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1.Supporting culturally and linguistically diverse students during clinical placement: strategies from both sides of the table

Author:O'Reilly, SL;Milner, J


Abstract:Background: Increasing proportions of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) students within health professional courses at universities creates challenges in delivering inclusive training and education. Clinical placements are a core component of most health care degrees as they allow for applied learning opportunities. A research gap has been identified in regard to understanding challenges and strategies for CALD students in health professional placements. Methods: A key stakeholder approach was used to examine barriers and enablers experienced by CALD students in clinical placement. Semi-structured focus groups with healthcare students (n = 13) and clinical placement supervisors (n = 12) were employed. The focus groups were analysed using open coding and thematic analysis. Results: Three main barrier areas were identified: placement planning and preparation; teaching, assessment and feedback; and cultural and language issues. Potential solutions included addressing placement planning and preparation barriers, appropriate student placement preparation, pre-placement identification of higher risk CALD students, and diversity training for supervisors. For the barrier of teaching, assessment & feedback, addressing strategies were to: adapt student caseloads, encourage regular casual supervisor-student conversations, develop supportive placement delivery modes and structures, set expectations early, model the constructive feedback process, use visual aids, and tailor the learning environment to individual student needs. The enablers for cultural & language issues were to: build language and practical approaches for communication, raise awareness of the healthcare system (how it interacts with healthcare professions and how patients access it), and initiate mentoring programs. Conclusions: The findings suggest that teaching and learning strategies should be student-centred, aiming to promote awareness of difference and its impacts then develop appropriate responses by both student and teacher. Universities and partnering agencies, such as clinical training providers, need to provide an inclusive learning environment for students from multiple cultural backgrounds.

2.Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Author:Karp, DS;Chaplin-Kramer, R;Meehan, TD;Martin, EA;DeClerck, F;Grab, H;Gratton, C;Hunt, L;Larsen, AE;Martinez-Salinas, A;O'Rourke, ME;Rusch, A;Poveda, K;Jonsson, M;Rosenheim, JA;Schellhorn, NA;Tscharntke, T;Wratten, SD;Zhang, W;Iverson, AL;Adler, LS;Albrecht, M;Alignier, A;Angelella, GM;Anjum, MZ;Avelino, J;Batary, P;Baveco, JM;Bianchi, FJJA;Birkhofer, K;Bohnenblust, EW;Bommarco, R;Brewer, MJ;Caballero-Lopez, B;Carriere, Y;Carvalheiro, LG;Cayuela, L;Centrella, M;Cetkovic, A;Henri, DC;Chabert, A;Costamagna, AC;De la Mora, A;de Kraker, J;Desneux, N;Diehl, E;Diekotter, T;Dormann, CF;Eckberg, JO;Entling, MH;Fiedler, D;Franck, P;van Veen, FJF;Frank, T;Gagic, V;Garratt, MPD;Getachew, A;Gonthier, DJ;Goodell, PB;Graziosi, I;Groves, RL;Gurr, GM;Hajian-Forooshani, Z;Heimpel, GE;Herrmann, JD;Huseth, AS;Inclan, DJ;Ingrao, AJ;Iv, P;Jacot, K;Johnson, GA;Jones, L;Kaiser, M;Kaser, JM;Keasar, T;Kim, TN;Kishinevsky, M;Landis, DA;Lavandero, B;Lavigne, C;Le Ralec, A;Lemessa, D;Letourneau, DK;Liere, H;Lu, YH;Lubin, Y;Luttermoser, T;Maas, B;Mace, K;Madeira, F;Mader, V;Cortesero, AM;Marini, L;Martinez, E;Martinson, HM;Menozzi, P;Mitchell, MGE;Miyashita, T;Molina, GAR;Molina-Montenegro, MA;O'Neal, ME;Opatovsky, I;Ortiz-Martinez, S;Nash, M;Ostman, O;Ouin, A;Pak, D;Paredes, D;Parsa, S;Parry, H;Perez-Alvarez, R;Perovic, DJ;Peterson, JA;Petit, S;Philpott, SM;Plantegenest, M;Plecas, M;Pluess, T;Pons, X;Potts, SG;Pywell, RF;Ragsdale, DW;Rand, TA;Raymond, L;Ricci, B;Sargent, C;Sarthou, JP;Saulais, J;Schackermann, J;Schmidt, NP;Schneider, G;Schuepp, C;Sivakoff, FS;Smith, HG;Whitney, KS;Stutz, S;Szendrei, Z;Takada, MB;Taki, H;Tamburini, G;Thomson, LJ;Tricault, Y;Tsafack, N;Tschumi, M;Valantin-Morison, M;Trinh, MV;van der Werf, W;Vierling, KT;Werling, BP;Wickens, JB;Wickens, VJ;Woodcock, BA;Wyckhuys, K;Xiao, HJ;Yasuda, M;Yoshioka, A;Zou, Y


