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1.The dual effects of home country institutions on the internationalization of private firms in emerging markets Evidence from China

Author:Li, FR;Ding, D


Abstract:Purpose - This study aims to examine the dual effects of home country institutional forces (i.e. institutional support and institutional constraints) on the internationalization of private firms in emerging markets. By doing so, this study aims to examine the applicability of the two seemingly paradoxical views (i.e. the governmental promotion view and the institutional escapism view) in explaining private firms' internationalization. Further, this study investigates how the effect of the home country institutional environment on firms' internationalization is contingent upon firm characteristics. Design/methodology/approach - A sample of Chinese private firms is used to examine the effect of home country institutions on internationalization. Findings - Empirical findings suggest that both institutional support and institutional constraints promote the internationalization of private firms in emerging markets. Moreover, it is found that firm resources strengthen the effect of government support on internationalization. It is also found that firms' business ties strengthen the effect of institutional constraint on internationalization, whereas firms' political ties weaken the effect of institutional constraints on internationalization. Originality/value - By adopting an integrated and comprehensive investigation of the dual effects of home country institutional environment in emerging markets on internationalization, this study provides evidence to the applicability of the two competing views (i.e. the governmental promotion view and the institutional escapism view) in relation to home country institutional effects on internationalization. In addition, this study examines how institutional effects vary across firms with different resources and social ties, thus extends understandings of the boundary conditions of the two institutional effects.

2.Treatment for HIV prevention study in southwestern areas of China

Author:Chen, HH;Yang, XY;Zhu, QY;Wu, XH;Chen, L;Lu, HX;Luo, LH;Lan, GH;Ge, XM;Tang, ZZ;Shen, ZY;Pan, SW;Xing, H;Ruan, YH;Shao, YM;Yang, WM


Abstract:Background: China has ambitious to achieve significant reductions in HIV transmission and HIV-related mortality by adopting the World Health Organization's "Treat All" approach. Such a prevention strategy is needed future study on regional scale. Methods: An observational cohort study of HIV epidemiology and treatment databases was used to study the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy on the transmission of HIV in serodiscordant couples in Guangxi of China. Results: A total of 7713 couples were entered into the cohort study analysis which included 1885 couples in the treatment-naive cohort and 5828 couples in the treated cohort. During the follow-up of 18985.29 person-years from 2003 to 2014, the average incidence of HIV was 2.4 per 100 person-years (95%% CI 2.1-2.6). HIV seroincidence rate was significantly higher among the treatment naive group (4.2 per 100 person-years, 3.7-4.8) compared with the on treatment group (1.6 per 100 person-years, 1.3-1.8). An overall 45%% reduction in risk of HIV transmission among serodiscordant couple was associated with ART treatment (adjusted Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.55, 95%% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.44-0.69). Treatment prevention had significantly effectiveness for most baseline characteristics of index partners, such as for male, female, age above 25 years, education below high school, farmer, infected by heterosexual intercourse. Conclusion: Treatment-as-prevention can be implemented in the real-world on a national or regional scale, but ART adherence and comprehensive harm reduction while implementing this strategy require further study. (C) 2018 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd.

3.A history of design institutes in China: from Mao to market

Author:Han, JW


4.Implementation of CIM-related technologies within transportation projects

Author:Guo, FY;Jahren, CT;Hao, JL;Zhang, C


Abstract:Technologies are continuously evolving and transportation agencies are always trying to find appropriate technologies to assist with their projects. However, it might be hard to answer what technologies and tools are appropriate for them to use and when to use those technologies and tools. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate leading transportation agencies' uses of various advanced technologies (e.g. geographic information system (GIS), light detecting and ranging (LiDAR), 3D engineered models, automatic machine guidance (AMG), mobile devices, intelligent compaction (IC), and electronic document management (EDM) system). Based on the 2 weeks of on-site visits to seven transportation agencies, benefits and lessons learned of using these technologies are summarized in the paper. Additionally, a framework is developed to suggest the proper occasions to use various technologies and manage the resulting data throughout the lifecycle of a transportation project.

5.Implications of Sino-Japanese Rivalry in High-Speed Railways for Southeast Asia

Author:Pavlicevic, D;Kratz, A

Source:EAST ASIAN POLICY,2017,Vol.9

Abstract:China and Japan are intensively vying for high-speed rail markets in Southeast Asia. Focusing on the developments surrounding the bid for Indonesia's first high-speed rail project from Jakarta to Bandung, this paper investigates Japan and China's relative strategies, and considers the policy options available to ASEAN to manage the risks rooted in Sino-Japanese competition in the sector.

