Find Research Output

Research Output
  • All
  • Scholar Profiles
  • Research Units
  • Research Output
Department Publication Year Content Type Data Sources


Clear all

1.Consumption as extended carnival on Tmall in contemporary China: a social semiotic multimodal analysis of interactive banner ads

Author:Chen, ZT;Cheung, M

Source:SOCIAL SEMIOTICS,2022,Vol.32

Abstract:This article examines the multimodalities of banner ads in pervasive marketing and advertising. Departing from the "Double 11 shopping carnival" spectacle on Tmall, this paper conducts a social semiotic and multimodal analysis of banner ads in the Chinese context. As the investigation of the discursive construction process shows, banner ads on Tmall take advantage of human interactivity, intentionality, persuasion and value creation to increase online sales as part of a gamification process while such modalities enhance consumers' shopping experience and sociality. This article provides a synthesis of social semiotics, multimodal analysis and interactivity to guide our analysis of advertising in e-commerce. We argue that apart from traditional marketing strategies, Tmall has extended and obscured the rebellious notion of carnival and used it as a corporation-led strategy to create new cultural forms that encourage spending. This is in line with the rising consumerism in the Chinese society. Our findings will be useful for researchers conducting interdisciplinary studies of multimodal analysis and social semiotics, media and communications as well as advertising and marketing, with a focus on an increasingly globalised China.

2.Contagion effects and risk transmission channels in the housing, stock, interest rate and currency markets: An Empirical Study in China and the US

Author:Wang, PW;Zong, L


Abstract:This paper aims to investigate the crisis linkage and transmission channels within the housing, stock, interest rate and the currency markets in the U.S. and China in the past decade since the 2008 Subprime Mortgage Crisis. Two hybrid models, namely the SWARCH-EVT-Copula and the Bivariate SWARCH-EVT models, are proposed and applied in order to take into account (A) the high/low volatility regimes, (B) the interdependence structure inherited from the joint tail behaviours, as well as, (C) the risk spillover dynamics among financial sectors during market turmoils. We empirically show that the housing and stock markets share the strongest linkage and play central roles in the spreading of shocks. With a highly integrated system, the American financial sectors are under greater exposure to risk contagion and systemic risk during crises than the Chinese markets. Nevertheless, the exchange rate risk of Renminbi remains at an intensive level since its "crawl-like arrangement" and leads to increasing co-movements in the stock and interest rate markets since 2014.

3.Urbanization Impacts the Physicochemical Characteristics and Abundance of Fecal Markers and Bacterial Pathogens in Surface Water

Author:Yuan, TM;Vadde, KK;Tonkin, JD;Wang, JJ;Lu, J;Zhang, ZM;Zhang, YX;McCarthy, AJ;Sekar, R


Abstract:Urbanization is increasing worldwide and is happening at a rapid rate in China in line with economic development. Urbanization can lead to major changes in freshwater environments through multiple chemical and microbial contaminants. We assessed the impact of urbanization on physicochemical characteristics and microbial loading in canals in Suzhou, a city that has experienced rapid urbanization in recent decades. Nine sampling locations covering three urban intensity classes (high, medium and low) in Suzhou were selected for field studies and three locations in Huangshan (natural reserve) were included as pristine control locations. Water samples were collected for physicochemical, microbiological and molecular analyses. Compared to medium and low urbanization sites, there were statistically significant higher levels of nutrients and total and thermotolerant coliforms (or fecal coliforms) in highly urbanized locations. The effect of urbanization was also apparent in the abundances of human-associated fecal markers and bacterial pathogens in water samples from highly urbanized locations. These results correlated well with land use types and anthropogenic activities at the sampling sites. The overall results indicate that urbanization negatively impacts water quality, providing high levels of nutrients and a microbial load that includes fecal markers and pathogens.