Abstract:The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win-win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are measured. Here, we use a pest-control database encompassing 132 studies and 6,759 sites worldwide to model natural enemy and pest abundances, predation rates, and crop damage as a function of landscape composition. Our results showed that although landscape composition explained significant variation within studies, pest and enemy abundances, predation rates, crop damage, and yields each exhibited different responses across studies, sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing in landscapes with more noncrop habitat but overall showing no consistent trend. Thus, models that used landscape-composition variables to predict pest-control dynamics demonstrated little potential to explain variation across studies, though prediction did improve when comparing studies with similar crop and landscape features. Overall, our work shows that surrounding noncrop habitat does not consistently improve pest management, meaning habitat conservation may bolster production in some systems and depress yields in others. Future efforts to develop tools that inform farmers when habitat conservation truly represents a win-win would benefit from increased understanding of how landscape effects are modulated by local farm management and the biology of pests and their enemies.

3.A global synthesis reveals biodiversity-mediated benefits for crop production

Author:Dainese, M;Martin, EA;Aizen, MA;Albrecht, M;Bartomeus, I;Bommarco, R;Carvalheiro, LG;Chaplin-Kramer, R;Gagic, V;Garibaldi, LA;Ghazoul, J;Grab, H;Jonsson, M;Karp, DS;Kennedy, CM;Kleijn, D;Kremen, C;Landis, DA;Letourneau, DK;Marini, L;Poveda, K;Rader, R;Smith, HG;Tscharntke, T;Andersson, GKS;Badenhausser, I;Baensch, S;Bezerra, ADM;Bianchi, FJJA;Boreux, V;Bretagnolle, V;Caballero-Lopez, B;Cavigliasso, P;Cetkovic, A;Chacoff, NP;Classen, A;Cusser, S;Silva, FDDE;de Groot, GA;Dudenhoffer, JH;Ekroos, J;Fijen, T;Franck, P;Freitas, BM;Garratt, MPD;Gratton, C;Hipolito, J;Holzschuh, A;Hunt, L;Iverson, AL;Jha, S;Keasar, T;Kim, TN;Kishinevsky, M;Klatt, BK;Klein, AM;Krewenka, KM;Krishnan, S;Larsen, AE;Lavigne, C;Liere, H;Maas, B;Mallinger, RE;Pachon, EM;Martinez-Salinas, A;Meehan, TD;Mitchell, MGE;Molina, GAR;Nesper, M;Nilsson, L;O'Rourke, ME;Peters, MK;Plecas, M;Potts, SG;Ramos, DD;Rosenheim, JA;Rundlof, M;Rusch, A;Saez, A;Scheper, J;Schleuning, M;Schmack, JM;Sciligo, AR;Seymour, C;Stanley, DA;Stewart, R;Stout, JC;Sutter, L;Takada, MB;Taki, H;Tamburini, G;Tschumi, M;Viana, BF;Westphal, C;Willcox, BK;Wratten, SD;Yoshioka, A;Zaragoza-Trello, C;Zhang, W;Zou, Y;Steffan-Dewenter, I