6.Editorial for the special issue on modern aspects of financial engineering

Author:Goncu, A


7.Chinese EFL academics' perceptions of research quality: a phenomenological study

Author:Xie, JM;Postlethwaite, K


Abstract:This paper explores how Chinese academics, working in the field of English as Foreign Language Education in universities in China, conceptualise research quality. The paper uses a phenomenological approach and four qualitative methods (survey, interview, focus groups and document analysis) to investigate what a sample of these scholars perceive as high-quality research. We found that the participants viewed quality through various lenses and identified several different criteria. We categorised their elaboration of the criteria under three headings: methodology, contextualisation and impact. The participants nominated many general criteria that were similar to western standards of research quality, especially in relation to methodology; however, some contextual criteria were specific to the Chinese context. The paper indicates that there is much in the university research community that could be altered to enable people who are directly involved in research to disseminate their criteria for research quality, and potentially to affect and develop the quality of educational research in the Chinese context, and/or elsewhere.

8.Urban regeneration in the context of 'New Urbanisation': the case of Xietang Old Street, Suzhou Industrial Park, China

Author:Zhong, S


Abstract:Taking an unassuming case in Suzhou, China, this research examines approaches, strategies and outcomes of recent 'exemplary' regeneration practice in China. It answers the question whether the neo-liberal approaches of the old model have been transcended to honour human-centrality and sustainability in line with 'New Urbanisation principles. Based on surveys, in-depth interviews, a focus group and archival studies, the research finds that the incorporation of social policies into regeneration strategies by the local state, despite achievements in housing and welfare provision, has not helped to transform the top-down and non-participative nature of the old regeneration model.

9.Sharing food photographs on social media: performative Xiaozi lifestyle in Young, middle-class Chinese urbanites' WeChat 'Moments'

Author:Peng, YZ

Source:SOCIAL IDENTITIES,2019,Vol.25

Abstract:Sharing food photographs on social media is on the rise. This act has become increasingly popular in younger generation urban Chinese users' everyday use of WeChat, the popular social media application. In this article, I argue that self-presentation provides an angle to understand aspects of young, middle-class urbanites' food-photograph sharing. This article comprises an eight-month project, conducting netnographic research of 16 young, middle-class Chinese urbanites' WeChat usage. Through the netnographic research, I discovered that, by displaying geotagged snapshots of food, these young urbanites disclose their everyday consumer experience in particular urban spaces. Aspects of this practice feed into these urbanites' performance of Xiaozi tastes, facilitating the self-presentation of their class distinction. The outcomes of the research provide a glimpse into the interplay between post-reform consumerism, Xiaozi lifestyle, and social media usage in the urban, middle-class Chinese younger generation's everyday lives.

10.Does an institutional factor influence corporate environmental strategy? Looking through the Guanxi lens

Author:Cao, XW;Quazi, A


Abstract:Purpose - This paper aims to illustrate how institutional factors, such as Guanxi (connectedness) mechanism in a transition economy, could impact managerial cognition and their temporal orientation at individual level as well as induced change on corporate environmental strategy (CES). More specifically, this paper explores the micro foundation of corporate strategy change in an attempt to examine how corporate strategic choice and actions evolve with managerial cognition of "Guanxi" with various temporal orientations. Design/methodology/approach - The paper reviews the extant literature focusing on Guanxi and CES with special attention to the temporal orientation in strategy formulation. A conceptual framework is proposed to analyze the underlying mechanism of Guanxi in mediating and shaping CES. A multi-case study with four companies operating in two industry sectors were investigated considering their relative long foothold as well as their different postures and dynamic change of corporate environment strategy in the past decades. Findings - The findings support recent critiques on the likely shift in strategic choice of firms from the traditional Guanxi- based to a rule-based format. The interactions between entrepreneurial cognition and strategic activities toward environmental issues were still influenced by deep relational embeddedness. The findings proved that managerial Guanxi cognition impacts managers' temporal orientation and their strategic choice on CES. Foreign-invested enterprises in the process of localization face the potential risk of emerging backdrop of their CES, i.e. from more active strategy to more reactive strategic posture, whereas local private-owned enterprises show a transformation from reactor to follower and even pioneer in the wave of those entrepreneurs' changing cognition on the role of Guanxi in their businesses. Research limitations/implications - One main limitation of the study is the lacking of quantitative measurement of corporate environment performance. Although the paper used multiple cases to explore the dynamics of Guanxi on impacting CES, only with further development of effective scale measurement to test corporate environment performance can increase the explaining power of the proposed theoretical model in this study. It is important to note that with data of longitudinal measurement of corporate environment performance, it would be more convincing to show the outcome of the temporal lens of Guanxi on CES. However, the lacking availability of qualified disclosed data on indicating corporate environment performance constrains another limitation for the study. Considering the complexity of corporate environment strategy, the focus cases in the paper might still lack powerful and convincing illustration to prove the impact of Guanxi on CES despite the enriched contextual data and description. It is necessary to conduct deeper analysis to exclude the impact of other possible factors on CES to highlight the direct impact of Guanxi on CES. Practical implications - The results of the in-depth analysis and interpretation of the exploration of the cases suggest that Guanxi still seems to dominate managerial thinking process as the norm is deeply rooted in their mind sets. However, Guanxi is no longer considered as a mere reactive cultural norm rather a positive mechanism through which Chinese firms can achieve their sustainable environmental strategic goals as well as economies prosperity in the rapidly competitive business landscape in modern China. Originality/value - Previous research on CES largely neglected the context factors. This paper presents a conceptual model to deepen our understanding of the contextual factor of Guanxi with a temporal perspective and its consequent influence on CES. This helps policy makers as well as strategic management researchers and academics to reconsider the mechanism of adaptation and selection in shaping CES in the event of large scale institutional change.

