection effect” of yardstick competition. Using a panel data of 31 Chinese provinces from 2003 to 2011 in a spatial autoregressive model, we show that yardstick competition exerts a large positive impact on the intensity of land sale and leasing, while the influence of fiscal decentralization has a moderate impact and the influence of foreign direct investment (FDI) appears to be insignificant.

14.A Simple Step-Stress Model for Coherent Systems and Associated Inference Based on System Signatures

Author:Zhu,Xiaojun;Mitra,Debanjan;Balakrishnan,Narayanaswamy

Source:Studies in Systems, Decision and Control,2018,Vol.142

Abstract:Coherent systems are important structures in reliability. In this paper, we discuss the maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of model parameters of an system with known signature having an exponential component distribution based on a simple step-stress model. We also develop confidence intervals (CIs) for the model parameters. A detailed Monte Carlo study is carried out to examine the performance of the point and estimates. Finally, a data analysis is performed for illustrating all the inferential methods developed here.

15.Small-Scale public transportable and pre-fabricated buildings Evaluating their functional performance

Author:Xi, Junjie

Source:Small-Scale Public Transportable and Pre-Fabricated Buildings Evaluating their Functional Performance,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This book investigates the design, operation and use of contemporary transportable buildings, and explores how functional performance can be assessed in small-scale examples for public use alongside their relationship to other design elements. The research focuses on three case studies, Chengdu Hualin Elementary School, Exxopolis and Kreod, that do not require a high-technology building environment or complex construction skills. Transportable buildings are defined as those that are transported in a number of parts for assembly on site. Contemporary transportable buildings respond to ecological issues, social impacts, technological innovation and economic demands. They can be used to measure a society’s development in environmental sustainability, innovation and economic growth through various forms. Small-scale transportable buildings fulfil many temporary habitation needs in diverse roles, such as non-emergency transitional housing, ephemeral exhibition buildings and seasonal entertainment facilities. Small-Scale Public Transportable and Pre-Fabricated Buildings will be a useful research text for academics and students in architecture, design and sustainable building performance. © 2018 Junjie Xi.

16.Determinants of the urban investment bonds in China

Author:Li,Daike;Chen,Yang

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter investigates the determinants of the issuance of urban investment bonds (UIBs) across 31 provinces in China during the period of 2005-2013 using a spatial autoregressive model. We find that the provincial governments tend to compete with or imitate their neighboring provinces in bond issuance. The neighborhood can be defined in terms of either geographical proximity or economic performance. We also find that the fiscal gap, governments’ investments in housing and public welfare, and bond level in the previous year have positive association with the issuance of UIBs in China.

17.Self-training field pattern prediction based on kernel methods

Author:Jiang,Haochuan;Huang,Kaizhu;Zhang,Xu Yao;Zhang,Rui

Source:Semi-Supervised Learning: Background, Applications and Future Directions,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Conventional predictors often regard input samples as identically and independently distributed (i.i.d.). Such an assumption does not always hold in many real scenarios, especially when patterns occur as groups, where each group shares a homogeneous style. These tasks are named as the field prediction, which can be divided into the field classification and the field regression. Traditional i.i.d.-based machine learning models would always face degraded performance. By breaking the i.i.d. assump- tion, one novel framework called Field SupportVector Machine (F-SVM) with both classification (F-SVC) and regression (F-SVR) purposes is in- troduced in this chapter. To be specific, the proposed F-SVM predictor is investigated by learning simultaneously both the predictor and the Style Normalization Transformation (SNT) for each group of data (called field). Such joint learning is proved to be even feasible in the high-dimensional kernel space. An efficient alternative optimization algorithm is further designed with the final convergence guaranteed theoretically and experimentally. More importantly, a self-training based kernelized algorithm is also developed to incorporate the F-SVM model with the unknown field during the training phase by learning the transductive SNT to transfer the trained field information to this unknown style data. A series of experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the F-SVM model with both classification and regression tasks by promoting the classification accuracy and declining regression error. Empirical results demonstrate that the proposed F-SVM achieves in several benchmark datasets the best performance so far, significantly better than those state-of-the-art predictors.

18.China’s housing price: Where are the bubbles?

Author:Zhang,Xiaocong;Hung,Juann H.

Source:The State of China's State Capitalism: Evidence of Its Successes and Pitfalls,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter investigates evidence of housing bubbles in different locations of China by looking at data at the provincial and city levels from late 1990s to 2016, using the price-to-rent analysis and the generalized sup-Augumented Dickey-Fuller Test (GSADF) test. The price-to-rent ratio analysis indicates that housing bubbles began to develop in Shenzhen and Xiamen as early as 2007, while the bubble in Beijing, Hangzhou, Ningbo, Hefei, and Wenzhou started later in 2009. Those findings are largely consistent with results of the GSADF test. We also observe that the government intervention has been quite effective in maintaining a relatively stable upward trend in housing prices by timely interventions either to revive a depressed market or dampen an overheating market. Even though it has been propping up the upward trend in housing prices, even allowing it to rise in an explosive pace at times, it also does not hesitate to use policy intervention to cause moderate downward adjustments to avoid spectacular burst.

19.Local economic elites and charitable giving

Author:Carrillo,Beatriz

Source:Local Elites in Post-Mao China,2018,Vol.

Abstract:© 2018 Yingjie Guo. As China rebuilds its charity and philanthropy sectors, examining the rationale behind the current push by both the Party-state and a range of societal actors for promoting private and corporate charitable giving became an important task to help understand its potential impacts on inequality and redistribution. Even though the practice of charity is largely universal across countries and cultures, localised practices of charity and philanthropy have been grounded on specific moral and ideological traditions, as well as in particular historical socio-economic contexts. In its broader conception, charity has generally been viewed as a positive force for social change; however, it has also been subjected to strong criticisms. Marxists have presented the strongest critique against charity, which, they argue, cannot challenge the fundamental injustice of the structured inequality of power between the rich and the poor (Cohen 2000, p. 19). In part, it was this rationale that led the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) to abolish all charitable organisations after its ascension to power in 1949 (Yan et al. 2007).

20.International trade and supply chains

Author:Salike,Nimesh;Thorbecke,Willem

Source:China in the Local and Global Economy: History, Geography, Politics and Sustainability,2018,Vol.

Total 41 results found
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