4.Examining the effects of the built environment on topological properties of the bike-sharing network in Suzhou, China

Author:Wu, CL;Chung, H;Liu, ZY;Kim, I


Abstract:In recent years, many cities around the world have implemented bike-sharing programs. A number of studies on the relationship between the built environment and bike usage have provided important insights into understanding bike-sharing systems. However, the effects of the built environment on the structural properties of bike-sharing networks are seldom discussed in the literature. This research proposes a novel and interdisciplinary framework to explore how built environment factors affect the topological properties of bike-sharing networks. Firstly, this research applies a complex network approach to quantify the importance of bike stations in the network. Then, multisource data are utilized to identify comprehensive built environment attributes. Finally, spatial regression models are used to reveal the relationship between the importance of bike stations and built environment. In this study, the bike-sharing system in Suzhou, China, is taken as a case study. The empirical result shows that the importance of bike stations displays strong spatial dependence. Also, built environment attributes such as resident population, accessibility to subway stations, the capacity of bike stations, and the total length of main roads within a catchment area have different effects on the importance of bike stations. It should be noted that the floating population and the number of bus stops surrounding bike stations do not have strong correlations with the importance of bike stations. The findings of this study can guide urban planners and operators to improve the service quality and resilience of bike-sharing systems.

5.Comparing the income-related inequity of tested prevalence and self-reported prevalence of hypertension in China

Author:Su, M;Si, YF;Zhou, ZL;Shen, C;Dong, WY;Fan, XJ;Wang, X;Wei, XL


Abstract:Background: Hypertension has become a global health challenge given its high prevalence and but low awareness and detection. Whether the actual prevalence of hypertension has been estimated is important, especially for the poor. This study aimed to measure tested prevalence and self-reported prevalence of hypertension and compare the inequity between them in China. Methods: Data were derived from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted in 2011. By using the multistage, stratified, random sampling method, 12,168 respondents aged 18 or older were identified for analysis. Both tested prevalence (systolic blood pressure >= 140 mmHg or/and diastolic blood pressure >= 90 mmHg or /and current use any of antihypertensive medication) and self-reported prevalence (ever diagnosed with hypertension by a doctor) were used to measure the prevalence of hypertension. The concentration index was employed to measure the extent of inequality in tested prevalence and self-reported prevalence. A decomposition method, based on a Probit model, was used to analyze income-related horizontal inequity of tested prevalence and self-reported prevalence. Results: The tested prevalence and self-reported prevalence of total respondents were 28.8%% [95%% CI (28.0%%, 29.6%%)] and 15.7%% [95%% CI (15.0%%, 16.3%%)], and 26.4%% [95%% CI (25.1%%, 27.6%%)] and 19.0%% [95%% CI (17.9%%, 20.1%%)] in urban areas, and 30.3%% [95%% CI (29.3%%, 31.4%%)] and 13.5%% [95%% CI (12.7%%, 14.3%%)] in rural areas. The horizontal inequity indexes of mean tested prevalence and self-reported prevalence were - 0.0494 and 0.1203 of total respondents, - 0.0736 and 0. 0748 in urban area, and - 0.0177 and 0.0466 in rural area respectively, indicating pro-poor inequity in tested prevalence and pro-rich inequity in self-reported prevalence of hypertension. Economic status, education attainment and age were key factors of the pro-poor inequity in tested prevalence. Economic status, area and age were key factors to explain the poor-rich inequity in self-reported prevalence. Conclusions: This study revealed self-reported prevalence of hypertension was much lower than tested prevalence in China, while a larger gap between self-reported and tested prevalence was found in rural areas. Our study suggested social strategies aiming at narrowing economic gap and regional disparities, reducing educational inequity, and facilitating health conditions of the elderly should be implemented. Finally, awareness raising campaigns to test hypertension in rural area need be strengthened by health education programs and improving the access to public health service, especially for those who do not engage with regular health checkups.

6.Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering

Author:Carciofo, R;Yang, JY;Song, N;Du, F;Zhang, K

Source:PLOS ONE,2016,Vol.11

Abstract:The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-. 807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research.