11.EAP and Occupations

Author:Bin, Z;Cheng, C;Hsu, WC

Source:JOURNAL OF ASIA TEFL,2017,Vol.14

12.Cortisol level dysregulation and its prevalence-Is it nature's alarm clock?

Author:Jones, C;Gwenin, C


Abstract:This review examines the stress hormone cortisol which plays an important role in regulating and supporting different bodily functions. Disruption in cortisol production has an impact on health and this review looks at a wide range of papers where cortisol has been indicated as a factor in numerous chronic conditions-especially those which are classed as "noncommunicable diseases" (NCDs). Timely detection, screening, and treatment for NCDs are vital to address the growing problem of NCDs worldwide-this would have health and socioeconomic benefits. Interestingly, many of the papers highlight the pro-inflammatory consequences of cortisol dysregulation and its deleterious effects on the body. This is particularly relevant given the recent findings concerning COVID-19 where pro-inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in severe inflammation.

13.Voluntary Disclosure of Internal Control Weakness and Earnings Quality: Evidence From China

Author:Ji, XD;Lu, W;Qu, W


Abstract:Using a sample of 1059 listed firms that voluntarily provide internal control reports in the period 2010-2011, this paper investigates the relationship between voluntary disclosure of internal control weaknesses (ICWs) and earnings quality in China. Our results show that earnings quality, measured by absolute discretionary accruals, is significantly associated with voluntary disclosure of ICWs. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that both accounting-related and non-accounting-related ICWs affect earnings quality. This study contributes to the internal control literature by extending the evidence for ICW disclosure to an emerging economy and examining the impact of disclosure of different types of ICWs on earnings quality. This study demonstrates that the control of non-accounting-related ICWs is critical for enterprise risk management. (C) 2017 University of Illinois. All rights reserved.

14.Embracing integrated watershed revitalization in Suzhou, China: learning from global case studies

Author:Kim, JS;Batey, PWJ;Fan, YT;Zhong, S


Abstract:Suzhou is China's historic water town, and a sustainable approach to watershed revitalization is firmly on the agenda. The practice of integrated watershed management requires collaborative planning involving a significant number of stakeholders; no single organization can solve the problems of ecosystem management unilaterally. The changing social-political environment in China has led to the development of a new form of governance. China is in transition from the traditional government image of a regulator and a controller towards an enabler that facilitates provision and action by, and through, others. Global case studies show that sustainability issues are essential to tackling watershed ecosystem management by creating a win-win strategy for wider stakeholders. Viewed from an institutional perspective, the emergence of a new collaborative partnership model requires a different implementation process to tackle practical problems in the face of complex watershed agendas. Drawing upon global and China's experiences, the paper concludes that some planning processes require government leadership continuity, while others need bottom-up approaches.

15.Smart Cities: Introducing Digital Innovation to Cities

Author:Kim, JS


16.Asymmetric Loss and the Rationality of Inflation Forecasts: Evidence from South Korea

Author:Ahn, YB;Tsuchiya, Y


Abstract:We examine asymmetry in the loss functions of South Korean consumers' and the Bank of Korea's (BOK) inflation forecasts, and test the rationality of these forecasts under the assumption of a possible asymmetric loss function. Under an asymmetric loss function, we find evidence of asymmetry and support for rationality. We also examine whether the BOK's forecasts incorporate respective forecasts and consensus forecasts efficiently. They broadly use available information efficiently, and their results are robust to inflation-targeting measures and the recent global financial crisis. However, our results suggest that the information efficiency of the BOK's forecasts for consumers was affected during the period 2007-2008.

