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1.The implied arbitrage mechanism in financial markets

Author:Chen, SY;Chng, MT;Liu, QF


Abstract:The no-arbitrage condition is a cornerstone concept in financial market research. However, the arbitrage mechanism that is inherent in the trading process for related securities, is not readily observable. We develop a generalized smooth-transition vector error-correction model, or GST-VECM, to estimate the arbitrage mechanism from financial market data. The GST-VECM can (i) back out the implied no-arbitrage band, (ii) estimate arbitrage intensity for upper and lower bound violations, and (iii) accommodate convergence risk for statistical arbitrage. Using the introduction of CSI300 ETF trading in China as a natural experiment, we estimate the GST-VECM to reveal some insight into how a microstructural policy, by altering the index arbitrage mechanism, affects the pricing link between spot and futures markets. (c) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2.Design of an Interactive Classroom with Bullet Screen Function in University Teaching

Author:Yang, R;Zhou, C;Huang, MJ;Wen, HQ;Liang, HN


Abstract:Classroom interaction is an important part of teaching which can greatly enhance the learning performance of students. However, the following problems still exist in conducting interactive teaching in conventional classroom, such as limited interaction format, lack of enthusiasm and unequal interaction frequency. As a widely adopted interactive tool in online video websites, the bullet screen is instant and convenient with high interactivity, which is extremely popular among the young generation such as university undergraduate students. In this paper, a software platform is designed to collect the bullet screen messages generated by students in classroom and display them instantly together with teaching materials such as lecture slides via projector, which can be later collected for teaching and learning performance analysis. This paper aims to propose a possible solution of the mentioned problems to construct a convenient and efficient interactive classroom to improve the teaching quality.

3.Corpora for document-level neural machine translation


Source:LREC 2020 - 12th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, Conference Proceedings,2020,Vol.

Abstract:Instead of translating sentences in isolation, document-level machine translation aims to capture discourse dependencies across sentences by considering a document as a whole. In recent years, there have been more interests in modelling larger context for the state-of-the-art neural machine translation (NMT). Although various document-level NMT models have shown significant improvements, there nonetheless exist three main problems: 1) compared with sentence-level translation tasks, the data for training robust document-level models are relatively low-resourced; 2) experiments in previous work are conducted on their own datasets which vary in size, domain and language; 3) proposed approaches are implemented on distinct NMT architectures such as recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and self-attention networks (SANs). In this paper, we aim to alleviate the low-resource and under-universality problems for document-level NMT. First, we collect a large number of existing document-level corpora, which covers 7 language pairs and 6 domains. In order to address resource sparsity, we construct a novel document parallel corpus in Chinese-Portuguese, which is a non-English-centred and low-resourced language pair. Besides, we implement and evaluate the commonly-cited document-level method on top of the advanced Transformer model with universal settings. Finally, we not only demonstrate the effectiveness and universality of document-level NMT, but also release the preprocessed data, source code and trained models for comparison and reproducibility.

4.Application of Robotic Technologies for the Fabrication Of Traditional Chinese Timber Joints

Author:Zhao, JY;Lombardi, D;Agkathidis, A


Abstract:The traditional Chinese building design was influenced by the climate and the sociogeographical conditions of the different regions in China. They were usually constructed out of wood relying on timber-joint based construction systems. Amongst the wide variety of the structural elements, the Dougong (bucket arch) is one of the most common components of traditional wooden framework buildings, presenting a high level of complexity. Parametric design and robotic technology enable new possibilities regarding its fabrication and application in contemporary architecture. Our paper will explore how the Dougong components could be reinvented through the use of parametric tools and robotic fabrication methods and thus applied to contemporary architectural structures. We will analyse and compare the properties of the original Dougong with the reinvented unit by using finite element analysis and digital optimization tools. Our findings will provide an insight into the traditional construction principles of the joint and how these can inform a design and fabrication framework for its application in contemporary buildings.