Source:SCIENCE ADVANCES,2019,Vol.5

Abstract:Human land use threatens global biodiversity and compromises multiple ecosystem functions critical to food production. Whether crop yield-related ecosystem services can be maintained by a few dominant species or rely on high richness remains unclear. Using a global database from 89 studies (with 1475 locations), we partition the relative importance of species richness, abundance, and dominance for pollination; biological pest control; and final yields in the context of ongoing land-use change. Pollinator and enemy richness directly supported ecosystem services in addition to and independent of abundance and dominance. Up to 50%% of the negative effects of landscape simplification on ecosystem services was due to richness losses of service-providing organisms, with negative consequences for crop yields. Maintaining the biodiversity of ecosystem service providers is therefore vital to sustain the flow of key agroecosystem benefits to society.

4.Enhancing Public Health Messaging: Discrete-Choice Experiment Evidence on the Design of HIV Testing Messages in China

Author:Durvasula, M;Pan, SW;Ong, JJ;Tang, WM;Cao, BL;Liu, CC;Terris-Prestholt, F;Tucker, JD


Abstract:Introduction. While a growing literature documents the effectiveness of public health messaging on social media, our understanding of the factors that encourage individuals to engage with and share messages is limited. In the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, rising incidence and low testing rates despite decades of interventions suggest the need for effective, targeted messaging to reach underserved populations. Social media platforms and sex-seeking apps present a promising avenue, as web-based strategies can take advantage of existing trust within dense social networks. Methods. We conducted an online discrete-choice experiment in January 2017 with MSM from across China. Participants were presented with 6 choice tasks, each composed of 2 messages about HIV testing, and were asked in which scenario they were more likely to share the content. Participants were given information about the source of the HIV testing message, the social media sharing platform, and the recipients with whom they would share the message. They were given the option of sharing 1 message or neither. Multinomial and mixed logit models were used to model preferences within 4 subgroups. Results. In total, 885 MSM joined the survey, completing 4387 choice tasks. The most important attribute for 3 of the 4 subgroups was social media sharing platform. Men were more willing to share messages on sex-seeking mobile applications and less willing to share materials on generic (non-MSM) social media platforms. We found that men with more active online presences were less willing to share HIV testing messages on generic social media platforms. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that sex-seeking platforms represent a targeted, efficient method of actively engaging MSM in public health interventions.

5.Prevalence and Socio-economic Impacts of Malnutrition Among Children in Uganda

Author:Adebisi, YA;Ibrahim, K;Lucero-Prisno, DE;Ekpenyong, A;Micheal, AI;Chinemelum, IG;Sina-Odunsi, AB


Abstract:Malnutrition is one of the common problems that afflict the poor in low- and middle-income countries like Uganda. The rate of decline of malnutrition in the country has been very slow for the last 15 years. This problem is of utmost concern in this era of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in which achieving the goals is imperative. The aim of our study was to review literature on the prevalence and socio-economic impacts of malnutrition among children under 5 in Uganda and provide recommendations to address identified gaps. This review assesses available evidences, including journal articles, country reports, the World Health Organization (WHO) reports, the United Nations International Children's Emergency Funds (UNICEF) reports, and other reports on issues pertaining to malnutrition among children in Uganda. Malnutrition, poverty, and chronic diseases are interconnected in such a way that each of the factors influences the presence and permanence of the other, resulting in a synergistic impact. The prevalence of acute and severe malnutrition among children under 5 is above the World Health Assembly target to reduce and maintain the prevalence under 5%% by 2025. There are also limited studies on etiology of anemia as regards its prevalence in Uganda. The study presents a better understanding of the social and economic impact of child malnutrition on the families and the country's development. The study also strongly suggests that, for Uganda to achieve sustainable development goal 2, financial investments by the government are necessary to address nutrition in the early stages of an individual's life.