17.Dynamic interaction between higher education and economic progress: a comparative analysis of BRICS countries

Author:Chang, V;Chen, Y;Xiong, C


Abstract:Purpose The purpose of this paper is to gain a deeper insight on how education boosts economic progress in key emerging economies. This project is aimed at exploring the interactive dynamics between the tertiary education sector and economic development in BRICS countries. The author also aims to examine how the structure of higher education contributes to economic expansion. Design/methodology/approach The author uses the time series data of BRICS countries across approximately two decades to determine the statistical causality between the size of tertiary enrollment and economic development. The linear regression model is then used to figure out the different impact levels of academic and vocational training programs at the tertiary level to economic development. Findings Data from all BRICS countries exhibited a unidirectional statistical causality relationship, except the Brazilian data. The national economic expansion Granger Caused increased tertiary enrollment in Russia and India, while in China and South Africa, higher education enrollment Granger Caused economic progress. The impact from tertiary academic training is found to be positive for all BRICS nations, while tertiary vocation training is shown to have impaired the Russian and South African economy. Research limitations/implications This project is based on a rather small sample size, and the stationary feature of the time series could be different should a larger pool of data spanning a longer period of time is used. In addition, the author also neglects other control variables in the regression model. Therefore, the impact level could be distorted due to possible omitted variable bias. Practical implications Tertiary academic study is found to have a larger impact level to all countries' economic advancement, except for China, during the time frame studied. There is a statistical correlation between the education and economic progress. This is particularly true for BRICS countries, especially China. But the exception is Brazil. Social implications The government should provide education up to the certain level, as there is a direct correlation to the job creation and economic progress. Furthermore, the government should also work closely with industry to ensure growth of industry and creation of new jobs. Originality/value The comparative analysis and evaluation of the dynamic interaction of tertiary enrollment and economic output across all five BRICS nations is unique, and it deepens the understanding of the socioeconomic development in these countries from a holistic management perspective.

18.Predicting Position of a Functional Target from an External Marker in Radiotherapy

Author:Uzupyte, R;Man, KL;Krilavicius, T;Zliobaite, I;Simonavicius, H


Abstract:The main goal of radiotherapy is to destroy the tumor while minimizing harm to nearby healthy tissue. Advances in the digital control have enabled planning and performing accurate treatments. However, todays technology is unable to compensate respiration induced motion, and therefore, ensure sufficient precision. One of the tasks in compensating respiratory motion is predicting position of the functional target ( tumor) from an external marker during fraction. Performance of techniques, such as Pearson correlation, Gaussian filters, Fourries transformation, cross correlation, linear interpolation and partial-least squares, still leave plenty space for the improvement. We reports results of work in progress, i.e. experiments of applying different types of regressions to predict motion of functional target from different external markers. Results seem to be promising in most of the cases.

19.From Intrusion Detection to an Intrusion Response System: Fundamentals, Requirements, and Future Directions

Author:Anwar, S;Zain, JM;Zolkipli, MF;Inayat, Z;Khan, S;Anthony, B;Chang, V


Abstract:In the past few decades, the rise in attacks on communication devices in networks has resulted in a reduction of network functionality, throughput, and performance. To detect and mitigate these network attacks, researchers, academicians, and practitioners developed Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) with automatic response systems. The response system is considered an important component of IDS, since without a timely response IDSs may not function properly in countering various attacks, especially on a real-time basis. To respond appropriately, IDSs should select the optimal response option according to the type of network attack. This research study provides a complete survey of IDSs and Intrusion Response Systems (IRSs) on the basis of our in-depth understanding of the response option for different types of network attacks. Knowledge of the path from IDS to IRS can assist network administrators and network staffs in understanding how to tackle different attacks with state-of-the-art technologies.

20.Input allocation in multi-output settings: Nonparametric robust efficiency measurements

Author:Walheer, B


Abstract:Comparing decision making units to detect their potential efficiency improvement, without relying on parametric unverifiable assumptions about the production process, is the goal of nonparametric efficiency analysis (such as FDH, DEA). While such methods have demonstrated their practical usefulness, practitioners sometimes have doubts about their fairness. In multi-output settings, two main limitations could give credit to their doubts: (1) the production process is modelled as a ?black box,? i.e., it is implicitly assumed that all the inputs produce simultaneously all the outputs; (2) only techniques investigating for outliers in all output directions simultaneously exist. In this article, we tackle these two limitations by presenting two new nonparametric robust efficiency measurements for multi-output settings. Our new measurements present several attractive features. First, they increase the realism of the modelling by taking the links between inputs and outputs into account, and thus tackle (1). Second, they provide flexibility in the outlier detection exercise, and thus also tackle (2). Overall, our new measurements better use the data available, and can be seen as natural extensions of well-known nonparametric robust efficiency measurements for multi-output contexts. To demonstrate the usefulness of our method, we propose both a simulation and an empirical application.
Total 309 results found
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