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1.Prediction of Flow Velocity Profiles of Open-Channels with Submerged Vegetation

Author:Tang, Xiaonan

Source:,2018,Vol.

Abstract:For submerged vegetated flow, the vertical velocity profile can often be described by two layers, the vegetation layer in the lower region and the surface layer in the upper non-vegetated region. In this paper, based on the momentum equation of flow with an assumption of turbulent eddy viscosity being a linear relationship with the local velocity, a two-layer velocity profile for flow in an open-channel with rigid submerged vegetation is proposed. The proposed model was tested against several datasets widely used previously in literature. Our studies show that the model can predict the velocity profiles well for all datasets. In the test, it was found that the mixing length scale of eddies () is well related with both vegetation height (h) and flow depth of surface layer (i.e. height of non-vegetation layer, H-h). Close examination of the length scale  in the proposed model showed that when /h = 0.03(H/h-1)1/2, the model can predict velocity profiles well for all the datasets used. The datasets used include various submergence [flow depth (H)/vegetation height (h) =1.25 ~ 3.33], different vegetation densities of a =1.1 ~ 18.5 m-1 (a defined as the frontal area of the vegetation per unit volume) and bed slopes (So = 4.0x10-4 ~4.0x10-3).

2.A revisit to higher variations of a functional

Author:Guobin Gong; Jun Xia

Source:Journal of Advance Research in Mathematics And Statistics,2019,Vol.6

Abstract:Two definitions of higher variations of a functional can be found inthe literature of variational principles or calculus of variations, which differ byonly a positive coefficient number. At first glance, such a discrepancy betweenthe two definitions seems to be purely due to a definition-style preference,as when they degenerate to the first variation it leads to the same result.The use of higher (especially second) variations of a functional is for checkingthe sufficient condition for the functional to be a minimum (or maximum),and both definitions also lead to the same conclusion regarding this aspect.However, a close theoretical study in this paper shows that only one of thetwo definitions is appropriate and the other is advised to be discarded. Atheoretical method is developed to derive the expressions for higher variationsof a functional, which is used for the above claim.

3.Designing in the Invisible World: Virtual Reality and Industrial Design Education

Author:Nuno Bernardo, Emilia Duarte

Source:Proceedings of the 6th Doctoral Design Conference,2019,Vol.

Abstract:This paper proposes an investigation onto the physiological and/or cognitive effects that VR, as a technology-enabled learning platform, may have on industrial design students when used as a medium for content creation, with the goal of identifying optimal experience thresholds. This will be accomplished through the adoption of a mixed methodology, with a user-centered design (UCD) focus, designed to evaluate both the value of the technology as a tool for abstract expression and, from task-based exercises in virtual environments (VEs), identify optimal experience thresholds through analysis of the physiological and/or cognitive load variability among different user’s. Perception of value will be sought by means of primary sourced qualitative data, while physiological and cognitive quantitative data will derive from experiments. Once all data is collected, both strands of information will be combined to design, prototype and evaluate an optimal VR experience with the objective of assessing its validity, and consequently establish a set of guidelines that may be used to develop a future instructional framework.

4.Big data analytics for construction waste anagement: fad or fashion?

Author:Weisheng Lu, Zhikang Bao, Jianli Hao

Source:,2019,Vol.

Abstract:Big data has rapidly sprawled across a wide range of research disciplines such as biology, ecology, medicine, business, finance, and public governance. With its propagated benefits, the global construction waste management (CWM) fraternity around the world would naturally amply their efforts in sourcing big data and developing big data analytics in their respective research. However, will such big data phenomena just a passing fad or a transforming fashion? This paper aims to answer such question based on a series of research using big data in CWM in Hong Kong. It is discovered that unlike our orthodox view that the project nature of construction is an adversary of big data, CWM is actually data rich. The issue is how to source the big data in a non-traditional, and cost-effective way. Big data can provide a fuller picture for understanding CWM than the small, erratic data that is collected via sampling, ethnographic, or other traditional methods. Proper big data analytics including both traditional applied statistics and state-of-the-art analytics (e.g., neural network analysis, deep learning) are highly desired to harness its power. Big data is a transforming fashion in CWM research but the issues such as cost-benefit balance, and ethics should not be neglected.

5.Study on velocity profile and drag coefficient of flow through double layer vegetation

Author:Hamidreza Rahimi, Xiaonan Tang, Toktam Hatamisengeli

Source:,2018,Vol.