6.Studying the Effect of Display Type and Viewing Perspective on User Experience in Virtual Reality Exergames

Author:Xu, WG;Liang, HN;Zhang, ZY;Baghaei, N


Abstract:Background: Physical inactivity has been identified as the fourth leading cause of death globally. It is now well established that a sedentary lifestyle is a unique risk factor for several diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which account for about 30%% of global mortality. Diabetes is a major preventable cause of costly and debilitating renal failure, heart disease, lower limb amputation, and avoidable blindness. In recent years, the idea of using interactive computing systems that leverage gamification to promote physical activity has been widely researched. Prior studies have shown that exergames, that is those that encourage physical activity, can increase enjoyment and intrinsic motivation compared with conventional exercises; as such, they can be effective in promoting physical and mental health. There has been some research on immersive virtual reality (VR) exergames; however, to the best of our knowledge, it is limited and preliminary. This work aims at filling the gap and investigates the effect of display type (DT) and viewing perspective (VP) on players' exertion, engagement, and overall game experience in immersive VR exergames. Objective: This article aims at examining whether DT and VP can affect gameplay performance, players' exertion, game experience, cybersickness, and electroencephalography (EEG) engagement index when playing a gesture-based (i.e., body motion) exergame. Materials and Methods: Study 1 employed a one-way between-subjects design with 24 participants equally distributed in two groups (immersive VR and 50-inch TV) to perform 12 pre-defined gestures. The main outcome measures were National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) workload for each group as well as 7 Likert scale and EEG engagement index for each gesture. Study 2 included 16 participants in playing a game with the gestures selected from study 1. All participants played 4 versions based on combinations of DT (immersive VR and 50-inch TV) and VP (first-person and third-person) to assess exertion (%%HRmax, calories consumption, and Borg RPE 6-20), game experience, cybersickness, and EEG engagement index. Results: Study 1 results showed that DT had no effect on the ratings of the gestures, NASA-TLX workload, and EEG engagement index. Study 2 results showed that immersive VR not only resulted in a significantly higher exertion (%%HRmax, calories consumption, and Borg RPE) but also helped achieve better positive game experience in challenge, flow, sensory and imaginative immersion, as well as lower negative affect. We also found that nausea and oculomotor were significantly higher in immersive VR. Conclusion: This pilot study demonstrates that youth who played gesture-based exergame in immersive VR had a higher level of exertion (%%HRmax, calories consumption, and Borg RPE), although the number of performed gestures were not significantly different. They also felt that immersive VR was much more challenging, immersive (flow, sensory and imaginative immersion), and had a lower negative affect than a 50-inch TV; however, immersive VR was more likely to make youth have higher cybersickness.

7.Toilet plume aerosol generation rate and environmental contamination following bowl water inoculation with Clostridium difficile spores

Author:Aithinne, KAN;Cooper, CW;Lynch, RA;Johnson, DL


Abstract:Introduction: Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of health care-associated gastric illness. Environmental contamination with C difficile spores is a risk factor for contact transmission, and toilet flushing causes such contamination. This work explores toilet contamination persistence and environmental contamination produced over a series of flushes after contamination. Methods: A flushometer toilet was seeded with C difficile spores in a sealed chamber. The toilet was flushed 24 times, with postflush bowl water samples and settle plates periodically collected for culturing and counting. Air samples were collected after each of 12 flushes using rotating plate impactors. Results: Spores were present in bowl water even after 24 flushes. Large droplet spore deposition accumulated over the 24-flush period. Droplet nuclei spore bioaerosol was produced over at least 12 flushes. Conclusions: Toilets contaminated with C difficile spores are a persistent source of environmental contamination over an extended number of flushes. (C) 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