5.Smart Contracts for Decentralised Building Information Modelling

Author:Dounas, T;Jabi, W;Lombardi, D


Abstract:The paper presents a model for decentralizing building information modelling, through implementing its infrastructure using the decentralized web. We discuss the shortcomings of BIM in terms of its infrastructure, with a focus on tracing identities of design authorship in this collective design tool. In parallel we examine the issues with BIM in the cloud and propose a decentralized infrastructure based on the Ethereum blockchain and the Interplanetary filesystem (IPFS). A series of computing nodes, that act as nodes on the Ethereum Blockchain, host disk storage with which they participate in a larger storage pool on the Interplanetary Filesystem. This storage is made available through an API is used by architects and designers creating and editing a building information model that resides on the IPFS decentralised storage. Through this infrastructure central servers are eliminated, and BIM libraries and models can be shared with others in an immutable and transparent manner. As such Architecture practices are able to exploit their intellectual property in novel ways, by making it public on the internet. The infrastructure also allows the decentralised creation of a resilient global pool of data that allows the participation of computation agents in the creation and simulation of BIM models.

6.Reflective Practice: Lessons Learnt by Using Board Games as a Design Tool for Location-Based Games

Author:Jones, C;Papangelis, K


Abstract:Location-based gaming (LBG) apps present many challenges to the design process. They have very different requirements compared to games that are aspatial in nature. They take place in the wild and this brings unique challenges to the practicalities of their design. There is a need to balance the core game play with the spatial requirements of location-aware technologies as well as considering the overall theme and objectives of the game together with the motivations and behaviours of players. We reflect upon this balancing act and explore an approach to creative paper prototyping through the medium of board games to co-design LBG requirements. We examine two case studies of location-based games with different goals. The first case study discusses the CrossCult Pilot 4 app built to trigger reflection on historical stories through thoughtful play. Whilst the second case study uses the City Conquerer app designed and played in Suzhou, China with a view to exploring notions of territoriality. The paper considers how spatial, social and interaction metaphors are used to simulate location-based games in a board game and discusses the lessons learned when transforming the paper game into a digital prototype. It forms part of a thinking by doing approach. By comparing the board games to the technical counterparts, we consider how effective are the features and activities implemented in the technology prototypes. We propose a set of 11 design constraints that developers must be mindful of when transitioning from paper to digital prototypes.

7.Multi-Objective Optimization for Daylight Retrofit

Author:De Luca, F;Wortmann, T


Abstract:In sustainable building design, daylight improves occupants' wellbeing and reduces electric lighting use, but glazed areas can increase energy consumption for heating and cooling. Conflicting objectives such as daylight and energy consumption are the primary motivation behind multi-objective optimization. This paper presents the multi-objective optimization problem of maximizing daylight availability and minimizing whole energy consumption for the daylight retrofit of Tallinn University of Technology assembly hall, currently windowless. We present benchmark results of six different multi-objective algorithms and analyze the solutions on the best-known Pareto front. The majority of the analyzed solutions allow for adequate daylight provision of the building without additional energy consumption. Results of daylight and energy simulations for the analyzed solutions, are presented and discussed.

8.Aerodynamic Shape Optimization for High-Rise Conceptual Design Integrating and validating parametric design, (fast) fluid dynamics, structural analysis and optimization

Author:Zhang, R;Waibel, C;Wortmann, T


Abstract:Using an integrated workflow with parametric design, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) and Fast Fluid Dynamic (FFD) simulations, structural analysis and optimization, this paper evaluates the relative suitability of CFD and FFD simulations for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization (ASO). Specifically, it applies RBFOpt, a model-based optimization algorithm, to the ASO of a supertall high-rise. The paper evaluates the accuracy of the CFD and FDD simulations relative to a slower, more exact CFD simulation, and the performance of the model-based optimization algorithm relative to CMA-ES, an evolutionary algorithm. We conclude that FFD is useful for relative comparisons, such as for optimization, but less accurate than CFD in terms of absolute quantities. Although results tend to be similar, CMA-ES performs less well than RBFOpt for both large and small numbers of simulations, and for both CFD and FFD. RBFOpt with FFD emerges as the most suitable method for conceptual design, as it is much faster and only slightly less effective than RBFOpt with CFD.