Abstract:The present paper studies the characteristics of flow that passes through two-layer vegetation in open channels under emergent and submerged conditions for short and tall vegetation respectively. Various discharges and flow depths have been studied to provide a comprehensive sight of flow details through the vegetation layers, which are modelled by cylindrical dowels with 6.35 mm diameter and two heights of 10 mm and 20 mm installed in a 10 mm thickness. Flow velocity in different locations was measured by a Nortek ADV velocimetry. The velocity profiles in single layer vegetation under emergent condition show a uniform constant velocity all over the flow depth. In our study, experimental data indicate that there is more complexity around the edge of short vegetation which could be due to vortex shedding existence. Drag coefficient as a resistance parameter, has a larger value compared with open channel without vegetation. More specifically, in vegetation layers the resistance parameters are found to be dependent of the flow depth and submergence condition, on the other hand channels without vegetation usually has a constant roughness coefficient. When the short vegetation was fully submerged, the drag coefficient reduced through the flow depth. Meanwhile, drag coefficient showed a reverse tendency in mixed layer condition. Velocity profiles measured in different locations and depths indicate that location is an important factor to velocity profiles. The velocity profile above the short vegetation in two-layer vegetation conditions is much larger than that in single layer conditions. Generally, the flow velocity inside the vegetation layer is significantly smaller than that in the surface layer (i.e. non-vegetation layer). A near-constant velocity dominates inside the vegetation layer, and then starts to increase near the interface at the top of vegetation. There is a sudden change in the velocity profile near the top edge of short vegetation. The results also showed that in channels with double layer vegetation, the flow velocity is strongly dependent on locations.

6.A Poetics of Designing

Author:Westermann, Claudia

Source:Design Research Foundations,2019,Vol.

Abstract:The chapter considers second-order cybernetics as a framework that is accurately described as a poetics. An overview is provided on what it means to be in a world that is uncertain, e.g., how under conditions of limited understanding any activity is an activity that designs and constructs, and how designing objects, spaces, and situations relates to the (designed) meta-world of second-order cybernetics. If it cannot be determined whether the world is complex or not, to assume that the world is complex is a matter of choice linked to an attitude of generosity. The chapter highlights that it is this attitude, which makes designing an ethical challenge. Designers require a framework that is open, but one that supplies ethical guidance when ‘constructing’ something new. Relating second-order design thinking to insights in philosophy and aesthetics, the chapter argues that second-order cybernetics provides a response to this ethical challenge and essentially it entails a poetics of designing.

7.Utopic Theatres

Author:Sofia Quiroga

Source:,2018,Vol.

Abstract:The theatre concepts developed by the avant-garde were a promotion key element of space experimentation. It is possible to emphasise the evolution of the theatre principles established in the teaching field of the Bauhaus, where the stage was always considered as an architectural space unit. The theatre workshops were conceived as an integral tool for the spatial sensibility education, developing the students’ perceptual ability as well as their aptitude for spatial organisation. In this creative environment, new theatre models appeared, looking for a new way of understanding the stage and the theatre. The spatial research gave rise to utopic projects that never came to be built despite some developed the necessary technical documents to be constructed. The projects were technically equipped to get an immersive space, seeking the dissolution of the stage limits through the resolution of the union between public and scene. Among the most outstanding proposals, we would like to point out the Total Theatre (1927) from Walter Gropius, and the influence of earlier proposals developed into Bauhaus on it. We can find multiple formal, conceptual and volumetric similarities in relation to the Total Theatre. In this paper we will highlight examples as the Tanztheater (1926), a proposal for a dancing theatre from Stefan Sebök; the Weininger’s Spherical Theater (1927), which was designed to represent the Schemer’s performance; the U-theater (1924) from Farkas Molnar, the Theater of the Totality (1925) from László Moholy-Nagy, or the ideas of Xanti Schawinsky for a Traveling theatre (1925) and a constructive stage space(1926), proposals that never came build.

8.Post-War Modernity as Embodied in the Chung-Hsing New Village, Taiwan

Author:Wang, Y.

Source:Journal of Art and Design,2016,Vol.

Abstract:Set alongside a post-colonial stance, this paper is aimed to unfold various manifestations of modernity that had been exhibited in the post-war architecture and planning, namely the Chung-Hsing New Village (CHNV) – the “one and only Garden City” or “the first New Town” in Taiwan. Beginning with a quest into the use of the term “modern” and the particularity of “post-war modernity” in Asia, the paper seeks to understand the emulation of Western planning and architectural models in the historical context of post-war Taiwan, through a brief review on the socio-political circumstance and the professional planning milieu that facilitated such emulation. The following examination of the chronological development of the CHNV provides a fundamental understanding of its formal composition and spatial configuration as perceived today, whereby its potential historic significance to contemporary society can be evaluated. The paper argues that, despite its apparent resemblance to Western planning and architectural paradigms, the CHNV exhibited various forms of local responses to the infiltration of Western modernism as well as different local interpretation of modernism, with one current of thought prevailing after another, though occasionally coexisting in parallel, all striving for the forge of a distinctive modern identity of the newly independent state.