8.Drivers of macroinvertebrate community structure in unmodified streams

Author:Tonkin, JD


Abstract:Often simple metrics are used to summarise complex patterns in stream benthic ecology, thus it is important to understand how well these metrics can explain the finer-scale underlying environmental variation often hidden by coarser-scale influences. I sampled 47 relatively pristine streams in the central North Island of New Zealand in 2007 and (1) evaluated the local-scale drivers of macroinvertebrate community structure as well as both diversity and biomonitoring metrics in this unmodified landscape, and (2) assessed whether these drivers were similar for commonly used univariate metrics andmultivariate structure. The drivers of community metrics andmultivariate structure were largely similar, with%% canopy cover and resource supply metrics the most commonly identified environmental drivers in these pristine streams. For an area with little to no anthropogenic influence, substantial variation was explained in the macroinvertebrate community (up to 70%% on the first two components of a partial least squares regression), with both uni-andmultivariate approaches. This research highlights two important points: (1) the importance of considering natural underlying environmental variation when assessing the response to coarse environmental gradients, and (2) the importance of considering canopy cover presence when assessing the impact of stressors on stream macroinvertebrate communities.

9.DEK over-expression promotes mitotic defects and micronucleus formation

Author:Matrka, MC;Hennigan, RF;Kappes, F;DeLay, ML;Lambert, PF;Aronow, BJ;Wells, SI

Source:CELL CYCLE,2015,Vol.14

Abstract:The DEK gene encodes a nuclear protein that binds chromatin and is involved in various fundamental nuclear processes including transcription, RNA splicing, DNA replication and DNA repair. Several cancer types characteristically over-express DEK at the earliest stages of transformation. In order to explore relevant mechanisms whereby DEK supports oncogenicity, we utilized cancer databases to identify gene transcripts whose expression patterns are tightly correlated with that of DEK. We identified an enrichment of genes involved in mitosis and thus investigated the regulation and possible function of DEK in cell division. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that DEK dissociates from DNA in early prophase and re-associates with DNA during telophase in human keratinocytes. Mitotic cell populations displayed a sharp reduction in DEK protein levels compared to the corresponding interphase population, suggesting DEK may be degraded or otherwise removed from the cell prior to mitosis. Interestingly, DEK overexpression stimulated its own aberrant association with chromatin throughout mitosis. Furthermore, DEK co-localized with anaphase bridges, chromosome fragments, and micronuclei, suggesting a specific association with mitotically defective chromosomes. We found that DEK over-expression in both non-transformed and transformed cells is sufficient to stimulate micronucleus formation. These data support a model wherein normal chromosomal clearance of DEK is required for maintenance of high fidelity cell division and chromosomal integrity. Therefore, the overexpression of DEK and its incomplete removal from mitotic chromosomes promotes genomic instability through the generation of genetically abnormal daughter cells. Consequently, DEK over-expression may be involved in the initial steps of developing oncogenic mutations in cells leading to cancer initiation