9.Investor protection and the value impact of stock liquidity

Author:Huang, T;Wu, F;Yu, J;Zhang, BH


Abstract:This paper investigates the effect of investor protection on the value impact of stock liquidity. Using a sample of firms from 40 countries for the period between 1996 and 2010, we show that investor protection is positively associated with the value impact of stock liquidity. This association is robust to the difference-in-differences approach based on a natural experiment. Further evidence shows that the positive effect of home-country investor protection on the liquidity-valuation association attenuates in countries with globally integrated capital markets.

10.Architectural Design Optimization-Results from a User Survey

Author:Wortmann, T


Abstract:Although there is a substantial body of academic literature on Architectural Design Optimization (ADO), not much is known about actual ADO practices. This paper presents results from a user study of ADO in Grasshopper and compares them with previous studies. Compared to these studies, this anonymous, web-based survey employed a more relevant sample in that all eighteen respondents actually use ADO and in that they represent a mix of students, academics, and professionals. The survey's results highlight the importance of supporting meaningful selections from and better understandings of optimization results and question the ADO literatures' emphasis on evolutionary, multi-objective optimization algorithms. They thus guide future research and development on ADO tools and ultimately contribute to the design of a more resource- and energy-efficient built environment.

11.Collaborative Public Space in China: Two Waterfront Projects, Shanghai and Suzhou

Author:Hoskyns, T


Abstract:This paper discusses public space in China and explores how theories of public space can be applied to two waterfront projects. As case studies the paper compares two public waterfront projects: The 18 km Jinji Lake project in Suzhou and the 45km Huangpu River waterfront project in Shanghai, both completed in 2018. The Jinji lake development in the heart of Suzhou designed by EDAW later AECOM also boasts inclusive 2 4 / 7 access and people centered design. Democratic theory is commonly used in the West to discuss public space however Limin Hee argues that the discourse as understood in the western democratic tradition is not adequate for Asian cities (Hee, 2017). Constructing Singapore Public Space, Springer) This paper finds that although the idea of public space in China is argued to be an evolving concept (Gaubatz, 2008, pp 72-83), notions of democratic participation, Human Centered Design (HCD) and place-making methods are central development policy in Chinese cities. Whereas terms like vibrancy and vitality are commonly used by scholars to evaluate and discuss public space in China, rather than democratic theory, theories from western scholars such as Habermas's theory of the public sphere are also relevant and collaborative practices between civil society and the state are key to the participatory nature of Chinese public space.

12.'Global modernity' in China and France: Flattening boundaries between Foreign Brandscapes & Regional Urban Heritage

Author:Troiani, I


Abstract:This paper studies transnational architecture and 'global modernity' through the reading of two photographs of foreign, iconic buildings in China and France. The first photograph by Hufton + Crow (2012) is of the Galaxy SOHO in Beijing by the Iraqi-born, British architect, Zaha Hadid Architect (ZHA) in collaboration with the state-owned Chinese BIAD (Beijing Institute of Architecture and Design). The landmark, futurist ZHA building looks to have gobbled up the local urban heritage around it. The second photograph by Marc Petitjean taken in 1975 is of the Pompidou Centre in Paris under-construction and was designed by Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano with Gianfranco Franchini. In front of the Pompidou Centre is Gordon Matta-Clark's Conical Intersect (1975) contained within a row of soon-to-be demolished 17th century town houses. Both the Galaxy SOHO and the Centre Pompidou are examples of transnational architecture where foreign architects crossing new global market frontiers, design landmark buildings at the expense of local heritage. They show how the rise in image culture tied to capitalism - through global branding and brandscapes - and promoted by 'governmentality' nurtures a culture of producing and consuming foreign architecture to redefine the image of nation state. The paper discusses how globalisation 'flattens' regionalism for modernisation. Foreign architects working on transnational architecture and their clients have an ethical responsibility to resist 'cultural [architectural] imperialism' (including the visual allure of the West as the alpha culture) and should instead engage deeply with regional and domestic urban values, typologies, scales and traditions to be critical of global capitalism.