9.How COVID-19 Has Stimulated Innovation in the Chinese Education Sector

Author:Poshan Yu, Samuel Kwok and Zhongyue Jiang

Source:,2021,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter aims to investigate the impacts of COVID-19 in China's education sector. It will capture the dynamics of the interlinked changing relationships between the availability and use of education technology (EdTech) and the demand for online learning among various stakeholders in the Chinese education market. In addition, this chapter examines whether and how these relationships enhance operational efficiency via transforming the current business models in the sector, in particular due to the COVID-19 pandemic. By analyzing the current practices of the sector, this chapter will critically discuss the challenges and opportunities for technology in education and how these changes in turn drive stakeholders (including students, educators, and regulators) to respond and engage with each other, and how these stakeholder engagements impact the sustainable development of delivery modes, such as digital education and remote learning by using EdTech strategies in the sector.

10.The Model as an Experimental Tool: The Moholy Nagy's Lighting Devices

Author:Sofía Quiroga Fernández

Source:,2019,Vol.

Abstract:The Moholy–Nagy light device was built as a model for the scenography space to experiment space modifications through the mechanical movement, creating changes of light and colour. It incorporated the movement, the mechanical energy and the industrial aesthetics in the work of art. Moholy-Nagy worked in the "Light Space Modulator," also known as “the architecture of light,” for eight years from 1922 to 1930, developing several sketches and designs and making the final drawings and model with the collaboration of the Hungarian Architect Stefan Sebök. The AEG Company built the Device, and it appeared forthefirst time in the Werkbund exhibition held in Paris in 1930, where the image appeared as an autonomous aesthetic object. He reduced the techniques of industrial production to an exercise of formal abstraction; filmed in the film "White, Black, Grey," Moholy-Nagy collected the kinetic quality of the device in the abstract films of the time. He would later use the knowledge acquired from it to achieve the effects reflected by the city of the future in the frames of the film “Things to Come,” directed by William Cameron Menzies in 1936. Moholy-Nagy managed to transmit –in a 90 seconds' frame–the atmosphere and dynamism of the city of the future through images based on the objects included in industrial processes..He defined the space light modulator as a mechanism to demonstrate the phenomenon of light and movement, trying to take to space the ideas that appear in his texts, where he poses new media as creative resources, not only capable of reproducing reality but as instruments of creation. Some authors refer to this type of work as a multimedia structure, concerning the implication of dimensions, optics, kinetics and time for its restructuring, continually altering the relationship of traditional static order. His studies and experiments currently constitute a solid base for numerous researchers regarding space and perception..The electric stage suffered several alterations to keep it working in several exhibitions around Europe and America. After Moholy passed away, his widow,Sybil Moholy,donated it to the Busch-Reisinger Museum at Harvard in 1956. After suffering severaldamages, they were finally reconstructed in 1970 because of an exhibition held in New York at the Howard Wise Gallery led by Harvard art historian, and researcher Nan Piene, where others contemporary explorations around lighting were shown. Two copies were made,one for this exhibition and the other one for the Venice Biennale. These reproductions were kept and sent to the Bauhaus Archive in Darmstadt, and the Van Abbemuseum, where the original suffered several damages during a KunstLichtKunst (Tungsten Art) exhibition.

11.Modelling of the apparent shear stress for predicting zonal discharge in rough and smooth asymmetric compound open channels

Author:Singh,P.;Tang,X.;Rahimi,H. R.

Source:River Flow 2020 - Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics,2020,Vol.

Abstract:Transverse exchange of momentum between the main channel and floodplain in a uniform asymmetric compound channel flow is taken into account for the prediction of zonal and overall discharge. The overall dynamic effect has been tried to incorporate in the discharge calculations in such a way that lowering the discharge capacity of the compound channel can be evaluated through the separate section of the compound channels. In this study, the proposed model can predict the zonal and overall discharge reasonably well for wide combinations of geometric and roughness variations in the datasets of asymmetric channels considered. Out of different models for interactive divided channel methods, this new apparent shear based model is found to outperform others and found to give least overall percentage error of 6.7.