10.The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organization

Author:Sadd, BM;Barribeau, SM;Bloch, G;de Graaf, DC;Dearden, P;Elsik, CG;Gadau, J;Grimmelikhuijzen, CJP;Hasselmann, M;Lozier, JD;Robertson, HM;Smagghe, G;Stolle, E;Van Vaerenbergh, M;Waterhouse, RM;Bornberg-Bauer, E;Klasberg, S;Bennett, AK;Caamara, F;Guigo, R;Hoff, K;Mariotti, M;Munoz-Torres, M;Murphy, T;Santesmasses, D;Amdam, GV;Beckers, M;Beye, M;Biewer, M;Bitondi, MMG;Blaxter, ML;Bourke, AFG;Brown, MJF;Buechel, SD;Cameron, R;Cappelle, K;Carolan, JC;Christiaens, O;Ciborowski, KL;Clarke, DF;Colgan, TJ;Collins, DH;Cridge, AG;Dalmay, T;Dreier, S;du Plessis, L;Duncan, E;Erler, S;Evans, J;Falcon, T;Flores, K;Freitas, FCP;Fuchikawa, T;Gempe, T;Hartfelder, K;Hauser, F;Helbing, S;Humann, FC;Irvine, F;Jermiin, LS;Johnson, CE;Johnson, RM;Jones, AK;Kadowaki, T;Kidner, JH;Koch, V;Kohler, A;Kraus, FB;Lattorff, HMG;Leask, M;Lockett, GA;Mallon, EB;Antonio, DSM;Marxer, M;Meeus, I;Moritz, RFA;Nair, A;Napflin, K;Nissen, I;Niu, J;Nunes, FMF;Oakeshott, JG;Osborne, A;Otte, M;Pinheiro, DG;Rossie, N;Rueppell, O;Santos, CG;Schmid-Hempel, R;Schmitt, BD;Schulte, C;Simoes, ZLP;Soares, MPM;Swevers, L;Winnebeck, EC;Wolschin, F;Yu, N;Zdobnov, EM;Aqrawi, PK;Blankenburg, KP;Coyle, M;Francisco, L;Hernandez, AG;Holder, M;Hudson, ME;Jackson, L;Jayaseelan, J;Joshi, V;Kovar, C;Lee, SL;Mata, R;Mathew, T;Newsham, IF;Ngo, R;Okwuonu, G;Pham, C;Pu, LL;Saada, N;Santibanez, J;Simmons, D;Thornton, R;Venkat, A;Walden, KKO;Wu, YQ;Debyser, G;Devreese, B;Asher, C;Blommaert, J;Chipman, AD;Chittka, L;Fouks, B;Liu, J;O'Neill, MP;Sumner, S;Puiu, D;Qu, J;Salzberg, SL;Scherer, SE;Muzny, DM;Richards, S;Robinson, GE;Gibbs, RA;Schmid-Hempel, P;Worley, KC

Source:GENOME BIOLOGY,2015,Vol.16

Abstract:Background: The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality genomic data will inform key aspects of bumblebee biology, including susceptibility to implicated population viability threats. Results: We report the high quality draft genome sequences of Bombus terrestris and Bombus impatiens, two ecologically dominant bumblebees and widely utilized study species. Comparing these new genomes to those of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera and other Hymenoptera, we identify deeply conserved similarities, as well as novelties key to the biology of these organisms. Some honeybee genome features thought to underpin advanced eusociality are also present in bumblebees, indicating an earlier evolution in the bee lineage. Xenobiotic detoxification and immune genes are similarly depauperate in bumblebees and honeybees, and multiple categories of genes linked to social organization, including development and behavior, show high conservation. Key differences identified include a bias in bumblebee chemoreception towards gustation from olfaction, and striking differences in microRNAs, potentially responsible for gene regulation underlying social and other traits. Conclusions: These two bumblebee genomes provide a foundation for post-genomic research on these key pollinators and insect societies. Overall, gene repertoires suggest that the route to advanced eusociality in bees was mediated by many small changes in many genes and processes, and not by notable expansion or depauperation.