7.Effects of China's urban basic health insurance on preventive care service utilization and health behaviors: Evidence from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

Author:Dong, WY;Gao, JM;Zhou, ZL;Bai, RH;Wu, Y;Su, M;Shen, C;Lan, X;Wang, X

Source:PLOS ONE,2018,Vol.13

Abstract:Background Lifestyle choices are important determinants of individual health. Few studies have investigated changes in health behaviors and preventive activities brought about by the 2007 implementation of Urban Resident Basic Health Insurance (URBMI) in China. This study, therefore, aimed to explore whether URBMI has reduced individuals' incentives to adopt healthy behaviors and utilize preventive care services. Methods Data were drawn from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Respondents were categorized according to their insurance situation before and after the URBMI reform in 2006 and 2011. Propensity score matching and difference-in-differences methods were used to measure levels of preventive care and behavior changes over time. Estimations were also made based on gender, self-reported health, and income. Results We found that URBMI implementation did not change residents' utilization of preventive care services or their smoking habits, drinking habits, or other risky behaviors overall. However, the likelihood of sedentariness did increase by five percentage points. Females tended to be more sedentary while males were less likely to drink soft drinks. Residents with poor self-reported health exercised less while those who reported good health were more likely to be sedentary. Low-and middle-income residents were likely to be sedentary while middle-income people tended to smoke after becoming insured. Conclusion Since URBMI implementation, some unhealthy behaviors like sedentariness have increased among those who were newly insured, and different subgroups have reacted differently. This suggests that the insurance design needs to be optimized and effective measures need to be adopted to help improve people's lifestyle choices.

8.Research on the horizontal equity of inpatient benefits among NCMS enrollees in China: evidence from Shaanxi Province

Author:Yan, J;Ren, YL;Zhou, ZL;Xu, TG;Wang, X;Du, LL;Si, YF


Abstract:Background: Equity is an important goal for countries in formulating relevant health policies, and research on the equity of health services is more important for China, where the gap between the rich and poor is widening. The aims of this study are to explore to what extent the benefit equity of New Rural Cooperative Medical System enrollees has been achieved and to determine the geographical disparities in Shaanxi province and thus provide suggestions for future policy formulations. Methods: Data were obtained from the fifth Health Service Survey of Shaanxi province in 2013. A two-step mode was used to analyse the influencing factors of the inpatient benefit rate and inpatient compensation fee. Concentration indexes and concentration curves were applied to measure the inequity of the inpatient benefit rate and inpatient compensation fee. The decomposition method was employed to explore the source of inequity and horizontal inequity. Results: Based on a sample of 38,032 enrollees, our results showed that there were pro-rich inequities in the inpatient benefit rate and compensation fee. The concentration index of the inpatient benefit rate and compensation fee in 2013 were 0.064 and 0.174, respectively. The economic level (224.62%%), self-evaluated health status (- 25.89%%) and occupation status (- 12.32%%) were the primary three contributors to the inequity of the inpatient benefit rate, and the economic level (106.16%%) and age (- 2.88%%) were the first two contributors to the inequity of the compensation fee. There were regional differences in the sources of inequities. Moreover, pro-rich horizontal inequity remained after standardizing health care needs. Conclusions: Our results indicated that there were pro-rich inequities in the inpatient benefit rate and compensation fee in the New Rural Cooperative Medical System. The economic levels of enrollees accounted for most of the existing inequity, followed by self-evaluated health scores and age. Efforts should be made to strengthen policies and programmes in the New Rural Cooperative Medical System to achieve basic health services equity, such as implementing hierarchical medical treatments and reducing extra inpatient benefits for the rich.