12.The performance of the backfills of the borehole heat exchanger of the ground source heat pump system in cooling dominated region of China

Author:Ma, W;Hao, J;Zhang, C;Guo, F;Wen, H

Source:SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES: BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE TOMORROW,2020,Vol.

Abstract:The ground temperature increase is the crucial problem that influences the longterm performance of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) system in cooling dominated region of China. In this report, the numerical simulation model based on the heat rejection model of an insitu Thermal Response Test (TRT) is created using TRNSYS simulation tool. Seven different thermal conductivity backfills are simulated for 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 years. The result illustrates that the higher conductivity backfills improves the heat exchange performance between BHE and surrounding ground but it also increases the ground temperature in cooling dominated regions for long terms operation. In the case of Chuzhou city of this study, when the conductivity of backfill is higher than 1.9 W/(m center dot K) which is closest to the thermal conductivity of the surround ground, there are little growth in ground temperature as well as the heat exchange performance.

13.Creating new cities – Cellular automata and social condenser

Author:Lombardi, Davide; Dounas, Theodoros; Zhang, Chenke; Wu, Hao; Yang, Chaohui

Source:,2018,Vol.

Abstract:This paper presents a further step of a study that is exploring the potential of applying computational strategies to design and evaluate solutions for urban development and planning in the context of contemporary China. This exploration used a city design competition brief in China to check the feasibility of shaping future cities by the use of an automated system based on high-density urban types. The necessity of relying on digital tools is due to the need to encapsulate and translate into one single process the wide range of different parameters taken into account during the design development, in our case environmental data, big data, blockchain technology and Chinese regulatory frameworks as envisioned by the Chinese 13th five year plan. We thus build an algorithm that creates new cities driven by the aforementioned parameters. The last step of the process is based on the application of a social condenser that aims to create an overlapping merging among the defined functions. In parallel the algorithm uses a Cellular Automata strategy to develop an urban fabric. The outcome of the paper is an algorithm who gathers all the data as mentioned above and outputs a masterplan making use of the Cellular Automata paradigm.

15.Tourism Identity in Social Media: The Case of Suzhou, a Chinese Historic City

Author:Kim, J. S.; Wang, Y.

Source:Transactions of the Association of European Schools of Planning,2018,Vol.2

Abstract:In the context of tourism planning and promotion, there is wide acknowledgement that conceptualisations of tourism identity cannot be grounded merely in physical place, but should also encompass a wide range of factors including, for instance, cultural relations, tourist activities, and social networking. There are opportunities in late modern society for relating the identity of a city’s tourism with digitally-presented tourists’ perceptions and activities through social media studies. This research explores multiple research approaches to delineate the digital identity of Suzhou’s tourist destinations, as presented in online user-generated contents. It is hoped that this social media study can provide supplementary information for tourism bureaus and agencies to make informed judgements on effecting pertinent improvements to optimise existing tourism resources and create more enticing environments for tourists. The research follows a case study approach and conducts an empirical study on Suzhou, a Chinese historic city. The analysis of the results show that the social media study is potentially useful in identifying the key characteristics of particular tourist destinations from visitors’ perspectives that may also be helpful for the evaluation of tourists’ experiences.

17.Numerical study on mixed Layer vegetation in open channel flow

Author:Rahimi, Hamidreza, Tang, Xiaonan, Wang, XANG

Source:,2018,Vol.

Abstract:Vegetation in river bed produces high resistance to flow and has a great impact on flow characteristics in rivers, especially during floods. The resistance due to vegetation in open channels reduces the flow discharge, which can lead to remarkable changes in physical and biological processes in aquatic environments. Numerical modelling analysis is undertaken for two and three layers vegetation in open channel flow. First, a model was developed to represent the contribution of vegetation in the RANs models through an additional momentum or resistance by modelling it as porosity domain. Then, the numerical models were tested and verified using the experimental data of Liu et al. (2008), and was then used to study for various other scenarios proposed. The modelling results by Ansys Fluent showed that the velocity profile is mostly uniform over the depth in both cases, except at location 1 for three layers vegetation. The increase of velocity profile above the short vegetation in three layers vegetation condition is much larger than that in two layers condition. Generally, in both cases the flow velocity inside the vegetation layer is significantly smaller than that in the surface layer (i.e. non-vegetation layer). A near-constant velocity dominates inside the vegetation layer, and then starts to increase near the interface at the top of vegetation. There is a sudden change in the shape of the velocity profile near the top edge of vegetation. The results also showed that for both two and three layers cases, the flow velocity is strongly dependent on locations, and that the distributions of the turbulent intensity attains maximum just around the edge of vegetation height.