13.A Cross-disciplinary Approach to BIM-based Facade Design for Wind Performance

Author:Kwong, CY;Herr, CM;Kreaikas, T


Abstract:This paper examines a cross-disciplinary approach to a high-rise facade design proposal for Hong Kong where the initial architectural design concept provides a negotiable boundary for an architectural engineering design process. A crucial aspect of this process is the consideration of high wind loads on the facade, as they frequently occur in Hong Kong due to regularly occurring typhoons. Design for wind performance is typically outside of the expertise of architectural designers and thus requires close collaboration between architects and structural engineers. Conventionally trained structural engineers may however not be accustomed to work with unusual building form or to consider architectural design ideas as part of engineering proposals. In the context of this paper, building information modeling (BIM) is used to facilitate cross-disciplinary dialogue as well as interdisciplinary workflows during the early design stages.

14.Watching and Being Watched: Gender and Space in the Painting of the Qianlong Emperor's Southern Inspection Tour with a Comparative View

Author:Wang, YZ


Abstract:This article explores the female space in the painting of Qianlong Southern Inspection Tour, which depicts the daily life and activities of the eighteenth-century Chinese city Suzhou. From the observation of the painting, there are semi-open spaces along the streets in which females stand and watch the imperial parade. Women tended to be invisible in the public circumstance during feudal periods: this research analyses the presence and role of these female spaces and whether they can be seen as a step towards the modern space in the process of early-modern China. In analyzing these spaces, it focuses on the relation between the women's watching and being watched in the space, and how it represents the evolution of feminism consciousness in space in feudal times and, sequentially, how it evokes the consideration of feminist role in modern practice. The study shows that the semi-open space that hosts the female activities can be regarded as an epitome of negotiating space and gender in the urban context. Women in the painting were exposed to the public to a certain extent, while they were still within mental and physical boundaries in the female social structure of the Emperor Qianlong period. These negotiations indicate the transition of gender and space in the late Imperial China and present parts of the process of spatial modernization in the Jiangnan region. From the comparative perspective, this research further investigates the relationships of gender and space by focusing on the space along the streets in the Qianlong Southern Inspection Tour, located within the homogenous space of the Riverside Scene at Qingming Festival of Ming dynasty seen Canaletto's paintings of eighteenth-century Europe and Dianshi Zhai's pictorials of the late Qing period. The research traces space in these paintings and how it represents the feminism consciousness and the evolution of female space in different historical and cultural backgrounds by looking at the social relations of the production of the specific history of people's daily lives and the differences of social classes and nations.

15.The Possibility of Teaching Chinese Students of Architecture to Write (A House)

Author:Berstrand, T


Abstract:Writing, as the projection of a building, is integral to the discipline of architecture. In the specification, the architect describes the edifice from inside out so that it may materialise in accordance with the plan drawn up. There are other kinds of writing too, if not the writing of a house itself - a paper house built from words without even folding the surface of its flat ground. I propose to write this house by moving four times around my chosen site - an A4 sheet of white paper. Four times because tracing the contours of this field means turning a corner four times. Two times two, because when turning the paper itself, the writing splits across one side and the other. One times four, because writing a hole in the centre allows me to peep through this central void to charge the whole structure from within. And if, by then, the boundary of the site also splits, then a space will emerge between its double lines and I will have arrived in a new location - possibly a new kind of house. Can I write this house?

16.Energy Modelling and Retrofit of the Residential Building Stock of Jiangsu Province

Author:Cimillo, M;Calcerano, F;Chen, X;Chow, D;Gigliarelli, E


Abstract:The contribution discusses the energy use and characteristics of the residential building stock in Jiangsu Province (China), with a focus on the potential of large-scale energy retrofit to mitigate environmental impact and running costs of its most inefficient vintages, while improving occupant comfort and reducing the need for demolition and reconstruction in the upgrading of the stock. While the historical part of the residential stock is profoundly rooted in the local traditions and adapted to the climate of the region, the development of the newer building typologies, that currently constitute the majority of the extant buildings, has been drastically shaped by different international influences starting form the 20th century. The study is part of a research conducted mainly by means of bottom-up energy modelling and simulation. The methodology involves the identification of representative typologies that can be modelled in detail and be assigned a statistical weight to typify the behaviour of the entire stock. Different sets of simulations can then predict the performance of the entire stock in in different scenarios. Preliminary results indicate a significant potential of relatively simple retrofit interventions to reduce energy use and, more in general, the environmental impact of the construction and demolition industry in the province.