9.Socio-Economic Inequalities in Tobacco Consumption of the Older Adults in China: A Decomposition Method

Author:Si, YF;Zhou, ZL;Su, M;Wang, X;Li, D;Wang, D;He, SY;Hong, ZH;Chen, X


Abstract:Background: In China, tobacco consumption is a leading risk factor for non-communicable diseases, and understanding the pattern of socio-economic inequalities of tobacco consumption will, thus, help to develop targeted policies of public health control. Methods: Data came from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2013, involving 17,663 respondents aged 45 and above. Tobacco use prevalence and tobacco use quantities were defined for further analysis. Using the concentration index (CI) and its decomposition, socio-economic inequalities of tobacco consumption grouped by gender were estimated. Results: The concentration index of tobacco use prevalence was 0.044 (men 0.041; women -0.039). The concentration index of tobacco use quantities among smokers was 0.039 (men 0.033; women 0.038). The majority of the inequality could be explained by educational attainment, age, area, and economic quantiles. Conclusions: Tobacco consumption was more common among richer compared to poorer people in China. Gender, educational attainments, age, areas, and economic quantiles were strong predictors of tobacco consumption in China. Public health policies need to be targeted towards men in higher economic quantiles with lower educational attainment, and divorced or widowed women, especially in urban areas of China.

10.Cost reduction or electricity penetration: Government R&D-induced PV development and future policy schemes

Author:Ding, H;Zhou, DQ;Liu, GQ;Zhou, P


Abstract:Government policies and investments in photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) have contributed to the rapid development of a PV industry through technology push in most countries over the past decade. It is worth investigating the effectiveness of investment-drive R&D policies at a global level, particularly how they work in reducing the costs of PV technologies. This study constructs a learning curve model to assess the performance of PV R&D policies in China, Germany, the United States and Japan. Market information-for example, PV module production, PV installation and PV technology improvementis utilised to analyse how these policies take effect. The results show that PV- R&D investments are efficient in decreasing the production costs of PV modules, which positively affects the development of PV module markets. However, weak PV technology conditions (including conversion efficiency, reliability) and low PV electricity penetration levels have resulted in surpluses in PV module markets, as well as PV electricity curtailment around the world. It is suggested that future R&D policies should contribute more to improving conversion efficiencies (the structure of technology push power) and grid integration technologies (demand pull power) for PV systems.

11.E-marketing services and e-marketing performance: the roles of innovation, knowledge complexity and environmental turbulence in influencing the relationship

Author:Chong, WK;Bian, D;Zhang, N


Abstract:The business-to-business electronic marketplace (e-marketplace) is becoming critical for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). However, which e-marketing services determine a firm's e-marketing performance and how innovation, knowledge complexity and environmental turbulence influence the relationship between e-marketing services and e-marketing performance are under-researched topics in the field. We first empirically tested 176 SMEs from China to evaluate which e-marketing services are significantly related to e-marketing performance and how these services collectively influence the performance. Then, we used an NK model to examine how innovation, knowledge complexity and environmental turbulence mediate/moderate the relationship. The results show that five e-marketing services (e-CRM, e-SCM, e-competitiveness, IS/IT integration and information transparency) can greatly influence e-marketing performance; innovation positively mediates the relationship between e-marketing services and performance; and knowledge complexity and environmental turbulence positively moderate the relationship.


Author:Yang, Y;Wang, KY;Liu, JJ;Zhang, ZM


Abstract:Consider a bidimensional risk model with two geometric Levy price processes and dependent heavy-tailed claims, in which we allow arbitrary dependence structures between the two claim-number processes generated by two kinds of businesses, and between the two geometric Levy price processes. Under the assumption that the claims have consistently varying tails, the asymptotics for the infinite-time and finite-time ruin probabilities are derived.

13.Urban sustainability indicators re-visited: lessons from property-led urban development in China

Author:Xu, YQ;Keivani, R;Cao, AJ


Abstract:This paper proposes a bespoke urban sustainability indicator framework in the context of China's prevalent property-led urban development. Emphasising local characteristics and incorporating underlying institutions, it advocates a more nuanced, holistic and dynamic approach when addressing sustainability issues. Selection of indicators were based on extensive literature reviews and tested through an international expert survey comprising both China-based and overseas-based experts. The two groups of experts have shown divergent views, with the former prioritising economic and institutional aspects over environmental and social factors. It also provides transferable policy insights into developing countries more generally, given many similarities in broader development challenges. Discussion on recent literature and urban development reinforces the applicability of these tailor-made indicators to not only monitoring but also explaining and predicting urban changes. We argue it is necessary to recognise the centrality of property-led urban development in urban sustainable development, and the need for examining the complex relations between the property sector and urban sustainability via inclusion of institutional analysis and a multi-method approach combining quantitative and qualitative evaluations.