18.Acheiropoietic Architecture

Author:Lombardi, Davide

Source:Proceedings of the International and Interdisciplinary Conference IMMAGINI? Brixen, Italy, 27–28 November 2017,2017,Vol.1

Abstract:This paper describes how advanced computational technologies and strategies are changing the way in which architecture and interior design are conceived and realized by designers. The classical drawing-based approach that relies on the connection between the human brain and the hand, through the use of analog devices as a pencil is called into question by new ways based on algorithms and evolutive systems that shift the complexity of both processes and outcomes. Further, those new methods have also an impact in terms of architectural representation and imagine-making: design processes that are affected by physical variables such as time or gravity cannot be properly represented by standard techniques. The final consequence is the birth of a design and representation language that is based on a new alphabet that deny the use of the hand as primary tool to shape unique ideas.

19.Contemporary Fabrication of Pasts and the Creation of New Identities? Open-Air Museums and Historical Theme Parks in the UK and China

Author:Ludwig, C.; Wang, Y.

Source:,2020,Vol.

Abstract:This chapter examines the selective usage of history, relics and practice to reconstruct specific versions of the past. The open air Beamish Museum in Durham, UK and the historical theme parks in Hangzhou and Kaifeng, China are used as comparative case studies to unpack first, how ‘heritage’ is conceptualised in each context, and second, how particular versions of the past are selected, (re)invented, disseminated and consumed for contemporary purposes. Set within a theoretical framework of ‘living heritage’ and an analytical framework of the over-lapping themes of authenticity, identity and national pride, tourism and education, the chapter examines the different ways in which the appropriation of cultural heritage takes place at each site. In doing so, we draw attention to the disparate interpretations of conservation practice and the idea of ‘living heritage’ in the UK and China and debate their continued relevance in the contemporary heritage discourse.

20.Shaping the Hospital of the Future. Improve the user experience in the Public Healthcare Sec-tor through Service Design Education.

Author:Giambattista, Angela; Di Lucchio, Loredana; Zolotova, Mariia

Source:The 22nd dmi: Academic Design Management Conference Proceedings,2020,Vol.

Abstract:The Public Healthcare Sector is experiencing a profound crisis due to socio-dynamic changes (Parameswaran&Raijmakers, 2010) difficult to manage, such as demographic aging and population growth. Furthermore, if we consider the new alternative approaches in disease management and the growing participation of patients in healthcare decision making (Vahdat et al., 2014), deep considerations and paradigmatic shifts in the way healthcare professionals design, produce and use the medical products are needed. The growing interest in the potential of Design approaches, from which to draw consolidated models of thought and creative and divergent practices (Chamberlain, 2015) to respond to fundamental challenges for the health of our society, has recently expanded from the dimension of products and services. This represents an unmissable opportunity for the Design Discipline to switch from a Product-Centered model to a Human-Centered model where the user is placed in the center of the process and the product expands into product/service with a systemic perspective. The introduction of Service Design in medical settings requires a multilevel approach that analyzes the complexity of the system, in which the nature of the problems intersects with economic and social dynamics too. From this point of view, the methodologies of Service Design offer conceptual models that help to focus the design action on the User Experience, considering all the characteristics of the service in a structured way and openly thinking about the individual components without losing the holistic view. According to this new perspective and given the growing relevance of services in the contemporary economy, in the corporate strategies and in the public sector, the academic approach to Service Design and the Service Design Education in the context of Healthcare need to be revised through a better definition of design competencies (Morelli&Götzen, 2017). In the light of these considerations, this paper describes the didactic experience held within an International Master of Science in Product Design at Sapienza University of Rome, where the students have experimented the methods of the Service Design (Stickdorn et al., 2011) to respond to the problem of designing the User Experience (Norman, 2004) in a Public Healthcare Context. The aim was to transfer to the students the skills useful for achieving a Service and Social Innovation (Manzini, 2015) in the field of Public Healthcare through the development of a Design Proposal of a product/service that would provide a new User Experience for the Pediatric Emergency Room of the local public Hospital 'Policlinico Umberto I’ by taking into consideration its social, economic and technological long-term sustainability. In order to reach that goal, the didactic activities were organized as a three-step process (Research, Design, Develop) each with their own tools that have supported students in learning, thinking, analyzing, understanding, and evaluating all the stages of the design process. The course finalized at a set of Design Proposals demonstrating the potential of Design Discipline to bring improvements to the Public Healthcare Services Sector thanks to its creative and divergent thinking and to the development of effective Users Experiences.
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