17.A Sense of Japanese Aesthetics: The Role of Materiality in the Work of SANAA

Author:Yang, J


Abstract:While the globalization of the styles and ideas has smoothed geographical and cultural borders, the contemporary Japanese architecture has retained a very distinctive style. SANAA is an internationally significant and prize-winning firm of architects whose works seem to exemplify this kind of architecture. Some of the distinctive features of their work are simplicity, transparency and formal austerity, as well as a peculiar ambiguity in the expression of materiality. What role does the materiality play in creating something uniquely Japanese out of modern architecture? Through a case-study of Louvre-Lens Museum, the paper investigates the role that materiality plays in realising the Japanese aesthetics, focusing primarily on two key material features that have been identified in SANAA's work: transparency and whiteness. Some concepts of Japanese aesthetics are investigated in order to have a better understanding of the idea of ambiguity and weakness embedded in Japanese culture, including the concepts of mono no aware, superflat and philosophy of Rikyu Grey. By analysing the materiality and luminance conditions of interior space of the Louvre-Lens Museum and impact of the environment and time on exterior materiality, the paper suggests that materiality turns out to be a vital tool in the creation of a more tactile and ambiguous experience of vision, which transformed the focus of architecture from form to sensibility and perception. The Japanese aesthetic of simplicity, ambiguity and ephemerality is subtly applied through the seemingly neutral expression of materiality in SANAA's architecture.

18.Sustainable Architecture for Future High Density Cities: An Applied Design Approach

Author:Bissoonauth, C;Herr, CM;Fischer, T


Abstract:This paper presents a series of speculative, research-driven architectural design proposals addressing sustainability in the high-density urban contexts of Shanghai and Hong Kong. The projects each address specific urban problems arising from the site contexts while also developing and utilising innovative ideas generated from architectural and technological considerations. Design results include speculative mid-rise buildings that employ innovative sustainable design approaches ranging from the social to the material dimension. While findings confirm the general notion that an integrated architectural approach must address social, ecological and economic issues to ensure sustainability and viability, this paper further informs researchers as well as practitioners in the creative disciplines with regards to the short- and long-term priorities we have established amongst these issues through the discussed investigation.

19.Architects and Global Marketing - Buying and Selling in China

Author:Di, Y


Abstract:This essay will discuss the phenomenon of world-famous architects in the neoliberal age and their propagation within the Chinese market, focusing on the practice of Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG). This essay seeks to examine the mechanisms behind BIG's global stardom. It outlines BIG's rise to fame and entry into the Chinese architectural market. Taking the case of the Danish Pavilion, it then analyses specific marketing strategies BIG have adopted in advertising the Pavilion to Chinese audiences. It then discusses China's peculiar market condition and extrapolates BIG's common strategies for brand building. The essay argues that BIG's success is underpinned by the use of visual communication for self-promotion, which appeals to wider audiences. Their success is also a testimony of pervasive consumerism. However, the Danish Pavilion does relate to history, culture, or society. The phenomenon of BIG's architectural stardom is also worrying for the architecture industry and education, which is remains historically embedded in the notion of the singular author and egocentricism.

20.Globalisation, National identity and the Transformation and Renovation of Museums in France and Mainland China

Author:Jiang, Y


Abstract:In the neoliberal era, to attract more visitors, museums serve not only as cultural landmarks but also as commodities. The new role leads to a transnational and consumer-oriented subsequent form of museums. Many private museums and royal palaces are renovated into publicly accessible consumer-driven architecture. Such a transformation sometimes employs globalised identities, involving collaborative architectural practice in balanced cultural exchanges of ideas. However, since the museums are national projects, they are guided by governments more or less different agendas. So as to understand the role these governments play with, comparisons between two national landmark museums - the Louvre Pyramid in Paris and the Northern part of the Palace Museum in Beijing - will be made here, according to their extension and renovation. The paper analyses similarities in museum situations and it investigates different renovation strategies to fulfilling the respective transformation. Moreover, it discusses causes and effects between the functions, political situations and global practices, associated with 'governmentality', referring to the economics and politics in the 1980s' France and the 21st century's China.
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