14.The dual effects of home country institutions on the internationalization of private firms in emerging markets Evidence from China

Author:Li, FR;Ding, D


Abstract:Purpose - This study aims to examine the dual effects of home country institutional forces (i.e. institutional support and institutional constraints) on the internationalization of private firms in emerging markets. By doing so, this study aims to examine the applicability of the two seemingly paradoxical views (i.e. the governmental promotion view and the institutional escapism view) in explaining private firms' internationalization. Further, this study investigates how the effect of the home country institutional environment on firms' internationalization is contingent upon firm characteristics. Design/methodology/approach - A sample of Chinese private firms is used to examine the effect of home country institutions on internationalization. Findings - Empirical findings suggest that both institutional support and institutional constraints promote the internationalization of private firms in emerging markets. Moreover, it is found that firm resources strengthen the effect of government support on internationalization. It is also found that firms' business ties strengthen the effect of institutional constraint on internationalization, whereas firms' political ties weaken the effect of institutional constraints on internationalization. Originality/value - By adopting an integrated and comprehensive investigation of the dual effects of home country institutional environment in emerging markets on internationalization, this study provides evidence to the applicability of the two competing views (i.e. the governmental promotion view and the institutional escapism view) in relation to home country institutional effects on internationalization. In addition, this study examines how institutional effects vary across firms with different resources and social ties, thus extends understandings of the boundary conditions of the two institutional effects.

15.Migrant Street Vendors in Urban China and the Social Production of Public Space

Author:Flock, R;Breitung, W


Abstract:This article focuses on the dynamics between migrant street vendors and public security forces and the complex social production of urban public space in Guangzhou. As an answer to daily contestation of public order, security agencies reluctantly open flexible windows of business opportunities to hawkers. Zones and periods of control, soft' approaches, and categories of ethnic belonging influence everyday governance and accessibility of public space. This results in a transient public space, fluid and continuously changing, which offers a new perspective on openness and functioning of public space in urban China. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

16.'China Threat' and 'China Opportunity': Politics of Dreams and Fears in China-Central and Eastern European Relations

Author:Pavlicevic, D


Abstract:Development of 16+1' framework substantially depends on how Central and Eastern European countries understand their fast-evolving relationship with China. This article investigates and analyses related perceptions and discusses their implications for 16+1'. Focusing on the Sino-Serbian relationship, the study reveals that the understanding of China and its growing involvement in the region oscillates between the extremes, yet that both positive and negative evaluations are not supported by the available empirical evidence and informed by a proper understanding of the context within which the relationship takes place. This is likely to result in a sense of disillusionment, as well as heightened concerns about the relationship with China, casting shadow over the prospects of the China-CEE relations.

17.The Primitive Cognitive Network Process in healthcare and medical decision making: Comparisons with the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Author:Yuen, KKF


Abstract:Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is increasingly applied to healthcare and medical research and applications. However, knowledge representation of pairwise reciprocal matrix is still dubious. This research discusses the related drawbacks, and recommends pairwise opposite matrix as the ideal alternative. Pairwise opposite matrix is the key foundation of Primitive Cognitive Network Process (P-CNP), which revises the AHP approach with practical changes. A medical decision treatment evaluation using AHP is revised by P-CNP with a step-by-step tutorial. Comparisons with AHP have been discussed. The proposed method could be a promising decision tool to replace AHP to share information among patients or/and doctors, and to evaluate therapies, medical treatments, health care technologies, medical resources, and healthcare policies. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

18.Unequal distribution of health human resource in mainland China: what are the determinants from a comprehensive perspective?