11.TRY plant trait database - enhanced coverage and open access

Author:Kattge, J;Bonisch, G;Diaz, S;Lavorel, S;Prentice, IC;Leadley, P;Tautenhahn, S;Werner, GDA;Aakala, T;Abedi, M;Acosta, ATR;Adamidis, GC;Adamson, K;Aiba, M;Albert, CH;Alcantara, JM;Alcazar, CC;Aleixo, I;Ali, H;Amiaud, B;Ammer, C;Amoroso, MM;Anand, M;Anderson, C;Anten, N;Antos, J;Apgaua, DMG;Ashman, TL;Asmara, DH;Asner, GP;Aspinwall, M;Atkin, O;Aubin, I;Baastrup-Spohr, L;Bahalkeh, K;Bahn, M;Baker, T;Baker, WJ;Bakker, JP;Baldocchi, D;Baltzer, J;Banerjee, A;Baranger, A;Barlow, J;Barneche, DR;Baruch, Z;Bastianelli, D;Battles, J;Bauerle, W;Bauters, M;Bazzato, E;Beckmann, M;Beeckman, H;Beierkuhnlein, C;Bekker, R;Belfry, G;Belluau, M;Beloiu, M;Benavides, R;Benomar, L;Berdugo-Lattke, ML;Berenguer, E;Bergamin, R;Bergmann, J;Carlucci, MB;Berner, L;Bernhardt-Romermann, M;Bigler, C;Bjorkman, AD;Blackman, C;Blanco, C;Blonder, B;Blumenthal, D;Bocanegra-Gonzalez, KT;Boeckx, P;Bohlman, S;Bohning-Gaese, K;Boisvert-Marsh, L;Bond, W;Bond-Lamberty, B;Boom, A;Boonman, CCF;Bordin, K;Boughton, EH;Boukili, V;Bowman, DMJS;Bravo, S;Brendel, MR;Broadley, MR;Brown, KA;Bruelheide, H;Brumnich, F;Bruun, HH;Bruy, D;Buchanan, SW;Bucher, SF;Buchmann, N;Buitenwerf, R;Bunker, DE;Burger, J;Burrascano, S;Burslem, DFRP;Butterfield, BJ;Byun, C;Marques, M;Scalon, MC;Caccianiga, M;Cadotte, M;Cailleret, M;Camac, J;Camarero, JJ;Campany, C;Campetella, G;Campos, JA;Cano-Arboleda, L;Canullo, R;Carbognani, M;Carvalho, F;Casanoves, F;Castagneyrol, B;Catford, JA;Cavender-Bares, J;Cerabolini, BEL;Cervellini, M;Chacon-Madrigal, E;Chapin, K;Chapin, FS;Chelli, S;Chen, SC;Chen, AP;Cherubini, P;Chianucci, F;Choat, B;Chung, KS;Chytry, M;Ciccarelli, D;Coll, L;Collins, CG;Conti, L;Coomes, D;Cornelissen, JHC;Cornwell, WK;Corona, P;Coyea, M;Craine, J;Craven, D;Cromsigt, JPGM;Csecserits, A;Cufar, K;Cuntz, M;da Silva, AC;Dahlin, KM;Dainese, M;Dalke, I;Dalle Fratte, M;Anh, TDL;Danihelka, J;Dannoura, M;Dawson, S;de Beer, AJ;De Frutos, A;De Long, JR;Dechant, B;Delagrange, S;Delpierre, N;Derroire, G;Dias, AS;Diaz-Toribio, MH;Dimitrakopoulos, PG;Dobrowolski, M;Doktor, D;Drevojan, P;Dong, N;Dransfield, J;Dressler, S;Duarte, L;Ducouret, E;Dullinger, S;Durka, W;Duursma, R;Dymova, O;E-Vojtko, A;Eckstein, RL;Ejtehadi, H;Elser, J;Emilio, T;Engemann, K;Erfanian, MB;Erfmeier, A;Esquivel-Muelbert, A;Esser, G;Estiarte, M;Domingues, TF;Fagan, WF;Fagundez, J;Falster, DS;Fan, Y;Fang, JY;Farris, E;Fazlioglu, F;Feng, YH;Fernandez-Mendez, F;Ferrara, C;Ferreira, J;Fidelis, A;Finegan, B;Firn, J;Flowers, TJ;Flynn, DFB;Fontana, V;Forey, E;Forgiarini, C;Francois, L;Frangipani, M;Frank, D;Frenette-Dussault, C;Freschet, GT;Fry, EL;Fyllas, NM;Mazzochini, GG;Gachet, S;Gallagher, R;Ganade, G;Ganga, F;Garcia-Palacios, P;Gargaglione, V;Garnier, E;Garrido, JL;de Gasper, AL;Gea-Izquierdo, G;Gibson, D;Gillison, AN;Giroldo, A;Glasenhardt, MC;Gleason, S;Gliesch, M;Goldberg, E;Goldel, B;Gonzalez-Akre, E;Gonzalez-Andujar, JL;Gonzalez-Melo, A;Gonzalez-Robles, A;Graae, BJ;Granda, E;Graves, S;Green, WA;Gregor, T;Gross, 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Abstract:Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.
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