Author:Li, D;Zhou, ZL;Si, YF;Xu, YJ;Shen, C;Wang, YY;Wang, X


Abstract:Background: The inequality of health human resource is a worldwide problem, and solving it also is one of the major goals of China's recent health system reform. Yet there is a huge disparity among cities in mainland China. The aim of this study is to analyze the distribution inequality of the health human resource in 322 prefecture-level cities of mainland China in 2014, and to reveal the facets and causes of the inequalities. Methods: The data for this study were acquired from the provincial and municipal Health Statistics Yearbook (2014) and Statistical Yearbook (2014), the municipal National Economic Bulletin (2014), and the official websites of municipal governments, involving 322 prefecture-level cities. Meanwhile, Concentration Index was used to measure the magnitude of the unequal distribution of health human resource. A decomposition analysis was employed to quantify the contribution of each determinant to the total inequality. Results: The overall concentration index of doctors and nurses in mainland China in 2014 was 0.1038 (95%% CI = 0.0208, 0.1865) and 0.0785 (95%% CI = 0.0018, 0.1561). Decomposition of the concentration index revealed that economic status was the primary contributor (58.5%% and 57%%) to the inequality of doctors and nurses, followed by the Southwest China (19.1%% and 18.6%%), urbanization level (-13.1%% and -12.8%%), and revenue (8.0%% and 7.8%%). Party secretaries with Master degree (7.0%%, 6.8%%), mayors who were 60 years old or above (6.3%%, 6.1%%) also were proved to be a major contributor to the inequality of health human resource. Conclusions: There was inequality of health human resource distribution which was pro-rich in mainland China in 2014. Economic status of the cities accounted for most of the existing inequality, followed by the Southwest China, urbanization level, revenue, party secretaries with Master degree, and mayors who were 60 years old or above in respective importance. Besides, the party secretaries and mayors also had certain influence on the allocation of health human resource. The tough issue of HHR inequality should be addressed by comprehensive measures from a multidisciplinary perspective.

19.Leader humility and constructive voice behavior in China: a dual process model

Author:Li, J;Liang, QZ;Zhang, ZZ;Wang, X


Abstract:Purpose The purpose of this paper is to find how leader humility affects employees' constructive voice behavior toward supervisor (speaking up) and coworkers (speaking out) from an identification-based perspective, and seeks to verify the effectiveness of leader humility in the Chinese context. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 325 employees in four Chinese companies with two phases. In the first phase, the participants were asked to report the leader humility, their identification of their relations with the supervisor, and their identification with their organization. In the second phase, they were asked to report their voice behaviors toward their supervisors and coworkers. Findings The results indicate that leader humility strongly predicts both employees' voice behaviors of speaking up and speaking out. Results further suggest that relational identification with the supervisor explains why leader humility promotes employees speaking up, while organizational identification explains why leader humility promotes employees speaking up and speaking out. Practical implications Managers with humility can successfully shape employees' relational and organizational identifications, which in turn encourage their voice behaviors toward supervisors and coworkers. Hence, behaving humbly in working places could be an effective way for managers to promote organizational cohesion and creativity. Originality/value Although leader humility attracts much attention in both academia and practice, researchers have been primarily focusing on conceptual development and measurement issues, and empirical studies are rare. This is the first research connecting leader humility and employee proactive behaviors. Moreover, it takes an in-depth analysis of the constructive voice behaviors by differentiating them based on their targets.

20.Performance of foreign subsidiaries "in" and "from" Asia: A review, synthesis and research agenda

Author:Bai, T;Du, JL;Solarino, AM


Abstract:The performance of foreign subsidiaries (FS) has been the topic of studies since the beginning of the international business (IB) field. However, research findings are contradictory because of the disparate foci of individual studies. In this review paper, we first identify key determinants of the performance of FS through a structured content analysis of 73 articles and 679 relationships since the year 2000. Second, we explain the effects of each determinant, and perform meta-analysis to determine which relationships are statistically meaningful. Third, we compare the effects of determinants across different combinations of home and host contexts, based on which, we provide possible explanations of previous inconsistent findings. We conclude by offering new theoretical directions to better understand determinants of the performance of FS.
Total 812 results found
Copyright 2006-2020 © Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University 苏ICP备07016150号-1 京公网安备 11010102002019号